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The Effect of Maternal United States Nativity on Racial/Ethnic Differences in Fetal Growth

Jacobson, Melanie H; Wang, Yuyan; Long, Sara E; Liu, Mengling; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Kahn, Linda G; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Brubaker, Sara G; Mehta-Lee, Shilpi S; Trasande, Leonardo
While racial/ethnic differences in fetal growth have been documented, few studies have examined whether they vary by exogenous factors, which could elucidate underlying causes. The purpose of this study was to characterize longitudinal fetal growth patterns by maternal sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical factors and examine whether associations with maternal race/ethnicity varied by these other predictors. Between 2016-2019, pregnant women receiving prenatal care at NYU Langone were invited to participate in a birth cohort study. Women completed questionnaires and clinical data were abstracted from ultrasound examinations. Maternal characteristics were assessed in relation to fetal biometric measures throughout pregnancy using linear mixed models. Maternal race/ethnicity was consistently associated with fetal biometry: Black, Hispanic, and Asian women had fetuses with smaller head circumference, abdominal circumference, and biparietal diameter than White women. The associations between race/ethnicity and fetal growth varied by nativity for Asian women, such that the disparity between Asian and White women was much greater for US-born than foreign-born women. However, associations for Black and Hispanic women did not vary by nativity. While racial/ethnic-specific fetal growth standards have been proposed, work is needed to elucidate what could be driving these differences, including factors that occur in parallel and differentially affect fetal growth.
PMID: 35434731
ISSN: 1476-6256
CID: 5206232

Longitudinal associations of pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain with maternal urinary metabolites: an NYU CHES study

Long, Sara E; Jacobson, Melanie H; Wang, Yuyan; Liu, Mengling; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Sumner, Susan J; McRitchie, Susan; Kirchner, David R; Brubaker, Sara G; Mehta-Lee, Shilpi S; Kahn, Linda G; Trasande, Leonardo
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and pre-pregnancy obesity affect a significant portion of the US pregnant population and are linked with negative maternal and child health outcomes. The objective of this study was to explore associations of pre-pregnancy body mass index (pBMI) and GWG with longitudinally measured maternal urinary metabolites throughout pregnancy. SUBJECTS/METHODS/METHODS:Among 652 participants in the New York University Children's Health and Environment Study, a longitudinal pregnancy cohort, targeted metabolomics were measured in serially collected urine samples throughout pregnancy. Metabolites were measured at median 10 (T1), 21 (T2), and 29 (T3) weeks gestation using the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ® p180 Urine Extension kit. Acylcarnitine, amino acid, biogenic amine, phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingolipid, and sugar levels were quantified. Pregnant people 18 years or older, without type 1 or 2 diabetes and with singleton live births and valid pBMI and metabolomics data were included. GWG and pBMI were calculated using weight and height data obtained from electronic health records. Linear mixed effects models with interactions with time were fit to determine the gestational age-specific associations of categorical pBMI and continuous interval-specific GWG with urinary metabolites. All analyses were corrected for false discovery rate. RESULTS:Participants with obesity had lower long-chain acylcarnitine levels throughout pregnancy and lower phosphatidylcholine and glucogenic amino acids and higher phenylethylamine concentrations in T2 and T3 compared with participants with normal/underweight pBMI. GWG was associated with taurine in T2 and T3 and C5 acylcarnitine species, C5:1, C5-DC, and C5-M-DC, in T2. CONCLUSIONS:pBMI and GWG were associated with the metabolic environment of pregnant individuals, particularly in relation to mid-pregnancy. These results highlight the importance of both preconception and prenatal maternal health.
PMID: 35411100
ISSN: 1476-5497
CID: 5201892

Determinants of phthalate exposures in pregnant women in New York City

Liu, Hongxiu; Wang, Yuyan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Liu, Mengling; Zhu, Hongkai; Chen, Yu; Kahn, Linda G; Jacobson, Melanie H; Gu, Bo; Mehta-Lee, Shilpi; Brubaker, Sara G; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Trasande, Leonardo
Previous studies have provided data on determinants of phthalates in pregnant women, but results were disparate across regions. We aimed to identify the food groups and demographic factors that predict phthalate exposure in an urban contemporary pregnancy cohort in the US. The study included 450 pregnant women from the New York University Children's Health and Environment Study in New York City. Urinary concentrations of 22 phthalate metabolites, including metabolites of di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP), were determined at three time points across pregnancy by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The Diet History Questionnaire II was completed by pregnant women at mid-pregnancy to assess dietary information. Linear mixed models were fitted to examine determinants of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations. Using partial-linear single-index (PLSI) models, we assessed the major contributors, among ten food groups, to phthalate exposure. Metabolites of DEHP and its ortho-phthalate replacement, diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), were found in >90% of the samples. The sum of creatinine-adjusted DiNP metabolite concentrations was higher in older and single women and in samples collected in summer. Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black women had lower urinary concentrations of summed metabolites of di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), but higher concentrations of low molecular weight phthalates compared with non-Hispanic White women. Each doubling of grain products consumed was associated with a 20.9% increase in ∑DiNP concentrations (95%CI: 4.5, 39.9). PLSI models revealed that intake of dried beans and peas was the main dietary factor contributing to urinary ∑DEHP, ∑DiNP, and ∑DnOP levels, with contribution proportions of 76.3%, 35.8%, and 27.4%, respectively. Urinary metabolite levels of phthalates in pregnant women in NYC varied by age, marital status, seasonality, race/ethnicity, and diet. These results lend insight into the major determinants of phthalates levels, and may be used to identify exposure sources and guide interventions to reduce exposures in susceptible populations.
PMID: 35358547
ISSN: 1096-0953
CID: 5201302

