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Evaluating associations of bisphenol and phthalate exposure with time to pregnancy and subfecundity in a New York City pregnancy cohort

Charifson, Mia; Seok, Eunsil; Wang, Yuyan; Mehta-Lee, Shilpi S; Gordon, Rachel; Liu, Mengling; Trasande, Leonardo; Kahn, Linda G
It is important to understand the impact of consumer chemical exposure and fecundity, a couple's measure of probability of successful conception, given approximately 15% of couples experience infertility. Prior research has generally found null associations between bisphenol and phthalate exposure and fecundability, measured via time to pregnancy (TTP). However, this research has not been updated with current chemical exposures and have often lacked diversity in their study populations. We evaluated the associations between common bisphenol and phthalate chemical exposure groups and TTP as well as subfecundity (TTP>12 months) in the New York University Children's Health Study, a diverse pregnancy cohort from 2016 onward. Using first-trimester spot-urine samples to measure chemical exposure and self-reported TTP from first-trimester questionnaires, we observed a significant adverse association between total bisphenol exposure and certain phthalate groups on TTP and odds of subfecundity. Furthermore, in a mixtures analysis to explore the joint effects of the chemical groups on the outcomes, we found evidence of a potential interaction between total bisphenol exposure and low-molecular weight phthalates on TTP. Future research should continue to update our knowledge regarding the complex and potentially interacting effects of these chemicals on reproductive health.
PMID: 38830524
ISSN: 1873-6424
CID: 5665072

Assessing the multifaceted cervix: Examining cervical gland area at cervical length screening to predict spontaneous preterm birth

Meyer, Jessica A; Limaye, Meghana; Roman, Ashley S; Brubaker, Sara G; Mehta-Lee, Shilpi
BACKGROUND:Biologically active cervical glands provide a mucous barrier while influencing the composition and biomechanical strength of the cervical extracellular matrix. Cervical remodeling during ripening may be reflected as loss of the sonographic cervical gland area. As sonographic cervical length remains suboptimal for universal screening, adjunctive evaluation of other facets of the mid-trimester cervix may impart additional screening benefit. OBJECTIVE:To sonographically assess the cervical gland area at universal cervical length screening for preterm birth. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:We performed a retrospective cohort study of singletons with transvaginal cervical length screening universally performed during anatomic survey between 18 0/7 and 23 6/7 weeks and subsequent live delivery at a single institution in 2018. Uterine anomalies, cerclage, suboptimal imaging, or medically indicated preterm birth were excluded. Ultrasound images were assessed for cervical length and cervical gland area (with quantitative measurements when present). The primary outcome was spontaneous preterm birth <37 weeks. Absent and present gland groups were compared using χ2, Fisher's exact, T-test, and multivariate logistic regression (adjusting for parity and progesterone use, as well as the gestational age, cervical length, and gland absence at screening ultrasound). Gland measurements were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney-U Test and Spearman's correlation. RESULTS:Among the cohort of 772 patients, absent and present CGA groups were overall similar. Patients were on average 33 years old, ∼20 weeks gestation at screening ultrasound, and overall, 2.5% had history of prior spontaneous preterm birth. The absent gland group was more likely to have been taking progesterone (17% vs 4%, p=0.04). Overall rate of preterm birth was 2.6%. However, the 2.3% of patients with absent cervical gland area were significantly more likely to deliver <37 weeks (aOR 23.9, 95% CI 6.4-89, p<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated better performance of a cervical length screening model for preterm birth prediction with the addition of qualitative gland evaluation (p<0.001). Qualitative gland assessment was reproducible (PABAK 0.89), but quantitative gland measurements did not correlate with preterm birth. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Qualitative gland absence at mid-gestation cervical length screening was associated with subsequent spontaneous preterm birth, whereas quantitative gland measurements were not. Multifaceted ultrasound screening may be needed to adequately evaluate the multiple biologic functions of the cervix.
PMID: 38815929
ISSN: 2589-9333
CID: 5663822

Urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites in relation to preeclampsia and other hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in the environmental influences on child health outcomes (ECHO) program

Meeker, John D; McArthur, Kristen L; Adibi, Jennifer J; Alshawabkeh, Akram N; Barrett, Emily S; Brubaker, Sara G; Cordero, Jose F; Dabelea, Dana; Dunlop, Anne L; Herbstman, Julie B; Kahn, Linda G; Karr, Catherine J; Mehta-Lee, Shilpi; O'Connor, Thomas G; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Trasande, Leonardo; Kuiper, Jordan R; ,
BACKGROUND:Phthalate exposure may contribute to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), including preeclampsia/eclampsia (PE/E), but epidemiologic studies are lacking. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To evaluate associations of pregnancy phthalate exposure with development of PE/E and HDP. METHODS:Using data from 3,430 participants in eight Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Program cohorts (enrolled from 1999 to 2019), we quantified concentrations of 13 phthalate metabolites (8 measured in all cohorts, 13 in a subset of four cohorts) in urine samples collected at least once during pregnancy. We operationalized outcomes as PE/E and composite HDP (PE/E and/or gestational hypertension). After correcting phthalate metabolite concentrations for urinary dilution, we evaluated covariate-adjusted associations of individual phthalates with odds of PE/E or composite HDP via generalized estimating equations, and the phthalate mixture via quantile-based g-computation. We also explored effect measure modification by fetal sex using stratified models. Effect estimates are reported as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). RESULTS:In adjusted analyses, a doubling of mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and of mono (3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP) concentrations was associated with higher odds of PE/E as well as composite HDP, with somewhat larger associations for PE/E. For example, a doubling of MCPP was associated with 1.12 times the odds of PE/E (95%CI 1.00, 1.24) and 1.02 times the odds of composite HDP (95%CI 1.00, 1.05). A quartile increase in the phthalate mixture was associated with 1.27 times the odds of PE/E (95%CI 0.94, 1.70). A doubling of mono-carboxy isononyl phthalate (MCiNP) and of mono-carboxy isooctyl phthalate (MCiOP) concentrations were associated with 1.08 (95%CI 1.00, 1.17) and 1.11 (95%CI 1.03, 1.19) times the odds of PE/E. Effect estimates for PE/E were generally larger among pregnancies carrying female fetuses. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:In this study, multiple phthalates were associated with higher odds of PE/E and HDP. Estimates were precise and some were low in magnitude. Interventions to reduce phthalate exposures during pregnancy may help mitigate risk of these conditions.
PMID: 38696977
ISSN: 1873-6750
CID: 5658142

Prenatal phthalate exposure and fetal penile length and width

Salvi, Nicole B; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Brubaker, Sara G; Liu, Hongxiu; Kahn, Linda G; Trasande, Leonardo; Mehta-Lee, Shilpi S
BACKGROUND:Phthalates are endocrine-disrupting chemicals with anti-androgenic qualities and studies reported associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and infant genitalia. This study investigated whether increased prenatal phthalate exposure is associated with decreased fetal penile measures. METHODS:Data was from the New York University Children's Health and Environment Study (2016-2019). Maternal urinary concentrations of 16 phthalate metabolites were quantified at <18 weeks gestation as a proxy for fetal exposure (n = 334 male pregnancies). We retrospectively measured penile length and width using ultrasounds conducted 18-24 weeks gestation (n = 173 fetuses). Associations of maternal urinary levels of phthalates with fetal penile length and width were determined using linear regression models. RESULTS:57.2% of women were Hispanic, 31.8% Non-Hispanic White, 6.4% Asian, 2.3% Non-Hispanic Black, and 2.3% multiple races. Mean maternal age was 32 years (standard deviation [SD] = 5.7). Mean penile length was 7.13 mm (SD = 1.47) and width was 6.16 mm (SD = 0.87). An inverse relationship was observed between maternal levels of mono-ethyl phthalate and fetal penile length, and mono-(7-carboxy-n-heptyl) phthalate and penile width, though estimates were small and not significant when considering correction for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS:In our cohort we found no clinically meaningful associations between early pregnancy phthalate exposure and fetal penile length or width. IMPACT/CONCLUSIONS:First-trimester phthalate metabolites were assessed in pregnant women in New York City. Penile length and width were retrospectively measured on clinically assessed ultrasounds conducted ≥18 weeks and <24 weeks of gestation. In this cohort, no clinically meaningful associations were observed between first-trimester prenatal phthalate exposure and fetal penile length. This study contributes to the limited but growing research on the impact of prenatal phthalate exposure on male fetal genital development. The results emphasize that there may not be a clear association between prenatal phthalate exposure and fetal penile length and width, and further research on this topic may be required.
PMID: 38057576
ISSN: 1530-0447
CID: 5595922

