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A community-based volunteer service to reduce COVID-19 vaccination inequities in New York City

Tay, Ee Tein; Fernbach, Madalyn; Chen, Haidee; Ng, Charis; Tapia, Jade; O'Callaghan, Stasha
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:We describe our experiences and challenges as community volunteers in assisting individuals in scheduling initial COVID-19 vaccine appointments and highlight disparities and barriers in vaccine access in New York City (NYC). METHODS:Priority for assistance was given to individuals who were eligible for vaccination in NYC and New York State with the following barriers: technological, language, medical, physical and undocumented immigrants. Volunteers in NYC performed outreach and created program to assist in scheduling appointments. RESULTS:In sum, 2101 requests were received to schedule COVID-19 vaccine appointments from 28 February to 30 April 2021. Vaccinations were successfully scheduled for 1935 (92%) individuals. Challenges in this project included limited community outreach, language barriers, transportation difficulties and safety concerns travelling to vaccination sites. Spanish (40.5%) and Chinese (35.6%) were the primary languages spoken by appointment requesters. Most requests came from residents of Queens (40%) and Brooklyn (27.2%). CONCLUSIONS:The older population, public-facing workers, non-English speakers, undocumented immigrants and the medically complicated population experienced challenges in vaccine appointment access. In-person services and early website access in languages in addition to English may have reduced barriers in appointment navigation. While volunteers faced numerous obstacles when assisting individuals in scheduling vaccine appointments, most found the work fulfilling and rewarding.
PMID: 38070144
ISSN: 1741-3850
CID: 5589782

Interpretation of Cardiac Standstill in Children Using Point-of-Care Ultrasound

Yanni, Evan; Tsung, James W; Hu, Kevin; Tay, Ee Tein
STUDY OBJECTIVE/OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to determine the level of agreement among pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) physicians in whether various point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) video clips represent cardiac standstill in children and to highlight the factors that may be associated with the lack of agreement. METHODS:A single, online, cross-sectional, convenience sample survey was administered to PEM attendings and fellows with variable ultrasound experience. PEM attendings with an experience of 25 cardiac POCUS scans or more were the primary subgroup based on ultrasound proficiency set by the American College of Emergency Physicians. The survey contained 11 unique, 6-second video clips of cardiac POCUS performed during pulseless arrest in pediatric patients and asked the respondent if the video clip represented a cardiac standstill. The level of interobserver agreement was determined using the Krippendorff's α (Kα) coefficient across the subgroups. RESULTS:A total of 263 PEM attendings and fellows completed the survey (9.9% response rate). Of the 263 total responses, 110 responses were from the primary subgroup of experienced PEM attendings with at least 25 previously seen cardiac POCUS scans. Across all video clips, PEM attendings with 25 scans or more had an acceptable agreement (Kα=0.740; 95% CI 0.735 to 0.745). The agreement was the highest for video clips wherein the wall motion corresponded to the valve motion. However, the agreement fell to unacceptable levels (Kα=0.304; 95% CI 0.287 to 0.321) across video clips wherein the wall motion occurred without the valve motion. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:There is an overall acceptable interobserver agreement when interpreting cardiac standstill among PEM attendings with an experience of at least 25 previously reported cardiac POCUS scans. However, factors that may influence the lack of agreement include discordances between the wall and valve motion, suboptimal views, and the lack of a formal reference standard. More specific consensus reference standards of pediatric cardiac standstill may help to improve interobserver agreement moving forward and should include more specific details regarding the wall and valve motion.
PMID: 37269261
ISSN: 1097-6760
CID: 5524572

Predicting Delayed Shock in Multisystem Inflammatory Disease in Children: A Multicenter Analysis From the New York City Tri-State Region

