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First known person-to-person transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the USA [Case Report]

Ghinai, Isaac; McPherson, Tristan D; Hunter, Jennifer C; Kirking, Hannah L; Christiansen, Demian; Joshi, Kiran; Rubin, Rachel; Morales-Estrada, Shirley; Black, Stephanie R; Pacilli, Massimo; Fricchione, Marielle J; Chugh, Rashmi K; Walblay, Kelly A; Ahmed, N Seema; Stoecker, William C; Hasan, Nausheen F; Burdsall, Deborah P; Reese, Heather E; Wallace, Megan; Wang, Chen; Moeller, Darcie; Korpics, Jacqueline; Novosad, Shannon A; Benowitz, Isaac; Jacobs, Max W; Dasari, Vishal S; Patel, Megan T; Kauerauf, Judy; Charles, E Matt; Ezike, Ngozi O; Chu, Victoria; Midgley, Claire M; Rolfes, Melissa A; Gerber, Susan I; Lu, Xiaoyan; Lindstrom, Stephen; Verani, Jennifer R; Layden, Jennifer E
BACKGROUND:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), first detected in China in December, 2019. In January, 2020, state, local, and federal public health agencies investigated the first case of COVID-19 in Illinois, USA. METHODS:Patients with confirmed COVID-19 were defined as those with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. Contacts were people with exposure to a patient with COVID-19 on or after the patient's symptom onset date. Contacts underwent active symptom monitoring for 14 days following their last exposure. Contacts who developed fever, cough, or shortness of breath became persons under investigation and were tested for SARS-CoV-2. A convenience sample of 32 asymptomatic health-care personnel contacts were also tested. FINDINGS:Patient 1-a woman in her 60s-returned from China in mid-January, 2020. One week later, she was hospitalised with pneumonia and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Her husband (Patient 2) did not travel but had frequent close contact with his wife. He was admitted 8 days later and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Overall, 372 contacts of both cases were identified; 347 underwent active symptom monitoring, including 152 community contacts and 195 health-care personnel. Of monitored contacts, 43 became persons under investigation, in addition to Patient 2. These 43 persons under investigation and all 32 asymptomatic health-care personnel tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. INTERPRETATION:Person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 occurred between two people with prolonged, unprotected exposure while Patient 1 was symptomatic. Despite active symptom monitoring and testing of symptomatic and some asymptomatic contacts, no further transmission was detected. FUNDING:None.
PMID: 32178768
ISSN: 1474-547x
CID: 4453162

Notes from the Field: Candida auris and Carbapenemase-Producing Organism Prevalence in a Pediatric Hospital Providing Long-Term Transitional Care - Chicago, Illinois, 2019

McPherson, Tristan D; Walblay, Kelly A; Roop, Elissa; Soglin, David; Valley, Ann; Logan, Latania K; Vallabhaneni, Snigdha; Black, Stephanie R; Pacilli, Massimo
PMID: 32853191
ISSN: 1545-861x
CID: 4583662

Mumps Cases Disproportionately Affecting Persons Living with HIV Infection and Men Who Have Sex with Men - Chicago, Illinois, 2018

McPherson, Tristan D; Ramirez, Enrique; Ringness, Madeline; Ruestow, Peter; Marlow, Mariel; Fricchione, Marielle J
During January 1-March 2, 2018, the number of mumps cases among adults reported to the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) doubled compared with the same period in 2017. In response, CDPH created a supplementary questionnaire to collect additional information on populations affected and potential transmission routes. An epidemiologic analysis of routine and supplementary data, including spatiotemporal analysis, was performed to describe mumps cases reported to CDPH during 2018. A fourfold increase in mumps cases was reported during 2018 compared with 2017, with men who have sex with men (MSM) and persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection disproportionately represented among cases. A spatiotemporal, residential cluster was identified in a 9-square-mile area within six adjacent communities. The majority of persons affected were MSM, and this area was visited by many other persons with mumps diagnoses. Spatiotemporal analyses could be used in real time to identify case clusters to target public health response efforts, including to guide recommendations for additional measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine and to identify specific transmission venues.
PMID: 32673295
ISSN: 1545-861x
CID: 4530362

Racial and Socioeconomic Equity of Tecovirimat Treatment during the 2022 Mpox Emergency, New York, New York, USA