Risk Assessment Model for Postpartum Venous Thromboembolism Prevention in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Griffin, Myah M; Engel, Alexis; Mehta-Lee, Shilpi S; Nusbaum, Julie; Golpanian, Michael; Izmirly, Peter; Belmont, H Michael; Buyon, Jill P
OBJECTIVE:This article assesses the application of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk model on a cohort of postpartum patients with a history of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). STUDY DESIGN: < 0.05. RESULTS: = 3) were nevertheless recommended for VTE prophylaxis. No patients had a postpartum VTE regardless of therapy. CONCLUSION:These data reveal a need to improve upon providing postpartum VTE prophylaxis to SLE patients not in remission while also recognizing a diagnosis of SLE alone should not equate with active disease. Moreover, SLE patients in remission may still warrant VTE prophylaxis if other non-SLE-related risk factors are present. KEY POINTS:· Those with SLE are at increased risk for VTE postpartum.. · VTE prophylaxis should be instituted when clinically appropriate.. · Caution should be exercised in broadly assigning disease activity for SLE diagnosis only.. · This study supports VTE prophylaxis use in postpartum patients with SLE..
PMID: 37494484
ISSN: 1098-8785
CID: 5618842

Cardiovascular Complications in Pregnancy

Shah, Avisha; Patel, Jay; Isath, Ameesh; Virk, Hafeez Ul Hassan; Jneid, Hani; Zelop, Carolyn M.; Mehta-Lee, Shilpi; Economy, Katherine E.; Gulati, Martha; Krittanawong, Chayakrit
Purpose of review: We review the epidemiology, risk factors, presentation, pathophysiology, diagnosis, peripartum management, and postpartum follow-up of chronic hypertension, hyperlipidemia, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation. Recent findings: We discuss pathophysiology and evidence-based management for chronic hypertension, hyperlipidemia, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation. Summary: It is essential for providers and patients to understand how cardiovascular diseases cause complications in pregnancy and to identify when patients require screening before conception and throughout the pregnancy. While primary care physicians, obstetricians, and cardiologists, should all have a general understanding of cardiovascular diseases during pregnancy, for higher risk patients it is important to create a multi-disciplinary cardio-obstetrics team for preconception planning, and for risk reduction during and after pregnancy. Shared decision-making regarding risks and benefits is crucial to improve maternal morbidity and mortality in the United States.
ISSN: 1092-8464
CID: 5662332

Chronotype and sleep duration interact to influence time to pregnancy: Results from a New York City cohort

