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Association of Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status With Withdrawal of Life-Sustaining Therapies After Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Melmed, Kara R; Lewis, Ariane; Kuohn, Lindsey; Marmo, Joanna; Rossan-Raghunath, Nirmala; Torres, Jose; Muralidharan, Rajanandini; Lord, Aaron S; Ishida, Koto; Frontera, Jennifer A
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Mortality after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is common. Neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES) is an important social determinant of health (SDoH) that can affect clinical outcome. We hypothesize that SDoH, including nSES, contribute to differences in withdrawal of life-sustaining therapies (WLSTs) and mortality in patients with ICH. METHODS:tests. We performed multivariable analysis using backward stepwise logistic regression. RESULTS:≤ 0.01 for both). In multivariable analysis adjusting for age and clinical severity scores, patients who lived in zip codes with high-income levels were more likely to have WLST (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.88; 95% CI 1.29-2.74) and mortality before discharge (aOR 1.5; 95% CI 1.06-2.13). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:SDoH, including nSES, are associated with WLST after ICH. This has important implications for the care and management of patients with ICH.
PMID: 38237088
ISSN: 1526-632x
CID: 5624412

Factors Associated With Anxiety After Hemorrhagic Stroke

Olivera, Anlys; Ecker, Sarah; Lord, Aaron; Gurin, Lindsey; Ishida, Koto; Melmed, Kara; Torres, Jose; Zhang, Cen; Frontera, Jennifer; Lewis, Ariane
OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:A significant number of patients develop anxiety after stroke. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for anxiety after hemorrhagic stroke that may facilitate diagnosis and treatment. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Patients admitted between January 2015 and February 2021 with nontraumatic hemorrhagic stroke (intracerebral [ICH] or subarachnoid [SAH] hemorrhage) were assessed telephonically 3 and 12 months after stroke with the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders Anxiety Short Form to evaluate the relationships between poststroke anxiety (T score >50) and preclinical social and neuropsychiatric history, systemic and neurological illness severity, and in-hospital complications. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Of 71 patients who completed the 3-month assessment, 28 (39%) had anxiety. There was a difference in Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores on admission between patients with anxiety (median=14, interquartile range [IQR]=12-15) and those without anxiety (median=15, IQR=14-15) (p=0.034), and the incidence of anxiety was higher among patients with ICH (50%) than among those with SAH (20%) (p=0.021). Among patients with ICH, anxiety was associated with larger median ICH volume (25 cc [IQR=8-46] versus 8 cc [IQR=3-13], p=0.021) and higher median ICH score (2 [IQR=1-3] versus 1 [IQR=0-1], p=0.037). On multivariable analysis with GCS score, hemorrhage type, and neuropsychiatric history, only hemorrhage type remained significant (odds ratio=3.77, 95% CI=1.19-12.05, p=0.024). Of the 39 patients who completed the 12-month assessment, 12 (31%) had anxiety, and there was a difference in mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores between patients with (5 [IQR=3-12]) and without (2 [IQR=0-4]) anxiety (p=0.045). There was fair agreement (κ=0.38) between the presence of anxiety at 3 and 12 months. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Hemorrhage characteristics and factors assessed with neurological examination on admission are associated with the development of poststroke anxiety.
PMID: 37667629
ISSN: 1545-7222
CID: 5626372

Poor Accuracy of Manually Derived Head Computed Tomography Parameters in Predicting Intracranial Hypertension After Nontraumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage

