Immune response, phenotyping and molecular graft surveillance in kidney transplant recipients following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination
BACKGROUND:Understanding immunogenicity and alloimmune risk following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination in kidney transplant recipients is imperative to understanding the correlates of protection and to inform clinical guidelines. METHODS:We studied 50 kidney transplant recipients following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and quantified their anti-spike protein antibody, donor-derived cell-free DNA (dd-cfDNA), gene expression profiling (GEP), and alloantibody formation. RESULTS:Participants were stratified using nucleocapsid testing as either SARS-CoV-2-naïve or experienced prior to vaccination. One of 34 (3%) SARS-CoV-2 naïve participants developed anti-spike protein antibodies. In contrast, the odds ratio for the association of a prior history of SARS-CoV-2 infection with vaccine response was 18.3 (95% confidence interval 3.2, 105.0, p < 0.01). Pre- and post-vaccination levels did not change for median dd-cfDNA (0.23% vs. 0.21% respectively, p = 0.13), GEP scores (9.85 vs. 10.4 respectively, p = 0.45), calculated panel reactive antibody, de-novo donor specific antibody status, or estimated glomerular filtration rate. CONCLUSIONS:SARS-CoV-2 vaccines do not appear to trigger alloimmunity in kidney transplant recipients. The degree of vaccine immunogenicity was associated most strongly with a prior history of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Immune response after pig-to-human kidney xenotransplantation: a multimodal phenotyping study
BACKGROUND:Cross-species immunological incompatibilities have hampered pig-to-human xenotransplantation, but porcine genome engineering recently enabled the first successful experiments. However, little is known about the immune response after the transplantation of pig kidneys to human recipients. We aimed to precisely characterise the early immune responses to the xenotransplantation using a multimodal deep phenotyping approach. METHODS:We did a complete phenotyping of two pig kidney xenografts transplanted to decedent humans. We used a multimodal strategy combining morphological evaluation, immunophenotyping (IgM, IgG, C4d, CD68, CD15, NKp46, CD3, CD20, and von Willebrand factor), gene expression profiling, and whole-transcriptome digital spatial profiling and cell deconvolution. Xenografts before implantation, wild-type pig kidney autografts, as well as wild-type, non-transplanted pig kidneys with and without ischaemia-reperfusion were used as controls. FINDINGS/RESULTS:cells. Both xenografts showed increased expression of genes biologically related to a humoral response, including monocyte and macrophage activation, natural killer cell burden, endothelial activation, complement activation, and T-cell development. Whole-transcriptome digital spatial profiling showed that antibody-mediated injury was mainly located in the glomeruli of the xenografts, with significant enrichment of transcripts associated with monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, and natural killer cells. This phenotype was not observed in control pig kidney autografts or in ischaemia-reperfusion models. INTERPRETATION/CONCLUSIONS:Despite favourable short-term outcomes and absence of hyperacute injuries, our findings suggest that antibody-mediated rejection in pig-to-human kidney xenografts might be occurring. Our results suggest specific therapeutic targets towards the humoral arm of rejection to improve xenotransplantation results. FUNDING/BACKGROUND:OrganX and MSD Avenir.
Living kidney donors with HIV: experience and outcomes from a case series by the HOPE in Action Consortium
Background: Living kidney donation is possible for people living with HIV (PLWH) in the United States within research studies under the HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act. There are concerns that donor nephrectomy may have an increased risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in PLWH due to HIV-associated kidney disease and antiretroviral therapy (ART) nephrotoxicity. Here we report the first 3 cases of living kidney donors with HIV under the HOPE Act in the United States. Methods: Within the HOPE in Action Multicenter Consortium, we conducted a prospective study of living kidney donors with HIV. Pre-donation, we estimated the 9-year cumulative incidence of ESRD, performed genetic testing of apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1), excluding individuals with high-risk variants, and performed pre-donation kidney biopsies (HOPE Act requirement). The primary endpoint was â‰¥grade 3 nephrectomy-related adverse events (AEs) in year one. Post-donation, we monitored glomerular filtration rate (measured by iohexol/Tc-99m DTPA [mGFR] or estimated with serum creatinine [eGFR]), HIV RNA, CD4 count, and ART. Findings: There were three donors with two-four years of follow-up: a 35 year-old female, a 52 year-old male, and a 47 year-old male. Pre-donation 9-year estimated cumulative incidence of ESRD was 3.01, 8.01, and 7.76 per 10,000 persons, respectively. In two donors with APOL1 testing, no high-risk variants were detected. Biopsies from all three donors showed no kidney disease. Post-donation, two donors developed nephrectomy-related â‰¥grade 3 AEs: a medically-managed ileus and a laparoscopically-repaired incisional hernia. GFR declined from 103 to 84 mL/min/1.73 m2 at four years (mGFR) in donor 1, from 77 to 52 mL/min/1.73 m2 at three years (eGFR) in donor 2, and from 65 to 39 mL/min/1.73 m2 at two years (eGFR) in donor 3. HIV RNA remained <20 copies/mL and CD4 count remained stable in all donors. Interpretation: The first three living kidney donors with HIV under the HOPE Act in the United States have had promising outcomes at two-four years, providing proof-of-concept to support living donation from PLWH to recipients with HIV. Funding: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health.