Charifson, Mia; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Seok, Eunsil; Naidu, Mrudula; Mehta-Lee, Shilpi S; Brubaker, Sara G; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Chen, Yu; Liu, Mengling; Trasande, Leonardo; Kahn, Linda G
STUDY OBJECTIVE:To study associations between nighttime sleep characteristics and time to pregnancy. METHODS:Pregnant people age ≥18 years and<18 weeks' gestation were recruited from 3 New York University Grossman School of Medicine affiliated hospitals in Manhattan and Brooklyn (n = 1428) and enrolled into the New York University Children's Health and Environment Study. Participants in the first trimester of pregnancy were asked to recall their time to pregnancy and their sleep characteristics in the 3 months before conception. RESULTS:Participants who reported sleeping<7 hours per night tended to have shorter time to pregnancy than those who slept 7-9 hours per night (adjusted fecundability odds ratio = 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 0.94, 1.41). Participants with a sleep midpoint of 4 AM or later tended to have longer time to pregnancy compared with those with earlier sleep midpoints (before 4 AM) (adjusted fecundability odds ratio = 0.88, 95% confidence interval: 0.74, 1.04). When stratified by sleep midpoint, sleeping<7 hours was significantly associated with shorter time to pregnancy only among those whose sleep midpoint was before 4 AM (adjusted fecundability odds ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.07, 1.67). CONCLUSIONS:The association of sleep duration with time to pregnancy was modified by chronotype, suggesting that both biological and behavioral aspects of sleep may influence fecundability.
PMID: 37055302
ISSN: 2352-7226
CID: 5606752

State-specific fertility rate changes across the USA following the first two waves of COVID-19

Adelman, Sarah; Charifson, Mia; Seok, Eunsil; Mehta-Lee, Shilpi S; Brubaker, Sara G; Liu, Mengling; Kahn, Linda G
STUDY QUESTION:How did the first two coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) waves affect fertility rates in the USA? SUMMARY ANSWER:States differed widely in how their fertility rates changed following the COVID-19 outbreak and these changes were influenced more by state-level economic, racial, political, and social factors than by COVID-19 wave severity. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY:The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic contributed to already declining fertility rates in the USA, but not equally across states. Identifying drivers of differential changes in fertility rates can help explain variations in demographic shifts across states in the USA and motivate policies that support families in general, not only during crises. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION:This is an ecological study using state-level data from 50 US states and the District of Columbia (n = 51). The study period extends from 2020 to 2021 with historical data from 2016 to 2019. We identified Wave 1 as the first apex for each state after February 2020 and Wave 2 as the second apex, during Fall/Winter 2020-2021. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS:State-level COVID-19 wave severity, defined as case acceleration during each 3-month COVID-19 wave (cases/100 000 population/month), was derived from 7-day weekly moving average COVID-19 case rates from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State-level fertility rate changes (change in average monthly fertility rate/100 000 women of reproductive age (WRA)/year) were derived from the CDC Bureau of Vital Statistics and from 2020 US Census and University of Virginia 2021 population estimates 9 months after each COVID-19 wave. We performed univariate analyses to describe national and state-level fertility rate changes following each wave, and simple and multivariable linear regression analyses to assess the relation of COVID-19 wave severity and other state-level characteristics with fertility rate changes. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE:Nationwide, fertility dropped by 17.5 births/month/100 000 WRA/year following Wave 1 and 9.2 births/month/100 000 WRA/year following Wave 2. The declines following Wave 1 were largest among majority-Democrat, more non-White states where people practiced greater social distancing. Greater COVID-19 wave severity was associated with steeper fertility rate decline post-Wave 1 in simple regression, but the association was attenuated when adjusted for other covariates. Adjusting for the economic impact of the pandemic (hypothesized mediator) also attenuated the effect. There was no relation between COVID-19 wave severity and fertility rate change following Wave 2. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION:Our study harnesses state-level data so individual-level conclusions cannot be inferred. There may be residual confounding in our multivariable regression and we were underpowered to detect some effects. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS:The COVID-19 pandemic initially impacted the national fertility rate but, overall, the fertility rate rebounded to the pre-pandemic level following Wave 2. Consistent with prior literature, COVID-19 wave severity did not appear to predict fertility rate change. Economic, racial, political, and social factors influenced state-specific fertility rates during the pandemic more than the severity of the outbreak alone. Future studies in other countries should also consider whether these factors account for internal heterogeneity when examining the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and other crises on fertility. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S):L.G.K. received funding from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (R00ES030403), M.C. from the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program (20-A0-00-1005789), and M.L. and E.S. from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (R01ES032808). None of the authors have competing interests. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:N/A.
PMID: 37038265
ISSN: 1460-2350
CID: 5541492