Levine, Deborah A; Uy, Vincent; Krief, William; Bornstein, Cara; Daswani, Dina; Patel, Darshan; Kriegel, Marni; Jamal, Nazreen; Patel, Kavita; Liang, Tian; Arroyo, Alexander; Strother, Christopher; Lim, Czer Anthoney; Langhan, Melissa L; Hassoun, Ameer; Chamdawala, Haamid; Kaplan, Carl Philip; Waseem, Muhammad; Tay, Ee Tein; Mortel, David; Sivitz, Adam B; Kelly, Christopher; Lee, Horton James; Qiu, Yuqing; Gorelick, Mark; Platt, Shari L; Dayan, Peter
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Patients with multisystem inflammatory disease in children (MIS-C) are at risk of developing shock. Our objectives were to determine independent predictors associated with development of delayed shock (≥3 hours from emergency department [ED] arrival) in patients with MIS-C and to derive a model predicting those at low risk for delayed shock. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of 22 pediatric EDs in the New York City tri-state area. We included patients meeting World Health Organization criteria for MIS-C and presented April 1 to June 30, 2020. Our main outcomes were to determine the association between clinical and laboratory factors to the development of delayed shock and to derive a laboratory-based prediction model based on identified independent predictors. RESULTS:Of 248 children with MIS-C, 87 (35%) had shock and 58 (66%) had delayed shock. A C-reactive protein (CRP) level greater than 20 mg/dL (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4-12.1), lymphocyte percent less than 11% (aOR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.7-8.6), and platelet count less than 220,000/uL (aOR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.8-9.8) were independently associated with delayed shock. A prediction model including a CRP level less than 6 mg/dL, lymphocyte percent more than 20%, and platelet count more than 260,000/uL, categorized patients with MIS-C at low risk of developing delayed shock (sensitivity 93% [95% CI, 66-100], specificity 38% [95% CI, 22-55]). CONCLUSIONS:Serum CRP, lymphocyte percent, and platelet count differentiated children at higher and lower risk for developing delayed shock. Use of these data can stratify the risk of progression to shock in patients with MIS-C, providing situational awareness and helping guide their level of care.
PMID: 36811547
ISSN: 1535-1815
CID: 5433902

The Association of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Physicians' Self-Identified Skills in Suicide Risk Assessment and Management With Training in Mental Health

Cervantes, Paige E; Tay, Ee Tein; Knapp, Katrina; Wiener, Ethan; Seag, Dana E M; Richards-Rachlin, Shira; Baroni, Argelinda; Horwitz, Sarah M
OBJECTIVE:Because changes to pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) education may help address barriers to youth suicide risk screening programs, this study aimed to understand the impact of formal training in areas that likely include suicide-related practices, developmental-behavioral pediatrics (DBP) and adolescent medicine (AM), on PEM physician-perceived level of training, attitudes, and confidence assessing and managing youth suicide risk. METHODS:Twenty-seven PEM attendings and trainees completed an online survey and were divided into 2 groups: those who had completed DBP and AM rotations (DBP/AM+; n = 20) and those who had not completed either rotation (DBP/AM-; n = 7). We compared perceived level of training, attitudes, and confidence in assessing and managing suicide risk across groups. We also examined the relationship between perceived level of training and confidence. Finally, we conducted exploratory analyses to evaluate the effect of an additional formal rotation in child psychiatry. RESULTS:The DBP/AM+ and DBP/AM- groups did not differ on perceived level of training or on attitudes and confidence in suicide risk assessment or management. Perceived level of training in assessment and management predicted confidence in both assessing and managing suicide risk. Additional training in child psychiatry was not associated with increased perceived level of training or confidence. CONCLUSIONS:The DBP and AM rotations were not associated with higher perceived levels of suicide risk training or greater confidence; however, perceived level of training predicted physician confidence, suggesting continued efforts to enhance formal PEM education in mental health would be beneficial.
PMID: 37440322
ISSN: 1535-1815
CID: 5537702

A "madd"-ening confounding: fruit seeds mimicking enteral drug concealment by computed tomography

Wiener, Brian G; Burton, Rebecca L; Smith, Silas W; Su, Mark K; Biary, Rana; Tay, Ee Tein
OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:To highlight the similarity between madd fruit seeds and enteral drug concealment ("body packing") on computed tomography when evaluated by Hounsfield Units. CASE REPORT/UNASSIGNED:) seeds, which can cause bezoar formation and intestinal obstruction. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:Madd fruit seeds may appear similar to drug packets on computed tomography with similar Hounsfield Unit characteristics. History and clinical context are paramount to avoid misdiagnosis.
PMID: 37403697
ISSN: 1556-9519
CID: 5539132