Frontera, Jennifer A; Fang, Taolin; Grayson, Kammi; Lalchan, Rebecca; Dickstein, Leah; Hussain, M Shazam; Kahn, D Ethan; Lord, Aaron S; Mazzuchin, Daniel; Melmed, Kara R; Rutledge, Caleb; Zhou, Ting; Lewis, Ariane
BACKGROUND:The utility of head computed tomography (CT) in predicting elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is known to be limited in traumatic brain injury; however, few data exist in patients with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective review of prospectively collected data in patients with nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage (subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH] or intraparenchymal hemorrhage [IPH]) who underwent external ventricular drain (EVD) placement. Head CT scans performed immediately prior to EVD placement were quantitatively reviewed for features suggestive of elevated ICP, including temporal horn diameter, bicaudate index, basal cistern effacement, midline shift, and global cerebral edema. The modified Fisher score (mFS), intraventricular hemorrhage score, and IPH volume were also measured, as applicable. We calculated the accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of these radiographic features for the coprimary outcomes of elevated ICP (> 20 mm Hg) at the time of EVD placement and at any time during the hospital stay. Multivariable backward stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to identify significant radiographic factors associated with elevated ICP. RESULTS:Of 608 patients with intracranial hemorrhages enrolled during the study time frame, 243 (40%) received an EVD and 165 (n = 107 SAH, n = 58 IPH) had a preplacement head CT scan available for rating. Elevated opening pressure and elevated ICP during hospitalization were recorded in 48 of 152 (29%) and 103 of 165 (62%), respectively. The presence of ≥ 1 radiographic feature had only 32% accuracy for identifying elevated opening pressure (PPV 30%, NPV 58%, area under the curve [AUC] 0.537, 95% asymptotic confidence interval [CI] 0.436-0.637, P = 0.466) and 59% accuracy for predicting elevated ICP during hospitalization (PPV 63%, NPV 40%, AUC 0.514, 95% asymptotic CI 0.391-0.638, P = 0.820). There was no significant association between the number of radiographic features and ICP elevation. Head CT scans without any features suggestive of elevated ICP occurred in 25 of 165 (15%) patients. However, 10 of 25 (40%) of these patients had elevated opening pressure, and 15 of 25 (60%) had elevated ICP during their hospital stay. In multivariable models, mFS (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.36, 95% CI 1.10-1.68) and global cerebral edema (aOR 2.93, 95% CI 1.27-6.75) were significantly associated with elevated ICP; however, their accuracies were only 69% and 60%, respectively. All other individual radiographic features had accuracies between 38 and 58% for identifying intracranial hypertension. CONCLUSIONS:More than 50% of patients with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage without radiographic features suggestive of elevated ICP actually had ICP > 20 mm Hg during EVD placement or their hospital stay. Morphological head CT findings were only 32% and 59% accurate in identifying elevated opening pressure and ICP elevation during hospitalization, respectively.
PMID: 36577900
ISSN: 1556-0961
CID: 5409662

Thoracoabdominal normothermic regional perfusion in donation after circulatory death does not restore brain blood flow

Frontera, Jennifer A; Lewis, Ariane; James, Les; Melmed, Kara; Parent, Brendan; Raz, Eytan; Hussain, Syed T; Smith, Deane E; Moazami, Nader
Use of thoracoabdominal normothermic regional perfusion (TA-NRP) during donation after circulatory death (DCD) is an important advance in organ donation. Prior to establishing TA-NRP, the brachiocephalic, left carotid, and left subclavian arteries are ligated, thereby eliminating anterograde brain blood flow via the carotid and vertebral arteries. While theoretical concerns have been voiced that TA-NRP after DCD may restore brain blood flow via collaterals, there have been no studies to confirm or refute this possibility. We evaluated brain blood flow using intraoperative transcranial Doppler (TCD) in two DCD TA-NRP cases. Pre-extubation, anterior and posterior circulation brain blood flow waveforms were present in both cases, similar to the waveforms detected in a control patient on mechanical circulatory support undergoing cardiothoracic surgery. Following declaration of death and initiation of TA-NRP, no brain blood flow was detected in either case. Additionally, there was absence of brainstem reflexes, no response to noxious stimuli and no respiratory effort. These TCD results demonstrate that DCD with TA-NRP did not restore brain blood flow.
PMID: 37211334
ISSN: 1557-3117
CID: 5543542

Life stressors significantly impact long-term outcomes and post-acute symptoms 12-months after COVID-19 hospitalization