Implementation of the RCOG VTE Risk-Assessment Affects on Postpartum Prophylaxis Treatment in Women with SLE [Meeting Abstract]

Griffin, Myah; Engel, Alexis; Deeb, Jessica; Buyon, Jill; Nusbaum, Juile; Heo, Hye; Roman, Ashley S.; Mehta-Lee, Shilpi S.
ISSN: 0002-9378
CID: 5208562

The cervicovaginal microbiome at time of cerclage [Meeting Abstract]

Trostle, Megan E.; Griffin, Myah; Patberg, Elizabeth; Kidd, Jennifer; Chen, Ze; Ruggles, Kelly; Roman, Ashley S.; Keefe, David L.; Chervenak, Judith; Mehta-Lee, Shilpi S.; Heo, Hye; Brubaker, Sara G.
ISSN: 0002-9378
CID: 5208542

Maternal Perceived Stress During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Pre-Existing Risk Factors and Concurrent Correlates in New York City Women

Ghassabian, Akhgar; Jacobson, Melanie H; Kahn, Linda G; Brubaker, Sara G; Mehta-Lee, Shilpi S; Trasande, Leonardo
PMID: 35479764
ISSN: 1661-8564
CID: 5217012

Maternal Cannabis Use in the Perinatal Period: Data From the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Marijuana Supplement, 2016-2018

Sood, Shefali; Trasande, Leonardo; Mehta-Lee, Shilpi S; Brubaker, Sara G; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Jacobson, Melanie H
OBJECTIVE:To estimate the prevalence of perinatal cannabis use (ie, before and/or during pregnancy); document the frequency, modes, and motivations for use; and identify predictors of perinatal cannabis use. METHODS:Six states in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, a state-specific, population-based surveillance system, administered a supplemental questionnaire on perinatal cannabis use in 2016-2018. Women with live births were surveyed 2-6 months postpartum about behaviors ≤3 months preconception and during pregnancy. Demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics were examined in relation to perinatal cannabis use using multinomial regression models. Those who: (1) never used cannabis, (2) only used in preconception period, and (3) used in both preconception and prenatal periods were compared. RESULTS:Among 6428 respondents, 379 (5.8%) used cannabis preconceptionally only and 466 (4.4%) used in both the preconception and prenatal periods. Among those using prenatally, most reported smoking as their single mode (87.1%), with the two most common reasons being stress (83.8%) and nausea/vomiting (79.2%). Marital status, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, parity, and cigarette and alcohol use were significantly associated with perinatal cannabis use. Single (vs partnered) women were more likely to use cannabis prenatally (odds ratio = 2.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.5, 3.9) and non-Hispanic Black (vs White) women were less likely to use prenatally (odds ratio = 0.4, 95% confidence interval: 0.2, 0.8). CONCLUSIONS:Using a population-based sample of US births in six states, several demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics were identified in relation to perinatal cannabis use. These data are valuable for counseling in prenatal care and investigations of health effects.
PMID: 34561350
ISSN: 1935-3227
CID: 5084932

Factors Associated With Changes in Pregnancy Intention Among Women Who Were Mothers of Young Children in New York City Following the COVID-19 Outbreak