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children

Waseem, Muhammad; Shariff, Masood A; Lim, C Anthoney; Nunez, Jeranil; Narayanan, Nisha; Patel, Kavita; Tay, Ee Tein
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is an uncommon but emerging syndrome related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. While the presentation of MIS-C is generally delayed after exposure to the virus that causes coronavirus 2019, both MIS-C and Kawasaki disease (KD) share similar clinical features. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge given the lack of definitive diagnostic tests and a paucity of evidence regarding treatment modalities. We review the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluations, and management of MIS-C and compare its clinical features to those of KD.
PMID: 35980407
ISSN: 1936-9018
CID: 5300112

Pediatric emergency care in New York City during the COVID-19 pandemic shutdown and reopening periods

Liang, Tian; Chamdawala, Haamid S; Tay, Ee Tein; Chao, Jennifer; Waseem, Muhammad; Lee, Horton; Mortel, David; Agoritsas, Konstantinos; Teo, Hugo O; Meltzer, James A
OBJECTIVE:New York City (NYC) is home to the largest public healthcare system in the United States and was an early epicenter of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections. This system serves as the safety net for underserved and marginalized communities disproportionately affected by the pandemic. Prior studies reported substantial declines in pediatric emergency department (ED) volume during the initial pandemic surge, but few describe the ongoing impact of COVID-19 throughout the year. We evaluated the characteristics of pediatric ED visits to NYC public hospitals during the pandemic lockdown and reopening periods of 2020 compared to the prior year. METHODS:Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of pediatric ED visits from 11 NYC public hospitals from January 2019-December 2020. Visit demographics, throughput times, and diagnosis information during the early (3/7/20-6/7/20) and late (6/8/20-12/31/20) pandemic periods coinciding with the New York State of emergency declaration (3/7/20) and the first reopening date (6/7/20) were compared to similar time periods in 2019. Findings were correlated with key pandemic shutdown and reopening events. RESULTS:There was a 47% decrease in ED volume in 2020 compared to 2019 (125,649 versus 238,024 visits). After reopening orders began in June 2020, volumes increased but peaked at <60% of 2019 volumes. Admission rates, triage acuity, and risk of presenting with a serious medical illness were significantly higher in 2020 versus 2019 (P < 0.001). Time-to-provider times decreased however provider-to-disposition times increased during the pandemic (P < 0.001). Infectious and asthma diagnoses declined >70% during the pandemic in contrast to the year prior. After reopening periods began, penetrating traumatic injuries significantly increased compared to 2019 [+34%, Relative Risk: 3.2 (2.6, 3.8)]. CONCLUSIONS:NYC public hospitals experienced a sharp decrease in pediatric volume but an increase in patient acuity during both the initial pandemic surge and through the reopening periods. As COVID-19 variants emerge, the threat of the current pandemic expanding remains. Understanding its influence on pediatric ED utilization can optimize resource allocation and ensure equitable care for future surge events.
PMID: 35397354
ISSN: 1532-8171
CID: 5205032

Point-of-Care Ultrasound on Management of Cellulitis Versus Local Angioedema in the Pediatric Emergency Department

