Plastic exposure and urological malignancies - an emerging field
Future strategies to enhance kidney preservation in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma
Though radical nephroureterectomy remains the gold standard treatment for high grade or invasive disease in upper tract urothelial cancer (UTUC), kidney-sparing surgery has become preferred for low risk disease, in order to minimize morbidity and preserve renal function. Many methods exist for endoscopic management, whether via an antegrade percutaneous or retrograde ureteroscopic approach, including electroresection, laser ablation, and fulguration. There has been an increase in use of adjuvant intracavitary therapy, predominantly using mitomycin and bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), to reduce recurrence after primary endoscopic management for noninvasive tumors, although efficacy remains questionable. Intraluminal BCG has additionally been used for primary treatment of CIS in the upper tract, with around 50% success. Newer investigations include use of narrow band imaging or photodynamic diagnosis with ureteroscopy to improve visualization during diagnosis and treatment. Genomic characterization may improve selection for kidney-sparing surgery as well as identify actionable mutations for systemic therapy. The evolution in adjuvant management has seen strategies to increase the dwell time and the urothelial contact of intraluminal agents. Lastly, chemoablation using a hydrogel for sustained effect of mitomycin is under investigation with promising early results. Continued expansion of the armamentarium available and better identification and characterization of tumors ideal for organ-sparing treatment will further improve kidney preservation in UTUC.
The Feasibility of a Health Care Application in the Treatment of Patients Undergoing Radical Cystectomy
PURPOSE:Patients who undergo radical cystectomy of bladder cancer are at high risk for complications and hospital readmissions. Studies indicate insufficient preoperative education and perioperative monitoring. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a health care application to provide more patient education and more thorough monitoring perioperatively. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Participants with home Wi-Fi access who were undergoing radical cystectomy were recruited for this pilot trial. Each subject was provided a tablet preloaded with the m.Care (LifeScience Technologies, Leawood, Kansas) health care application, an accelerometer and vital sign equipment. Participants were asked to watch educational videos, use the provided accelerometer and perform vital sign monitoring. RESULTS:In 1 year 20 participants enrolled in the study and 15 completed it. The most frequently viewed videos were "Ileal Conduit versus Neobladder" and "Comprehensive Care Pathway." All participants used the accelerometer and 60% kept up with syncing the data regularly. The average step count preoperatively was 5,679 reflecting a sedentary population. Step counts decreased during the inpatient stay (1,351 steps) and trended toward baseline during the postoperative period (3,156 steps). Vital signs were recorded on 85% of assigned days and generated 33 triggers for intervention. While most triggers led to repeat assessment, education and encouragement, 4 participants underwent outpatient treatment, including cultures, intravenous fluids, antibiotics or dronabinol prescription, without the need for hospital readmission. CONCLUSIONS:Providing more education and monitoring perioperatively is feasible using a health care application. Testing is warranted to determine the extent to which implementation will improve patient triaging and reduce readmissions.
Contemporary Evaluation and Treatment of Poststroke Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction
Stroke is an extremely common clinical entity, and poststroke incontinence is a major cause of morbidity for stroke survivors. Although patients can experience a wide variety of lower urinary tract symptoms, detrusor overactivity is among the most common clinical findings following stroke. All forms of lower urinary tract symptoms can negatively impact physical and psychosocial function for affected patients and their caregivers and loved ones. Careful evaluation is critical for successful management. Treatment is tailored to the goals and needs of each individual patient. Improvements in continence status can help to enhance overall and health-related quality of life.
Genitourinary trauma in geriatric patients
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:The geriatric population is the fastest growing segment of the population, and geriatric trauma patients are increasingly common. Caring for this population has unique challenges. The goal of the review is to identify factors that may help in the care of geriatric patients suffering from genitourinary trauma. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:Multiple factors lead to inferior outcomes in patients with geriatric trauma including failure to rescue, treatment in lower volume trauma centers, and undertriage of geriatric patients. Improvement in geriatric trauma outcomes occurs with the use of dedicated geriatric consult teams. The surgical management of genitourinary injuries in the geriatric population remains unchanged. SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS:Interventions for geriatric patients differ from younger populations. Direct changes in overall management of the geriatric population lead to improved outcomes. The treatment of geriatric trauma patients with genitourinary injuries is similar to a younger cohort. The lack of recent studies in clinical outcomes in this population has been identified as a gap in knowledge that will require future research to answer.