Frontera, Jennifer A; Sabadia, Sakinah; Yang, Dixon; de Havenon, Adam; Yaghi, Shadi; Lewis, Ariane; Lord, Aaron S; Melmed, Kara; Thawani, Sujata; Balcer, Laura J; Wisniewski, Thomas; Galetta, Steven L
BACKGROUND:Limited data exists evaluating predictors of long-term outcomes after hospitalization for COVID-19. METHODS:We conducted a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The following outcomes were collected at 6 and 12-months post-diagnosis: disability using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), activities of daily living assessed with the Barthel Index, cognition assessed with the telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment (t-MoCA), Neuro-QoL batteries for anxiety, depression, fatigue and sleep, and post-acute symptoms of COVID-19. Predictors of these outcomes, including demographics, pre-COVID-19 comorbidities, index COVID-19 hospitalization metrics, and life stressors, were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS:Of 790 COVID-19 patients who survived hospitalization, 451(57%) completed 6-month (N = 383) and/or 12-month (N = 242) follow-up, and 77/451 (17%) died between discharge and 12-month follow-up. Significant life stressors were reported in 121/239 (51%) at 12-months. In multivariable analyses, life stressors including financial insecurity, food insecurity, death of a close contact and new disability were the strongest independent predictors of worse mRS, Barthel Index, depression, fatigue, and sleep scores, and prolonged symptoms, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 2.5 to 20.8. Other predictors of poor outcome included older age (associated with worse mRS, Barthel, t-MoCA, depression scores), baseline disability (associated with worse mRS, fatigue, Barthel scores), female sex (associated with worse Barthel, anxiety scores) and index COVID-19 severity (associated with worse Barthel index, prolonged symptoms). CONCLUSIONS:Life stressors contribute substantially to worse functional, cognitive and neuropsychiatric outcomes 12-months after COVID-19 hospitalization. Other predictors of poor outcome include older age, female sex, baseline disability and severity of index COVID-19.
PMID: 36379135
ISSN: 1878-5883
CID: 5383312

Markers of infection and inflammation are associated with post-thrombectomy mortality in acute stroke

Irvine, Hannah; Krieger, Penina; Melmed, Kara R; Torres, Jose; Croll, Leah; Zhao, Amanda; Lord, Aaron; Ishida, Koto; Frontera, Jennifer; Lewis, Ariane
OBJECTIVE:We explored the relationship between markers of infection and inflammation and mortality in patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent thrombectomy. METHODS:We performed retrospective chart review of stroke patients who underwent thrombectomy at two tertiary academic centers between December 2018 and November 2020. Associations between discharge mortality, WBC count, neutrophil percentage, fever, culture data, and antibiotic treatment were analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test, Student's t-test, and Fisher's exact test. Independent predictors of mortality were identified with multivariable analysis. Analyses were repeated excluding COVID-positive patients. RESULTS:Of 248 patients who underwent thrombectomy, 41 (17 %) died prior to discharge. Mortality was associated with admission WBC count (11 [8-14] vs. 9 [7-12], p = 0.0093), admission neutrophil percentage (78 % ± 11 vs. 71 % ± 14, p = 0.0003), peak WBC count (17 [13-22] vs. 12 [9-15], p < 0.0001), fever (71 % vs. 27 %, p < 0.0001), positive culture (44 % vs. 15 %, p < 0.0001), and days treated with antibiotics (3 [1-7] vs. 1 [0-4], p < 0.0001). After controlling for age, admission NIHSS and post-thrombectomy ASPECTS score, mortality was associated with admission WBC count (OR 13, CI 1.32-142, p = 0.027), neutrophil percentage (OR 1.03, CI 1.0-1.07, p = 0.045), peak WBC count (OR 301, CI 24-5008, p < 0.0001), fever (OR 24.2, CI 1.77-332, p < 0.0001), and positive cultures (OR 4.24, CI 1.87-9.62, p = 0.0006). After excluding COVID-positive patients (n = 14), peak WBC count, fever and positive culture remained independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Markers of infection and inflammation are associated with discharge mortality after thrombectomy. Further study is warranted to investigate the causal relationship of these markers with clinical outcome.
PMID: 36272394
ISSN: 1872-6968
CID: 5359072

Pre-admission antithrombotic use is associated with 3-month mRS score after thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke

Krieger, Penina; Melmed, Kara R; Torres, Jose; Zhao, Amanda; Croll, Leah; Irvine, Hannah; Lord, Aaron; Ishida, Koto; Frontera, Jennifer; Lewis, Ariane
In patients who undergo thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke, the relationship between pre-admission antithrombotic (anticoagulation or antiplatelet) use and both radiographic and functional outcome is not well understood. We sought to explore the relationship between pre-admission antithrombotic use in patients who underwent thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke at two medical centers in New York City between December 2018 and November 2020. Analyses were performed using analysis of variance and Pearson's chi-squared tests. Of 234 patients in the analysis cohort, 65 (28%) were on anticoagulation, 64 (27%) were on antiplatelet, and 105 (45%) with no antithrombotic use pre-admission. 3-month Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 3-6 was associated with pre-admission antithrombotic use (71% anticoagulation vs. 77% antiplatelet vs. 56% no antithrombotic, p = 0.04). There was no relationship between pre-admission antithrombotic use and Thrombolysis in Cerebral Iinfarction (TICI) score, post-procedure Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) score, rate of hemorrhagic conversion, length of hospital admission, discharge NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS), discharge mRS score, or mortality. When initial NIHSS score, post-procedure ASPECTS score, and age at admission were included in multivariate analysis, pre-admission antithrombotic use was still significantly associated with a 3-month mRS score of 3-6 (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.03-5.54, p = 0.04). In this cohort of patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent thrombectomy, pre-admission antithrombotic use was associated with 3-month mRS score, but no other measures of radiographic or functional outcome. Further research is needed on the relationship between use of specific anticoagulation or antiplatelet agents and outcome after acute ischemic stroke, but moreover, improve stroke prevention.
PMID: 35864280
ISSN: 1573-742x
CID: 5279342

Trajectories of Neurologic Recovery 12 Months After Hospitalization for COVID-19: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

Frontera, Jennifer A; Yang, Dixon; Medicherla, Chaitanya; Baskharoun, Samuel; Bauman, Kristie; Bell, Lena; Bhagat, Dhristie; Bondi, Steven; Chervinsky, Alexander; Dygert, Levi; Fuchs, Benjamin; Gratch, Daniel; Hasanaj, Lisena; Horng, Jennifer; Huang, Joshua; Jauregui, Ruben; Ji, Yuan; Kahn, D Ethan; Koch, Ethan; Lin, Jessica; Liu, Susan; Olivera, Anlys; Rosenthal, Jonathan; Snyder, Thomas; Stainman, Rebecca; Talmasov, Daniel; Thomas, Betsy; Valdes, Eduard; Zhou, Ting; Zhu, Yingrong; Lewis, Ariane; Lord, Aaron S; Melmed, Kara; Meropol, Sharon B; Thawani, Sujata; Troxel, Andrea B; Yaghi, Shadi; Balcer, Laura J; Wisniewski, Thomas; Galetta, Steven
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Little is known about trajectories of recovery 12-months after hospitalization for severe COVID. METHODS:We conducted a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of patients with and without neurological complications during index hospitalization for COVID-19 from March 10, 2020-May 20, 2020. Phone follow-up batteries were performed at 6- and 12-months post-COVID symptom onset. The primary 12-month outcome was the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) comparing patients with or without neurological complications using multivariable ordinal analysis. Secondary outcomes included: activities of daily living (Barthel Index), telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment (t-MoCA) and Neuro-QoL batteries for anxiety, depression, fatigue and sleep. Changes in outcome scores from 6 to 12-months were compared using non-parametric paired-samples sign test. RESULTS:Twelve-month follow-up was completed in N=242 patients (median age 65, 64% male, 34% intubated during hospitalization) and N=174 completed both 6- and 12-month follow-up. At 12-months 197/227 (87%) had ≥1 abnormal metric: mRS>0 (75%), Barthel<100 (64%), t-MoCA≤18 (50%), high anxiety (7%), depression (4%), fatigue (9%) and poor sleep (10%). 12-month mRS scores did not differ significantly among those with (N=113) or without (N=129) neurological complications during hospitalization after adjusting for age, sex, race, pre-COVID mRS and intubation status (adjusted OR 1.4, 95% CI0.8-2.5), though those with neurological complications had higher fatigue scores (T-score 47 vs 44, P=0.037). Significant improvements in outcome trajectories from 6- to 12-months were observed in t-MoCA scores (56% improved, median difference 1 point, P=0.002), and Neuro-QoL anxiety scores (45% improved, P=0.003). Non-significant improvements occurred in fatigue, sleep and depression scores in 48%, 48% and 38% of patients, respectively. Barthel and mRS scores remained unchanged between 6 and 12-months in >50% of patients. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:At 12-months post-hospitalization for severe COVID, 87% of patients had ongoing abnormalities in functional, cognitive or Neuro-QoL metrics and abnormal cognition persisted in 50% of patients without a prior history of dementia/cognitive abnormality. Only fatigue severity differed significantly between patients with or without neurological complications during index hospitalization. However, significant improvements in cognitive (t-MoCA) and anxiety (Neuro-QoL) scores occurred in 56% and 45% of patients, respectively, between 6- to 12-months. These results may not be generalizable to those with mild/moderate COVID.
PMID: 35314503
ISSN: 1526-632x
CID: 5192402

