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Delusional parasitosis successfully controlled with lurasidone: A case report [Letter]

Meshram, Ashish; Sevy, Serge
PMID: 36282609
ISSN: 1547-3325
CID: 5359102

Markers of apoptosis induction and proliferation in the orbitofrontal cortex in alcohol dependence

Whittom, Angela; Villarreal, Ashley; Soni, Madhav; Owusu-Duku, Beverly; Meshram, Ashish; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Stockmeier, Craig A; Miguel-Hidalgo, Jose J
BACKGROUND:Alcohol-dependent (ALC) subjects exhibit glial and neuronal pathology in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, in many patients, neurophysiological disturbances are not associated with catastrophic cell depletion despite prolonged alcohol abuse. It is still unclear how some relevant markers of a cell's propensity to degenerate or proliferate are changed in the PFC of ALC subjects without major neurological disorders. METHODS:Levels of pro-apoptotic caspase 8 (C8), X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), direct IAP binding protein with low pI (DIABLO), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and density of cells immunoreactive for proliferation marker Ki-67 (Ki-67-IR) were measured postmortem in the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) of 29 subjects with alcohol dependence and 23 nonpsychiatric comparison subjects. RESULTS:Alcohol subjects had significantly higher levels of the 14 kDa C8 fragment (C8-14), an indicator of C8 activation. However, there was no change in the levels of DIABLO, XIAP, or in the DIABLO/XIAP ratio. PCNA protein level and density of Ki-67-IR cells were not significantly changed in alcoholics, although PCNA levels were increased in older ALC subjects as compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS:Significant increase of a C8 activation indicator was found in alcoholism, but without significant changes in XIAP level, DIABLO/XIAP ratio, or Ki-67 labeling. These results would help to explain the absence of catastrophic cell loss in the PFC of many Brigman subjects, while still being consistent with an alcoholism-related vulnerability to slow decline in glial cells and neurons in the OFC of alcoholics.
PMID: 25421516
ISSN: 1530-0277
CID: 3535012

Reduced connexin 43 immunolabeling in the orbitofrontal cortex in alcohol dependence and depression

Miguel-Hidalgo, José Javier; Wilson, Barbara A; Hussain, Syed; Meshram, Ashish; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Stockmeier, Craig A
Reduced density of glial cells and low levels of some astrocyte proteins have been described in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in depression and alcoholism, two disorders often comorbid. These regressive changes may also involve the communication between astrocytes via gap junctions and hemichannels, which play important regulatory roles in neurotransmission. We determined levels and morphological immunostaining parameters of connexin 43 (Cx43), the main protein subunit of astrocyte gap junctions/hemichannels, in the OFC of subjects with depression, alcoholism or comorbid depression/alcoholism as compared to non-psychiatric subjects. Postmortem brain samples from 23 subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD), 16 with alcohol dependence, 13 with comorbid MDD and alcohol dependence, and 20 psychiatrically-normal comparison subjects were processed for western blots to determine Cx43 levels. Area fraction of Cx43 immunoreactivity, and density and average size of immunoreactive puncta were measured in histological sections. There was a significant, larger than 60 percent decrease in Cx43 level in the three psychiatric groups as compared to controls. Area fraction of immunoreactivity and immunoreactive punctum size were reduced in all psychiatric groups, but Cx43-immunoreactive puncta density was reduced only in alcohol-dependent subjects. Among psychiatric subjects, no difference in Cx43 levels or immunostaining was found between suicides and non-suicides. The present data suggest that dysfunction of the OFC is accompanied by reduction in the levels of gap junction protein Cx43 in depression and alcoholism, and reduction in density of Cx43 immunoreactive puncta only in alcoholism, pointing to altered gap junction or hemichannel-based communication in the pathophysiology of those disorders.
PMID: 24774648
ISSN: 1879-1379
CID: 3535002

Apoptosis-related proteins and proliferation markers in the orbitofrontal cortex in major depressive disorder

Miguel-Hidalgo, Jose J; Whittom, Angela; Villarreal, Ashley; Soni, Madhav; Meshram, Ashish; Pickett, Jason C; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Stockmeier, Craig A
BACKGROUND:In major depressive disorder (MDD), lowered neural activity and significant reductions of markers of cell resiliency to degeneration occur in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). It is still unclear whether changes in other relevant markers of cell vulnerability to degeneration and markers of cell proliferation are associated with MDD. METHODS:Levels of caspase 8 (C8), X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), direct IAP binding protein with low pI (DIABLO), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and density of cells immunoreactive (-IR) for proliferation marker Ki-67 were measured in postmortem samples of the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) of subjects with MDD, and psychiatrically-normal comparison subjects. RESULTS:There was significant increase in C8, a higher ratio of DIABLO to XIAP, lower packing density of Ki-67-IR cells, and an unexpected age-dependent increase in PCNA in subjects with MDD vs. controls. PCNA levels were significantly higher in MDD subjects unresponsive to antidepressants or untreated with antidepressants. The DIABLO/XIAP ratio was higher in MDD subjects without antidepressants than in comparison subjects. LIMITATIONS/CONCLUSIONS:Qualitative nature of responsiveness assessments; definition of resistance to antidepressant treatment is still controversial; and unclear role of PCNA. CONCLUSIONS:Markers of cell vulnerability to degeneration are increased and density of Ki67-positive cells is low MDD, but accompanied by normal XIAP levels. The results suggest increased vulnerability to cell pathology in depression that is insufficient to cause morphologically conspicuous cell death. Persistent but low-grade vulnerability to cell degeneration coexisting with reduced proliferation readiness may explain age-dependent reductions in neuronal densities in the OFC of depressed subjects.
PMID: 24655767
ISSN: 1573-2517
CID: 3534992

Biochemical and Immunohistochemical Evidence of Reduced Gap Junction-Forming Connexin 43 in the Orbitofrontal Cortex in Alcohol Dependence and Depression [Meeting Abstract]

Miguel-Hidalgo, Jose J.; Wilson, Barbara A.; Meshram, Ashish; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Hussain, Syed; Stockmeier, Craig A.
ISSN: 0006-3223
CID: 3535022