Lash, Maura K; Latham, Ned H; Chan, Pui Ying; Foote, Mary M K; Garcia, Elizabeth A; Silverstein, Matthew F; Wong, Marcia; Alexander, Mark; Alroy, Karen A; Bajaj, Lovedeep; Chen, Kuan; Howard, James Steele; Jones, Lucretia E; Lee, Ellen H; Watkins, Julian L; McPherson, Tristan D
We assessed tecovirimat treatment equity for 3,740 mpox patients in New York, New York, USA, during the 2022 mpox emergency; 32.4% received tecovirimat. Treatment rates by race/ethnicity were 38.8% (White), 31.3% (Black/African American), 31.0% (Hispanic/Latino), and 30.1% (Asian/Pacific Islander/other). Future public health emergency responses must prioritize institutional and structural racism mitigation.
PMID: 37796277
ISSN: 1080-6059
CID: 5607652

Implementation and early outcomes of a telehealth visit model to deliver tecovirimat for mpox infection in New York City

Chan, Justin; DiTullio, David J; Pagan Pirallo, Patricia; Foote, Mary; Knutsen, Dorothy; Kottkamp, Angelica Cifuentes; McPherson, Tristan D; Mukherjee, Vikramjit; Pitts, Robert; Wallach, Andrew; Wong, Marcia; Mazo, Dana; Mgbako, Ofole
The 2022 mpox outbreak in New York City posed challenges to rapidly scaling up treatment capacity. We describe a telehealth treatment model launched during this outbreak that facilitated healthcare provider treatment capacity, and was able to adhere to a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-sponsored expanded access investigational new drug (EA-IND) protocol for tecovirimat. Sixty-nine patients were evaluated and prescribed tecovirimat for mpox through telehealth visits at NYC Health + Hospitals/Bellevue and NYU Langone Health from June to August 2022. Thirty-two (46.4%) were previously diagnosed with HIV. Forty-four (63.8%) reported full recovery, with the remainder lost to follow-up. Most patients (n = 60, 87.0%) attended at least one follow-up visit (either in person or through telehealth) after starting treatment. We observed favorable treatment outcomes, with no serious adverse events, hospitalizations, or deaths related to mpox. While equitable access to telehealth remains a limitation that needs to be addressed, this telehealth model enabled a rapid scale-up of tecovirimat prescription during the mpox outbreak, and should be considered as an important tool used to respond to future infectious disease outbreaks.
PMID: 37632124
ISSN: 1758-1109
CID: 5598892

Notes from the Field: Posttreatment Lesions After Tecovirimat Treatment for Mpox - New York City, August-September 2022

Seifu, Leah; Garcia, Elizabeth; McPherson, Tristan D; Lash, Maura; Alroy, Karen A; Foote, Mary; Lee, Ellen H; Kwong, Jeffrey; Radix, Asa; Riska, Paul; Zucker, Jason; Zuercher, Sarah; Wong, Marcia
PMID: 37104293
ISSN: 1545-861x
CID: 5459672

Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection among long-term care facility staff with and without prior infection in New York City, January-June 2021

Peebles, Kathryn; Arciuolo, Robert J; Romano, Anthony S; Sell, Jessica; Greene, Sharon K; Lim, Sungwoo; Mulready-Ward, Candace; Ternier, Alexandra; Badenhop, Brittan; Blaney, Kathleen; Real, Joseph E; Spencer, Magdalene; McPherson, Tristan D; Ahuja, Shama Desai; Sullivan Meissner, Jeanne; Zucker, Jane R; Rosen, Jennifer B
BACKGROUND:Evidence of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness among persons with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection is accumulating. METHODS:We evaluated the effect against incident SARS-CoV-2 infection of (1) prior infection without vaccination, (2) vaccination (two doses of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine) without prior infection, and (3) vaccination after prior infection, all compared with unvaccinated persons without prior infection. We included long-term care facility staff in New York City aged <65 years with weekly SARS-CoV-2 testing during January 21-June 5, 2021. Test results were obtained from state-mandated laboratory reporting. Vaccination status was obtained from the Citywide Immunization Registry. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for confounding with inverse probability of treatment weights. RESULTS:Compared with unvaccinated persons without prior infection, incident SARS-CoV-2 infection risk was lower in all groups: 54.6% (95% CI: 38.0, 66.8) lower among unvaccinated, previously infected persons; 80.0% (95% CI: 67.6, 87.7) lower among fully vaccinated persons without prior infection; and 82.4% (95% CI: 70.8, 89.3) lower among persons fully vaccinated after prior infection. CONCLUSIONS:Two doses of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine reduced SARS-CoV-2 infection risk by ≥80%, and for those with prior infection, increased protection from prior infection alone. These findings support recommendations that all eligible persons, regardless of prior infection, be vaccinated against COVID-19.
PMID: 36626187
ISSN: 1537-6613
CID: 5411862

