First known person-to-person transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the USA [Case Report]
BACKGROUND:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), first detected in China in December, 2019. In January, 2020, state, local, and federal public health agencies investigated the first case of COVID-19 in Illinois, USA. METHODS:Patients with confirmed COVID-19 were defined as those with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. Contacts were people with exposure to a patient with COVID-19 on or after the patient's symptom onset date. Contacts underwent active symptom monitoring for 14 days following their last exposure. Contacts who developed fever, cough, or shortness of breath became persons under investigation and were tested for SARS-CoV-2. A convenience sample of 32 asymptomatic health-care personnel contacts were also tested. FINDINGS:Patient 1-a woman in her 60s-returned from China in mid-January, 2020. One week later, she was hospitalised with pneumonia and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Her husband (Patient 2) did not travel but had frequent close contact with his wife. He was admitted 8 days later and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Overall, 372 contacts of both cases were identified; 347 underwent active symptom monitoring, including 152 community contacts and 195 health-care personnel. Of monitored contacts, 43 became persons under investigation, in addition to Patient 2. These 43 persons under investigation and all 32 asymptomatic health-care personnel tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. INTERPRETATION:Person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 occurred between two people with prolonged, unprotected exposure while Patient 1 was symptomatic. Despite active symptom monitoring and testing of symptomatic and some asymptomatic contacts, no further transmission was detected. FUNDING:None.
Notes from the Field: Candida auris and Carbapenemase-Producing Organism Prevalence in a Pediatric Hospital Providing Long-Term Transitional Care - Chicago, Illinois, 2019
Mumps Cases Disproportionately Affecting Persons Living with HIV Infection and Men Who Have Sex with Men - Chicago, Illinois, 2018
During January 1-March 2, 2018, the number of mumps cases among adults reported to the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) doubled compared with the same period in 2017. In response, CDPH created a supplementary questionnaire to collect additional information on populations affected and potential transmission routes. An epidemiologic analysis of routine and supplementary data, including spatiotemporal analysis, was performed to describe mumps cases reported to CDPH during 2018. A fourfold increase in mumps cases was reported during 2018 compared with 2017, with men who have sex with men (MSM) and persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection disproportionately represented among cases. A spatiotemporal, residential cluster was identified in a 9-square-mile area within six adjacent communities. The majority of persons affected were MSM, and this area was visited by many other persons with mumps diagnoses. Spatiotemporal analyses could be used in real time to identify case clusters to target public health response efforts, including to guide recommendations for additional measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine and to identify specific transmission venues.
Positive correlation between Candida auris skin-colonization burden and environmental contamination at a ventilator-capable skilled nursing facility in Chicago
BACKGROUND:Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast that contaminates healthcare environments causing healthcare-associated outbreaks. The mechanisms facilitating contamination are not established. METHODS:C. auris was quantified in residents' bilateral axillary/inguinal composite skin swabs and environmental samples during a point-prevalence survey at a ventilator-capable skilled-nursing facility (vSNF A) with documented high colonization prevalence. Environmental samples were collected from all doorknobs, windowsills and handrails of each bed in 12 rooms. C. auris concentrations were measured using culture and C. auris-specific qPCR. The relationship between C. auris concentrations in residents' swabs and associated environmental samples were evaluated using Kendall's tau-b (Ï„b) correlation coefficient. RESULTS:C. auris was detected in 70 /100 tested environmental samples and 31/ 57 tested resident skin swabs. The mean C. auris concentration in skin swabs was 1.22 x 10 5 cells/mL by culture and 1.08 x 10 6 cells/mL by qPCR. C. auris was detected on all handrails of beds occupied by colonized residents, as well as 10/24 doorknobs and 9/12 windowsills. A positive correlation was identified between the concentrations of C. auris in skin swabs and associated handrail samples based on culture (Ï„b = 0.54, p = 0.0004) and qPCR (Ï„b = 0.66, p = 3.83e -6). Two uncolonized residents resided in beds contaminated with C. auris. CONCLUSIONS:Colonized residents can have high C. auris burdens on their skin, which was positively related with contamination of their surrounding healthcare environment. These findings underscore the importance of hand hygiene, transmission-based precautions, and particularly environmental disinfection in preventing spread in healthcare facilities.
Bone outcomes in virally suppressed youth with HIV switching to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
Background/UNASSIGNED:Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is included in first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) for adolescents living with HIV (ALWH). Associated toxicities remain a concern. Objective/UNASSIGNED:We evaluated bone and renal safety outcomes in virologically suppressed South African ALWH after switching to TDF. Method/UNASSIGNED:-tests) and stratified by sex. Results/UNASSIGNED:= 0.0003); however, the levels remained clinically acceptable. Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:South African ALWH switching from abacavir to TDF-based ART experienced statistically significant decreases in eGFR but not in LS and WBLH BMD. Female ALWH were more likely to experience a decrease in LS-BMD and may require closer monitoring.