Kahn, Linda G; Trasande, Leonardo; Liu, Mengling; Mehta-Lee, Shilpi S; Brubaker, Sara G; Jacobson, Melanie H
Importance:Early evidence shows a decrease in the number of US births during the COVID-19 pandemic, yet few studies have examined individual-level factors associated with pregnancy intention changes, especially among diverse study populations or in areas highly affected by COVID-19 in the US. Objective:To study changes in pregnancy intention following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and identify factors possibly associated with these changes. Design, Setting, and Participants:A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted among women who were currently pregnant or had delivered a live infant and responded to a survey emailed to 2603 women (n = 1560). Women who were mothers of young children enrolled in the prospective New York University Children's Health and Environment Study birth cohort were included; women who were not currently pregnant or recently postpartum were excluded. Exposures:Demographic, COVID-19-related, stress-related, and financial/occupational factors were assessed via a survey administered from April 20 to August 31, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures:Pregnancy intentions before the COVID-19 pandemic and change in pregnancy intentions following the outbreak. Results:Of the 2603 women who were sent the survey, 1560 (59.9%) who were currently pregnant or had delivered a live infant responded, and 1179 women (75.6%) answered the pregnancy intention questions. Mean (SD) age was 32.2 (5.6) years. Following the outbreak, 30 of 61 (49.2%) women who had been actively trying to become pregnant had ceased trying, 71 of 191 (37.2%) women who had been planning to become pregnant were no longer planning, and 42 of 927 (4.5%) women who were neither planning nor trying were newly considering pregnancy. Among those who ceased trying, fewer than half (13 [43.3%]) thought they would resume after the pandemic. Of those pre-COVID-19 planners/triers who stopped considering or attempting pregnancy, a greater proportion had lower educational levels, although the difference was not statistically significant on multivariable analysis (odds ratio [OR], 2.14; 95% CI, 0.92-4.96). The same was true for those with higher stress levels (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.99-1.20) and those with greater financial insecurity (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 0.97-1.92. Those who stopped considering or attempting pregnancy were more likely to respond to the questionnaire during the peak of the outbreak (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.01-4.11). Of those pre-COVID-19 nonplanners/nontriers who reported newly thinking about becoming pregnant, a smaller proportion responded during the peak, although the finding was not statistically significant on multivariable analysis (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.26-1.03). Likewise, fewer respondents who were financially insecure reported newly considering pregnancy, although the finding was not statistically significant (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.46-1.03). They were significantly less likely to be of Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 0.27; 955 CI, 0.10-0.71) and more likely to have fewer children in the home (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40-0.98) or self-report a COVID-19 diagnosis (OR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.31-5.55). Conclusions and Relevance:In this cross-sectional study of 1179 women who were mothers of young children in New York City, increased stress and financial insecurity owing to the COVID-19 pandemic paralleled a reduction in pregnancy intention in the early months of the pandemic, potentially exacerbating long-term decreases in the fertility rate.
PMID: 34524437
ISSN: 2574-3805
CID: 5012352

Organophosphate pesticide exposure: Demographic and dietary predictors in an urban pregnancy cohort

Liu, Hongxiu; Campana, Anna Maria; Wang, Yuyan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Liu, Mengling; Zhu, Hongkai; Mehta-Lee, Shilpi; Brubaker, Sara G; Kahn, Linda G; Trasande, Leonardo; Ghassabian, Akhgar
Pregnant women are widely exposed to organophosphate (OP) pesticides, which are potentially neurotoxicant for the developing fetus. We aimed to identify principal demographic and dietary predictors of OP pesticide exposure among 450 pregnant women participating in the New York University Children's Health and Environment Study (enrolled 2016-19). Urinary concentrations of six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites (3 dimethyl (DM) metabolites and 3 diethyl (DE) metabolites) of OP pesticides were determined at three time points across pregnancy. At mid-gestation, the Diet History Questionnaire II was used to assess women's dietary intake over the past year. Demographic characteristics were obtained using questionnaires and/or electronic health records. We used linear mixed models to evaluate the associations of demographic and food groups with DAP metabolite levels, and partial-linear single-index (PLSI) models to analyze the contribution proportions of food groups to DAP metabolite concentrations and the dose-response relationships between them. We observed that pregnant women in NYC had lower levels of OP pesticide metabolites than pregnant populations in Europe, Asia, and other regions in the U.S. Having lower pre-pregnancy body mass index and being Asian, employed, and single were associated with higher DAP metabolite concentrations. Fruit and grain intakes were associated with higher ∑DM, ∑DE, and ∑DAP levels. ∑DE concentrations increased 9.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2%, 17.4%) per two-fold increase in dairy consumption, whereas ∑DE concentrations decreased 1.8% (95%CI = -3.1%, -0.4%) per two-fold increase in seafood consumption. The PLSI model indicated that among the food mixture, fruit and grains were the main food groups contributed to higher levels of ∑DAP, while meat contributed to lower levels of ∑DAP. The contribution proportions of fruit, grains, and meat were 18.7%, 17.9%, and 39.3%, respectively. Our results suggest that fruit, grains, and meat are major dietary components associated with OP pesticide exposure in urban pregnant women.
PMID: 33839620
ISSN: 1873-6424
CID: 4845542

Differential Uptake of Telehealth for Prenatal Care in a Large New York City Academic Obstetrical Practice during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Limaye, Meghana A; Lantigua-Martinez, Meralis; Trostle, Megan E; Penfield, Christina A; Conroy, Erin M; Roman, Ashley S; Mehta-Lee, Shilpi S
During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in New York City, telehealth was rapidly implemented for obstetric patients. Though telehealth for prenatal care is safe and effective, significant concerns exist regarding equity in access among low-income populations. We performed a retrospective cohort study evaluating utilization of telehealth for prenatal care in a large academic practice in New York City, comparing women with public and private insurance. We found that patients with public insurance were less likely to have at least one telehealth visit than women with private insurance (60.9 vs. 87.3%, p < 0.001). After stratifying by borough, this difference remained significant in Brooklyn, one of the boroughs hardest hit by the pandemic. As COVID-19 continues to spread around the country, obstetric providers must work to ensure that all patients, particularly those with public insurance, have equal access to telehealth. KEY POINTS: · Telehealth for prenatal care is frequently utilized during the COVID-19 pandemic.. · Significant concerns exist regarding equity in access among lower-income populations.. · Women with public insurance in New York City were less likely to access telehealth for prenatal care..
PMID: 33302308
ISSN: 1098-8785
CID: 4709222