Association between Serum IGF-I levels and Postoperative Delirium in Elderly Subjects Undergoing Elective Knee Arthroplasty
Evidence is mixed for an association between serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels and postoperative delirium (POD). The current study assessed preoperative serum IGF-I levels as a predictor of incident delirium in non-demented elderly elective knee arthroplasty patients. Preoperative serum levels of total IGF-I were measured using a commercially available Human IGF-I ELISA kit. POD incidence and severity were determined using DSM-IV criteria and the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R98), respectively. Median IGF-I levels in delirious (62.6â€‰ng/ml) and non-delirious groups (65.9â€‰ng/ml) were not significantly different (pâ€‰=â€‰0.141). The ratio (95% CI) of geometric means, D/ND, was 0.86 (0.70, 1.06). The Hodges-Lehmann median difference estimate was 7.23â€‰ng/mL with 95% confidence interval (-2.32, 19.9). In multivariate logistic regression analysis IGF-I level was not a significant predictor of incident POD after correcting for medical comorbidities. IGF-I levels did not correlate with DRS-R98 scores for delirium severity. In conclusion, we report no evidence of association between serum IGF-I levels and incidence of POD, although the sample size was inadequate for a conclusive study. Further efforts to investigate IGF-I as a delirium risk factor in elderly should address comorbidities and confounders that influence IGF-I levels.
High-resolution phased-array MRI of the human brain at 7 tesla: initial experience in multiple sclerosis patients
Recent advancement for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) involves the incorporation of higher-field strengths. Although imagers with higher magnetic field strengths were developed and tested in research labs, the direct application to patient MR studies have been extremely limited. Imaging at 7 Tesla (7T) affords advantages in signal-to-noise ratio and image contrast and resolution; however, these benefits can only be realized if the correct coils exist to capture the images. The objective of this study was to develop optimized high-resolution 7T MRI techniques using high sensitivity, specialized phased-array coils, for improved gray matter (GM) and white matter differentiation, in an effort to improve visualization of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in vivo. Twenty-three subjects were enrolled in this preliminary study, 17 with clinically definite MS (11 females, 6 males; mean age 43.4 years; range 22-64 years) and 6 healthy controls (2 females, 4 males; mean age 39.0 years; range 27-67 years). MR imaging of MS patients at 7T was demonstrated to be safe, well tolerated, and provided high-resolution anatomical images allowing visualization of structural abnormalities localized near or within the cortical layers. Clear involvement of the GM was observed with improved morphological detail in comparison to imaging at lower-field strength.
Quantitative in vivo magnetic resonance imaging of multiple sclerosis at 7 Tesla with sensitivity to iron
OBJECTIVE:Magnetic resonance imaging at 7 Tesla produces high-resolution gradient-echo phase images of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) that quantify the local field shifts from iron in the basal ganglia and lesions. Phase imaging is easily integrated into clinical examinations because it is a postprocessing technique and does not require additional scanning. The purpose of this study was to quantify local field shifts in MS and to investigate their relation to disease duration and disability status. METHODS:Thirty-two subjects including 19 patients with MS and 13 age- and sex-matched control subjects were scanned at a spatial resolution of up to 195 x 260 microm. Data were postprocessed to produce anatomical quantitative phase images of local field shifts, as well as conventional magnitude images. RESULTS:The phase images showed an increased local field in the caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus of patients relative to control subjects (p < 0.01). The local field in the caudate was strongly correlated with disease duration (r(2) = 0.77; p < 0.001). Phase images showed contrast in 74% of the 403 lesions, increasing the total lesion count by more than 30% and showing distinct peripheral rings and a close association with vasculature. INTERPRETATION/CONCLUSIONS:The increased field in the basal ganglia and correlation with disease duration suggest pathological iron content increases in MS. The peripheral phase rings are consistent with histological data demonstrating iron-rich macrophages at the periphery of a subset of lesions. The clearly defined vessels penetrating MS lesions should increase our ability to detect focal vascular abnormalities specifically related to demyelinating processes.
Development of a robust method for generating 7.0 T multichannel phase images of the brain with application to normal volunteers and patients with neurological diseases
The increased susceptibility effects and high signal-to-noise ratio at 7.0 T enable imaging of the brain using the phase of the magnetic resonance signal. This study describes and evaluates a robust method for calculating phase images from gradient-recalled echo (GRE) scans. The GRE scans were acquired at 7.0 T using an eight-channel receive coil at spatial resolutions up to 0.195 x 0.260 x 2.00 mm. The entire 7.0 T protocol took less than 10 min. Data were acquired from forty-seven subjects including clinical patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) or brain tumors. The phase images were post-processed using a fully automated phase unwrapping algorithm that combined the data from the different channels. The technique was used to create the first phase images of MS patients at any field strength and the first phase images of brain tumor patients above 1.5 T. The clinical images showed novel contrast in MS plaques and depicted microhemorrhages and abnormal vasculature in brain tumors with unsurpassed resolution and contrast.