Social Determinants of Health Attenuate the Relationship Between Race and Ethnicity and White Matter Hyperintensity Severity but not Microbleed Presence in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Bauman, Kristie M; Yaghi, Shadi; Lewis, Ariane; Agarwal, Shashank; Changa, Abhinav; Dogra, Siddhant; Litao, Miguel; Sanger, Matthew; Lord, Aaron; Ishida, Koto; Zhang, Cen; Czeisler, Barry; Torres, Jose; Dehkharghani, Seena; Frontera, Jennifer A; Melmed, Kara R
BACKGROUND:The association between race and ethnicity and microvascular disease in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is unclear. We hypothesized that social determinants of health (SDOHs) mediate the relationship between race and ethnicity and severity of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and microbleeds in patients with ICH. METHODS:We performed a retrospective observational cohort study of patients with ICH at two tertiary care hospitals between 2013 and 2020 who underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were evaluated for the presence of microbleeds and WMH severity (defined by the Fazekas scale; moderate to severe WMH defined as Fazekas scores 3-6). We assessed for associations between sex, race and ethnicity, employment status, median household income, education level, insurance status, and imaging biomarkers of microvascular disease. A mediation analysis was used to investigate the influence of SDOHs on the associations between race and imaging features. We assessed the relationship of all variables with discharge outcomes. RESULTS:We identified 233 patients (mean age 62 [SD 16]; 48% female) with ICH. Of these, 19% were Black non-Hispanic, 32% had a high school education or less, 21% required an interpreter, 11% were unemployed, and 6% were uninsured. Moderate to severe WMH, identified in 114 (50%) patients, was associated with age, Black non-Hispanic race and ethnicity, highest level of education, insurance status, and history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or diabetes (p < 0.05). In the mediation analysis, the proportion of the association between Black non-Hispanic race and ethnicity and the Fazekas score that was mediated by highest level of education was 65%. Microbleeds, present in 130 (57%) patients, was associated with age, highest level of education, and history of diabetes or hypertension (p < 0.05). Age, highest level of education, insurance status, and employment status were associated with discharge modified Rankin Scale scores of 3-6, but race and ethnicity was not. CONCLUSIONS:The association between Black non-Hispanic race and ethnicity and moderate to severe WMH lost significance after we adjusted for highest level of education, suggesting that SDOHs may mediate the association between race and ethnicity and microvascular disease.
PMID: 34918215
ISSN: 1556-0961
CID: 5084672

Psychological Outcome after Hemorrhagic Stroke is Related to Functional Status

Ecker, Sarah; Lord, Aaron; Gurin, Lindsey; Olivera, Anlys; Ishida, Koto; Melmed, Kara; Torres, Jose; Zhang, Cen; Frontera, Jennifer; Lewis, Ariane
BACKGROUND:To identify opportunities to improve morbidity after hemorrhagic stroke, it is imperative to understand factors that are related to psychological outcome. DESIGN/METHODS/METHODS:We prospectively identified patients with non-traumatic hemorrhagic stroke (intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage) between January 2015 and February 2021 who were alive 3-months after discharge and telephonically assessed 1) psychological outcome using the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders anxiety, depression, emotional and behavioral dyscontrol, fatigue and sleep disturbance inventories and 2) functional outcome using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Barthel Index. We also identified discharge destination for all patients. We then evaluated the relationship between abnormal psychological outcomes (T-score >50) and discharge destination other than home, poor 3-month mRS score defined as 3-5 and poor 3-month Barthel Index defined as <100. RESULTS:73 patients were included; 41 (56%) had an abnormal psychological outcome on at least one inventory. There were 41 (56%) patients discharged to a destination other than home, 44 (63%) with poor mRS score and 28 (39%) with poor Barthel Index. Anxiety, depression, emotional and behavioral dyscontrol and sleep disturbance were all associated with a destination other than home, poor mRS score, and poor Barthel Index (all p<0.05). Fatigue was related to poor mRS score and poor Barthel Index (p=0.005 and p=0.006, respectively). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Multiple psychological outcomes 3-months after hemorrhagic stroke are related to functional status. Interventions to improve psychological outcome and reduce morbidity in patients with poor functional status should be explored by the interdisciplinary team.
PMID: 35594604
ISSN: 1532-8511
CID: 5247722