Tay, Ee Tein; Ngai, Ka Ming; Tsung, James W; Sanders, Jennifer E
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To evaluate whether ultrasound can differentiate between cellulitis and angioedema from insect bites in pediatric patients. METHODS:A prospective, pre-post study in an urban pediatric emergency department of patients younger than 21 years with soft tissue swelling from insect bites without abscesses were enrolled. Treating physician's pretest opinions regarding the diagnosis and need for antibiotics were determined. Ultrasound of the affected areas was performed, and effects on management were recorded. Further imaging, medications, and disposition were at the discretion of the enrolling physician. Phone call follow-ups were made within a week of presentation. RESULTS:Among 103 patients enrolled with soft tissue swelling secondary to insect bites, ultrasound changed the management in 27 (26%) patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 18-35%). Of the patients who were indeterminate or believed to require antibiotics, ultrasound changed management in 6 (23%) of 26 patients (95% CI, 6%-40%). In those patients who were believed not to require antibiotics, ultrasound changed management in 12 (16%) 77 patients (95% CI, 7%-24%). Patients with diagnosis of local angioedema achieved symptom resolution 1.4 days sooner than patients diagnosed with cellulitis (mean, -1.389; 95% CI, -2.087 to -0.690; P < 0.001). No patient who was initially diagnosed as local angioedema received antibiotics upon patient follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:Point-of-care ultrasound changed physician management in 1 of 4 patients in the pediatric emergency department with soft tissue swelling secondary to insect bites. Ultrasound may guide the management in these patients and lead to improved antibiotic stewardship in conjunction with history and physical examination.
PMID: 34398861
ISSN: 1535-1815
CID: 5153162

Barriers to Universal Suicide Risk Screening for Youth in the Emergency Department

Seag, Dana E M; Cervantes, Paige E; Baroni, Argelinda; Gerson, Ruth; Knapp, Katrina; Tay, Ee Tein; Wiener, Ethan; Horwitz, Sarah McCue
OBJECTIVE:Given the increasing rates of youth suicide, it is important to understand the barriers to suicide screening in emergency departments. This review describes the current literature, identifies gaps in existing research, and suggests recommendations for future research. METHODS:A search of PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and Web of Science was conducted. Data extraction included study/sample characteristics and barrier information categorized based on the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment model. RESULTS:All studies focused on inner context barriers of implementation and usually examined individuals' attitudes toward screening. No study looked at administrative, policy, or financing issues. CONCLUSIONS:The lack of prospective, systematic studies on barriers and the focus on individual adopter attitudes reveal a significant gap in understanding the challenges to implementation of universal youth suicide risk screening in emergency departments.
PMID: 35100791
ISSN: 1535-1815
CID: 5153392

Interobserver Agreement of Inferior Vena Cava Ultrasound Collapse Duration and Correlated Outcomes in Children With Dehydration

Zhou, Amy Z; Green, Robert S; Haines, Elizabeth J; Vazquez, Michelle N; Tay, Ee T; Tsung, James W
OBJECTIVE:Dehydration is a common concern in children presenting to pediatric emergency departments and other acute care settings. Ultrasound (US) of the inferior vena cava (IVC) may be a fast, noninvasive tool to gauge volume status, but its utility is unclear. Our objectives were to determine the interobserver agreement of IVC collapse and collapse duration, then correlate IVC collapse with the outcome of intravenous (IV) versus oral (PO) rehydration. METHODS:We conducted a prospective study by enrolling patients 0 to 21 years old with emesis requiring ondansetron or diarrhea requiring IV hydration. Clinical operators interpreted US examinations in real time to determine whether the IVC was collapsed. Two blinded reviewers interpreted the US videos to determine IVC collapse and collapse duration. Cohen's kappa(κ) was calculated for reviewer-reviewer and reviewer-operator agreement. Primary outcomes were PO versus IV rehydration, and admitted versus discharged. RESULTS:One hundred twelve patients were enrolled, and 102 had complete data for analysis. The mean age was 7.2 years with 51% female. Twenty-nine patients received IV hydration. The reviewer-operator agreement for IVC collapse was κ = 0.57 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-0.75) and interreviewer agreement was κ = 0.93 (95% CI, 0.83-1.0). The interreviewer agreement for collapse duration was κ = 0.66 (95% CI, 0.51-0.82). All patients with noncollapsed IVCs tolerated PO hydration. The likelihood of receiving IV hydration was correlated with the duration of IVC collapse (P = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS:Based on a novel dynamic measure of IVC collapse duration, children with increasing duration of IVC collapse correlated positively with the need for IV rehydration. Noncollapsing IVCs on US were associated with successful PO rehydration without need for IV fluids or emergency department revisits.
PMID: 32530838
ISSN: 1535-1815
CID: 4478682