Regional Emergence of Candida auris in Chicago and Lessons Learned from Intensive Follow-Up at One Ventilator-Capable Skilled Nursing Facility
BACKGROUND:Since the identification of the first two Candida auris cases in Chicago, Illinois, in 2016, ongoing spread has been documented in the Chicago area. We describe C. auris emergence in high-acuity long-term healthcare facilities and present a case-study of public health response to C. auris and carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs) at one ventilator-capable skilled nursing facility (vSNF A). METHODS:We performed point prevalence surveys (PPSs) to identify patients colonized with C. auris, infection control (IC) assessments, and provided ongoing support for IC improvements in Illinois acute and long-term care facilities during August 2016-December 2018. During 2018, we initiated a focused effort at vSNF A, and conducted seven C. auris PPSs; during four PPSs, we also performed CPO screening and environmental sampling. RESULTS:During August 2016-December 2018 in Illinois, 490 individuals were found to be colonized or infected with C. auris. PPSs identified highest prevalence of C. auris colonization in vSNF settings (prevalence 23-71%). IC assessments in multiple vSNFs identified common challenges in core IC practices. Repeat PPSs at vSNF A in 2018 identified increasing C. auris prevalence from 43% to 71%. Most residents screened during multiple PPSs remained persistently colonized with C. auris. Among 191 environmental samples collected, 39% were positive for C. auris, including samples from bedrails, windowsills, and shared patient-care items. CONCLUSIONS:High burden in vSNFs along with persistent colonization of residents and environmental contamination point to the need for prioritizing IC interventions to control spread of C. auris and CPOs.
Lack of Serologic Evidence of Infection Among Health Care Personnel and Other Contacts of First 2 Confirmed Patients With COVID-19 in Illinois, 2020
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Widespread global transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), continues. Many questions remain about asymptomatic or atypical infections and transmission dynamics. We used comprehensive contact tracing of the first 2 confirmed patients in Illinois with COVID-19 and serologic SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing to determine whether contacts had evidence of undetected COVID-19. METHODS:Contacts were eligible for serologic follow-up if previously tested for COVID-19 during an initial investigation or had greater-risk exposures. Contacts completed a standardized questionnaire during the initial investigation. We classified exposure risk as high, medium, or low based on interactions with 2 index patients and use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Serologic testing used a SARS-CoV-2 spike enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on serum specimens collected from participants approximately 6 weeks after initial exposure to either index patient. The 2 index patients provided serum specimens throughout their illness. We collected data on demographic, exposure, and epidemiologic characteristics. RESULTS:Of 347 contacts, 110 were eligible for serologic follow-up; 59 (17% of all contacts) enrolled. Of these, 53 (90%) were health care personnel and 6 (10%) were community contacts. Seventeen (29%) reported high-risk exposures, 15 (25%) medium-risk, and 27 (46%) low-risk. No participant had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The 2 index patients had antibodies detected at dilutions >1:6400 within 4 weeks after symptom onset. CONCLUSIONS:In serologic follow-up of the first 2 known patients in Illinois with COVID-19, we found no secondary transmission among tested contacts. Lack of seroconversion among these contacts adds to our understanding of conditions (ie, use of PPE) under which SARS-CoV-2 infections might not result in transmission and demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing is a useful tool to verify epidemiologic findings.
Community Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 at Two Family Gatherings - Chicago, Illinois, February-March 2020
SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has spread rapidly around the world since it was first recognized in late 2019. Most early reports of person-to-person SARS-CoV-2 transmission have been among household contacts, where the secondary attack rate has been estimated to exceed 10% (1), in health care facilities (2), and in congregate settings (3). However, widespread community transmission, as is currently being observed in the United States, requires more expansive transmission events between nonhousehold contacts. In February and March 2020, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) investigated a large, multifamily cluster of COVID-19. Patients with confirmed COVID-19 and their close contacts were interviewed to better understand nonhousehold, community transmission of SARS-CoV-2. This report describes the cluster of 16 cases of confirmed or probable COVID-19, including three deaths, likely resulting from transmission of SARS-CoV-2 at two family gatherings (a funeral and a birthday party). These data support current CDC social distancing recommendations intended to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. U.S residents should follow stay-at-home orders when required by state or local authorities.
Active Monitoring of Persons Exposed to Patients with Confirmed COVID-19 - United States, January-February 2020
In December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2, began in Wuhan, China (1). The disease spread widely in China, and, as of February 26, 2020, COVID-19 cases had been identified in 36 other countries and territories, including the United States. Person-to-person transmission has been widely documented, and a limited number of countries have reported sustained person-to-person spread.* On January 20, state and local health departments in the United States, in collaboration with teams deployed from CDC, began identifying and monitoring all persons considered to have had close contactâ€ with patients with confirmed COVID-19 (2). The aims of these efforts were to ensure rapid evaluation and care of patients, limit further transmission, and better understand risk factors for transmission.
Enhanced contact investigations for nine early travel-related cases of SARS-CoV-2 in the United States
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first identified in Wuhan, China and has since become pandemic. In response to the first cases identified in the United States, close contacts of confirmed COVID-19 cases were investigated to enable early identification and isolation of additional cases and to learn more about risk factors for transmission. Close contacts of nine early travel-related cases in the United States were identified and monitored daily for development of symptoms (active monitoring). Selected close contacts (including those with exposures categorized as higher risk) were targeted for collection of additional exposure information and respiratory samples. Respiratory samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Four hundred four close contacts were actively monitored in the jurisdictions that managed the travel-related cases. Three hundred thirty-eight of the 404 close contacts provided at least basic exposure information, of whom 159 close contacts had â‰¥1 set of respiratory samples collected and tested. Across all actively monitored close contacts, two additional symptomatic COVID-19 cases (i.e., secondary cases) were identified; both secondary cases were in spouses of travel-associated case patients. When considering only household members, all of whom had â‰¥1 respiratory sample tested for SARS-CoV-2, the secondary attack rate (i.e., the number of secondary cases as a proportion of total close contacts) was 13% (95% CI: 4-38%). The results from these contact tracing investigations suggest that household members, especially significant others, of COVID-19 cases are at highest risk of becoming infected. The importance of personal protective equipment for healthcare workers is also underlined. Isolation of persons with COVID-19, in combination with quarantine of exposed close contacts and practice of everyday preventive behaviors, is important to mitigate spread of COVID-19.