The Role of a Tertiary Level Safety Net Hospital in New York City's 2022 Mpox Outbreak

Lo Piccolo, Anthony J; Wallach, Andrew; McPherson, Tristan D; Mgbako, Ofole; Fagan, Ian; Pitts, Robert A; Klinger, Amanda; Foote, Mary; Garcia, Elizabeth A; Zucker, Jason E; Chan, Justin; Bails, Douglas B; Cohen, Gabriel M; Tennill, Patricia Ann; Wong, Marcia; Mukherjee, Vikramjit
Similar to the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, New York City was the national epicenter of the ongoing 2022 mpox (formerly monkeypox) outbreak. Cases quickly began to rise in July 2022, primarily in gay, bisexual, or other men who have sex with men. Tools in the form of a reliable diagnostic test, an effective vaccine, and a viable treatment option have been available from the onset, although logistically complex to roll out. The special pathogens program at NYC Health + Hospitals/Bellevue, the flagship facility for the largest public hospital system in the United States, collaborated with multiple departments within Bellevue, the hospital system, and the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, to swiftly establish ambulatory testing, immunizations, patient-centered inpatient care, and outpatient therapeutics. With the ongoing mpox outbreak, hospitals and local health departments must prepare a systemwide response to identify and isolate patients and provide high-quality care. Findings from our experience can help guide institutions in developing a multipronged, comprehensive response to the ongoing mpox outbreak.
PMID: 36862506
ISSN: 2326-5108
CID: 5427702

Positive correlation between Candida auris skin-colonization burden and environmental contamination at a ventilator-capable skilled nursing facility in Chicago

Sexton, D Joseph; Bentz, Meghan L; Welsh, Rory M; Derado, Gordana; Furin, William; Rose, Laura J; Noble-Wang, Judith; Pacilli, Massimo; McPherson, Tristan D; Black, Stephanie; Kemble, Sarah K; Herzegh, Owen; Ahmad, Ausaf; Forsberg, Kaitlin; Jackson, Brendan; Litvintseva, Anastasia P
BACKGROUND:Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast that contaminates healthcare environments causing healthcare-associated outbreaks. The mechanisms facilitating contamination are not established. METHODS:C. auris was quantified in residents' bilateral axillary/inguinal composite skin swabs and environmental samples during a point-prevalence survey at a ventilator-capable skilled-nursing facility (vSNF A) with documented high colonization prevalence. Environmental samples were collected from all doorknobs, windowsills and handrails of each bed in 12 rooms. C. auris concentrations were measured using culture and C. auris-specific qPCR. The relationship between C. auris concentrations in residents' swabs and associated environmental samples were evaluated using Kendall's tau-b (Ï„b) correlation coefficient. RESULTS:C. auris was detected in 70 /100 tested environmental samples and 31/ 57 tested resident skin swabs. The mean C. auris concentration in skin swabs was 1.22 x 10 5 cells/mL by culture and 1.08 x 10 6 cells/mL by qPCR. C. auris was detected on all handrails of beds occupied by colonized residents, as well as 10/24 doorknobs and 9/12 windowsills. A positive correlation was identified between the concentrations of C. auris in skin swabs and associated handrail samples based on culture (Ï„b = 0.54, p = 0.0004) and qPCR (Ï„b = 0.66, p = 3.83e -6). Two uncolonized residents resided in beds contaminated with C. auris. CONCLUSIONS:Colonized residents can have high C. auris burdens on their skin, which was positively related with contamination of their surrounding healthcare environment. These findings underscore the importance of hand hygiene, transmission-based precautions, and particularly environmental disinfection in preventing spread in healthcare facilities.
PMID: 33978150
ISSN: 1537-6591
CID: 4871682

Bone outcomes in virally suppressed youth with HIV switching to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate

Braithwaite, Kate; McPherson, Tristan D; Shen, Yanhan; Arpadi, Stephen; Shiau, Stephanie; Sorour, Gillian; Technau, Karl-Günter; Yin, Michael T
Background/UNASSIGNED:Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is included in first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) for adolescents living with HIV (ALWH). Associated toxicities remain a concern. Objective/UNASSIGNED:We evaluated bone and renal safety outcomes in virologically suppressed South African ALWH after switching to TDF. Method/UNASSIGNED:-tests) and stratified by sex. Results/UNASSIGNED:= 0.0003); however, the levels remained clinically acceptable. Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:South African ALWH switching from abacavir to TDF-based ART experienced statistically significant decreases in eGFR but not in LS and WBLH BMD. Female ALWH were more likely to experience a decrease in LS-BMD and may require closer monitoring.
PMID: 34522425
ISSN: 2078-6751
CID: 5077362