Pig-to-human heart xenotransplantation in two recently deceased human recipients
Genetically modified xenografts are one of the most promising solutions to the discrepancy between the numbers of available human organs for transplantation and potential recipients. To date, a porcine heart has been implanted into only one human recipient. Here, using 10-gene-edited pigs, we transplanted porcine hearts into two brain-dead human recipients and monitored xenograft function, hemodynamics and systemic responses over the course of 66 hours. Although both xenografts demonstrated excellent cardiac function immediately after transplantation and continued to function for the duration of the study, cardiac function declined postoperatively in one case, attributed to a size mismatch between the donor pig and the recipient. For both hearts, we confirmed transgene expression and found no evidence of cellular or antibody-mediated rejection, as assessed using histology, flow cytometry and a cytotoxic crossmatch assay. Moreover, we found no evidence of zoonotic transmission from the donor pigs to the human recipients. While substantial additional work will be needed to advance this technology to human trials, these results indicate that pig-to-human heart xenotransplantation can be performed successfully without hyperacute rejection or zoonosis.
Living kidney donors with HIV: experience and outcomes from a case series by the HOPE in Action Consortium
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Living kidney donation is possible for people living with HIV (PLWH) in the United States within research studies under the HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act. There are concerns that donor nephrectomy may have an increased risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in PLWH due to HIV-associated kidney disease and antiretroviral therapy (ART) nephrotoxicity. Here we report the first 3 cases of living kidney donors with HIV under the HOPE Act in the United States. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Within the HOPE in Action Multicenter Consortium, we conducted a prospective study of living kidney donors with HIV. Pre-donation, we estimated the 9-year cumulative incidence of ESRD, performed genetic testing of apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1), excluding individuals with high-risk variants, and performed pre-donation kidney biopsies (HOPE Act requirement). The primary endpoint was ≥grade 3 nephrectomy-related adverse events (AEs) in year one. Post-donation, we monitored glomerular filtration rate (measured by iohexol/Tc-99m DTPA [mGFR] or estimated with serum creatinine [eGFR]), HIV RNA, CD4 count, and ART. FINDINGS/UNASSIGNED: at two years (eGFR) in donor 3. HIV RNA remained <20 copies/mL and CD4 count remained stable in all donors. INTERPRETATION/UNASSIGNED:The first three living kidney donors with HIV under the HOPE Act in the United States have had promising outcomes at two-four years, providing proof-of-concept to support living donation from PLWH to recipients with HIV. FUNDING/UNASSIGNED:National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health.
Explainable SHAP-XGBoost models for in-hospital mortality after myocardial infarction
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:A lack of explainability in published machine learning (ML) models limits clinicians' understanding of how predictions are made, in turn undermining uptake of the models into clinical practice. OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:The purpose of this study was to develop explainable ML models to predict in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalized for myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Adult patients hospitalized for an MI were identified in the National Inpatient Sample between January 1, 2012, and September 30, 2015. The resulting cohort comprised 457,096 patients described by 64 predictor variables relating to demographic/comorbidity characteristics and in-hospital complications. The gradient boosting algorithm eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) was used to develop explainable models for in-hospital mortality prediction in the overall cohort and patient subgroups based on MI type and/or sex. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:The resulting models exhibited an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) ranging from 0.876 to 0.942, specificity 82% to 87%, and sensitivity 75% to 87%. All models exhibited high negative predictive value ≥0.974. The SHapley Additive exPlanation (SHAP) framework was applied to explain the models. The top predictor variables of increasing and decreasing mortality were age and undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, respectively. Other notable findings included a decreased mortality risk associated with certain patient subpopulations with hyperlipidemia and a comparatively greater risk of death among women below age 55 years. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:The literature lacks explainable ML models predicting in-hospital mortality after an MI. In a national registry, explainable ML models performed best in ruling out in-hospital death post-MI, and their explanation illustrated their potential for guiding hypothesis generation and future study design.
Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia in Black men: A case series highlighting key clinical features in this cohort [Case Report]
Neoadjuvant radiation to facilitate surgical treatment of a microcystic adnexal carcinoma with perineural invasion of the vulvar region [Case Report]
HIV-positive liver transplant does not alter the latent viral reservoir in recipients with ART-suppressed HIV
The latent viral reservoir(LVR) remains a major barrier to HIV-1 curative strategies. It is unknown whether receiving a liver transplant from a donor with HIV might lead to an increase in the LVR since the liver is a large lymphoid organ. We found no differences in intact provirus, defective provirus, or the ratio of intact to defective provirus between recipients with ART-supporesed HIV who received a liver from a donor with(n = 19) or without HIV(n = 10). All measures remained stable from baseline by one-year post transplant. These data demonstrate that the LVR is stable after liver transplantation in people living with HIV.
Infection and clinical xenotransplantation: Guidance from the Infectious Disease Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation
This guidance was developed to summarize current approaches to the potential transmission of swine-derived organisms to xenograft recipients, health care providers, or the public in clinical xenotransplantation. Limited specific data are available on the zoonotic potential of pig pathogens. It is anticipated that the risk of zoonotic infection in xenograft recipients will be determined by organisms present in source animals and relate to the nature and intensity of the immunosuppression used to maintain xenograft function. Based on experience in allotransplantation and with preclinical models, viral infections are of greatest concern, including porcine cytomegalovirus, porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus, and porcine endogenous retroviruses. Sensitive and specific microbiological assays are required for routine microbiological surveillance of source animals and xenograft recipients. Archiving of blood samples from recipients, contacts, and hospital staff may provide a basis for microbiological investigations if infectious syndromes develop. Carefully implemented infection control practices are required to prevent zoonotic pathogen exposures by clinical care providers. Informed consent practices for recipients and their close contacts must convey the lack of specific data for infectious risk assessment. Available data suggest that infectious risks of xenotransplantation are manageable and that clinical trials can advance with carefully developed protocols for pretransplant assessment, syndrome evaluation, and microbiological monitoring.