Maternal urinary bisphenols and phthalates in relation to estimated fetal weight across mid to late pregnancy

Cowell, Whitney; Jacobson, Melanie H; Long, Sara E; Wang, Yuyan; Kahn, Linda G; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Naidu, Mrudula; Torshizi, Ghazaleh Doostparast; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Liu, Mengling; Mehta-Lee, Shilpi S; Brubaker, Sara G; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Trasande, Leonardo
BACKGROUND:Bisphenols and phthalates are high production volume chemicals used as additives in a variety of plastic consumer products leading to near ubiquitous human exposure. These chemicals have established endocrine disrupting properties and have been linked to a range of adverse reproductive and developmental outcomes. Here, we investigated exposure in relation to fetal growth. METHODS:Participants included 855 mother-fetal pairs enrolled in the population-based New York University Children's Health and Environment Study (NYU CHES). Bisphenols and phthalates were measured in maternal urine collected repeatedly during pregnancy. Analyses included 15 phthalate metabolites and 2 bisphenols that were detected in 50 % of participants or more. Fetal biometry data were extracted from electronic ultrasonography records and estimated fetal weight (EFW) was predicted for all fetuses at 20, 30, and 36 weeks gestation. We used quantile regression adjusted for covariates to model exposure-outcome relations across percentiles of fetal weight at each gestational timepoint. We examined sex differences using stratified models. RESULTS:Few statistically significant associations were observed across chemicals, gestational time periods, percentiles, and sexes. However, within gestational timepoints, we found that among females, the molar sums of the phthalates DiNP and DnOP were generally associated with decreases in EFW among smaller babies and increases in EFW among larger babies. Among males, the opposite trend was observed. However, confidence intervals were generally wide at the tails of the distribution. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In this sample, exposure to bisphenols and phthalates was associated with small sex-specific shifts in fetal growth; however, few associations were observed at the median of fetal weight and confidence intervals in the tails were wide. Findings were strongest for DiNP and DnOP, which are increasingly used as replacements for DEHP, supporting the need for future research on these contaminants.
PMID: 37075581
ISSN: 1873-6750
CID: 5459682

Comparing outcomes of fetal growth restriction defined by estimated fetal weight versus isolated abdominal circumference

Griffin, Myah M.; Mehta-Lee, Shilpi S.; Penfield, Christina A.; Roman, Ashley S.
Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes when the diagnosis of FGR was based on isolated abdominal circumference < 10th percentile for gestational age (GA) (iAC group) versus overall estimated fetal weight < 10th percentile (EFW group). Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of singleton gestations who underwent growth ultrasounds and delivered at a single health system from 1/1/19"“9/4/20. The study group was comprised of patients with AC < 10th percentile and EFW ≥ than the 10th percentile (iAC group). The control group included patients with overall EFW < 10th percentile (EFW group). Outcomes evaluated included GA at delivery, mode of delivery, fetal and neonatal outcomes. Data was analyzed using Mann Whitney U, X 2, and Fisher exact tests with significance defined as p < 0.05. Results: 635 women met the inclusion criteria, 259 women in the iAC group and 376 women in the EFW group. The iAC group was noted to have a later GA at diagnosis and delivery. iAC was associated with lower rates of preterm birth (PTB), NICU admission, SGA at delivery and umbilical artery cord gas < 7.0. Conclusion: Using iAC as a definition of FGR increased the number of FGR cases by 1.69-fold over EFW criteria alone. However, obstetrical and neonatal outcomes for the iAC group appear to be significantly better than those in the EFW group, with low rates of PTB, NICU admission, and umbilical artery cord gas < 7.0.
ISSN: 0932-0067
CID: 5616692