Sleep, Classroom Behavior, and Achievement Among Children of Color in Historically Disinvested Neighborhoods
Children of color are more likely to have poor sleep health than White children, placing them at risk for behavioral problems in the classroom and lower academic performance. Few studies, however, have utilized standardized measures of both classroom behavior and achievement. This study examined whether children's sleep (parent and teacher report) in first grade concurrently related to independent observations of classroom behavior and longitudinally predicted achievement test scores in second grade in a sample of primarily Black (86%) children (nÃ‚ =Ã‚ 572; ageÃ‚ =Ã‚ 6.8) living in historically disinvested neighborhoods. Higher teacher-reported child sleepiness was associated with lower adaptive behaviors and higher problem behaviors in the classroom, and predicted lower achievement. Parent-reported bedtime resistance and disordered breathing also predicted lower achievement.
Behavioral Economics and Parent Participation in an Evidence-Based Parenting Program at Scale
Early Emotion Knowledge and Later Academic Achievement Among Children of Color in Historically Disinvested Neighborhoods
This study examined longitudinal relations between emotion knowledge (EK) in pre-kindergarten (pre-K; Mage Â =Â 4.8Â years) and math and reading achievement 1 and 3Â years later in a sample of 1,050 primarily Black children (over half from immigrant families) living in historically disinvested neighborhoods. Participants were part of a follow-up study of a cluster randomized controlled trial. Controlling for pre-academic skills, other social-emotional skills, sociodemographic characteristics, and school intervention status, higher EK at the end of pre-K predicted higher math and reading achievement test scores in kindergarten and second grade. Moderation analyses suggest that relations were attenuated among children from immigrant families. Findings suggest the importance of enriching pre-K programs for children of color with EK-promotive interventions and strategies.
The association of peer behavioral regulation with motor-cognitive readiness skills in preschool
An increasing number of young children nationally participate in preschool education, yet very little is known about the influence of peers' behavioral regulation, such as maintaining focus on a task in the face of distractions and inhibiting a dominant response (attentionimpulse control), and remembering instructions (engagement) on children's motor-cognitive readiness skills (i.e., peer effects). This study determined whether peer effects are present in this earliest sector of schooling. Research has shown that a child's own behavioral regulation is associated with his or her academic outcomes. However, not much is known about how children are affected by classmates with poor behavioural regulation. This study begins to fill the gaps in our understanding of preschool peer effects in the form of peers' behavioral regulation relative to children's motor-cognitive readiness skills. It addresses two research questions: (1) Is the average level and amount of variation of peers' behavioral regulation skills (i.e., engagement and attentionimpulse control) in a classroom associated with growth in children's motor-cognitive readiness outcomes in preschool (motor, content knowledge, and language)? (2) Do these associations differ for children with high and low initial levels of behavioral regulation? The analytic sample is drawn from a cluster (school) randomized controlled trial testing a family-centered, school-based intervention (N=1050 children in 99 classrooms drawn from 10 high-poverty schools). Results indicated that classroom-level peer engagement skills made a unique contribution to children's growth of motor skills during the preschool academic year. Furthermore, children with higher engagement skills at the beginning of the preschool year had higher motor-cognitive readiness skills (motor, content knowledge, and language) at the end of the year when they were in classrooms with peers with high engagement skills. This study extends previous work with older children and indicates that after adjusting for an assortment of demographic, preschool program-related factors, and motor-cognitive readiness at entry into preschool, peers' engagement skills may make a unique contribution to children's motor-cognitive readiness skills during the preschool academic year.
OUT LIKE A LIGHT: PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF PARENT-CHILD DYAD USE OF AN AUDIO-BASED MOBILE APPLICATION AIDING BEDTIME ROUTINE AND SLEEP HEALTH [Meeting Abstract]
NIGHTCAP FOR SCHOOL-NIGHTS: ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MILK INTAKE AND SLEEP DURATION IN FIRST-GRADERS [Meeting Abstract]
With Awareness Comes Competency: The Five Awarenesses of Teaching as a Framework for Understanding Teacher Social-Emotional Competency and Well-being
The Role of Emotion Understanding in the Development of Aggression and Callous-Unemotional Features across Early Childhood
Although prior research suggests that children show rapid change in socioemotional functioning and aggression throughout early childhood, little is known about how these factors may be associated with the development of callous-unemotional (CU) features. This study investigated the parallel development of, and reciprocal relationships between, emotion understanding (EU) and aggression across early childhood, as well as how they play a role in the development of CU features. Parallel latent growth curve modeling was used to examine longitudinal reciprocal relationships between EU and aggression in a sample of 498 primarily Black (i.e., African-American or Afro-Caribbean) preschoolers (49.5% male, 89.2% Black, Mageâ€‰=â€‰4.1), followed with six waves over a 45-month period from pre-kindergarten through grade 2. CU features were included as a baseline covariate, as well as an outcome, of EU and aggression growth factors. Children with lower levels of EU at age 4 displayed higher linear increases in aggression over time. EU at age 4 had a significant indirect effect on CU features at age 8 via its association with linear increases in aggression. Findings suggest that EU is influential in the early development of aggression, which may in turn influence the development or exacerbation of CU features. Children's EU in early childhood, especially concerning others' distress, may be an important component of preventive intervention efforts for young children at risk for serious antisocial behavior.
Teacher perception of child fatigue and behavioral health outcomes among black first graders in high-poverty schools [Meeting Abstract]
Introduction: Child fatigue has been associated with behavioral outcomes, including aggression, hyperactivity, and conduct problems, which may affect academic performance. We explored whether fatigue was associated with external behavioral health outcomes in a predominantly Black (Afro-Caribbean and African-American) student population (90%). Ratings of parent and teacher agreement of child fatigue was evaluated. This analysis was part of a larger research program, which included a cluster randomized controlled trial in ten public elementary schools in historically disinvested neighborhoods.
Method(s): A total of 804 first-graders (7+/- 0.6 years old) participated in the study focused on child self-regulation, mental health achievement, parenting and parent involvement. Externalizing behaviors (i.e., conduct problems, aggression, and hyperactivity) were reported by teachers using the Behavior System for Children (BASC-2). A composite score of teacher-perceived child fatigue was created based on ratings of child fatigue, morning alertness, and falling asleep in class. Parent perception of child fatigue was assessed using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Regression analysis was conducted to determine the association between teacher's reports of child fatigue and externalizing behavior problems. Cohen's kappa coefficient assessed parent and teacher agreement of child fatigue based on categorical classification of presence of child fatigue.
Result(s): Children who were perceived as fatigued (i.e., tiredness and falling asleep in class) by their teacher were more likely to have a high BASC externalizing composite score (T=60 cut off) (beta = -0.24, p<.001). Cohen's kappa of 0.004 (p<0.05) showed a slight discordance in perception of child fatigue comparing reports from teachers and parents, although results were not significant.
Conclusion(s): Teacher perception of child fatigue was significantly associated with teacher BASC T-score of child externalizing behavior outcomes. Future studies should explore longitudinal relationships between fatigue and mental health
Predicting early emotion knowledge development among children of colour living in historically disinvested neighbourhoods: consideration of child pre-academic abilities, self-regulation, peer relations and parental education
Emotion knowledge, the ability to accurately perceive and label emotions, predicts higher quality peer relations, higher social competence, higher academic achievement, and fewer behaviour problems. Less is known, however, about predictors of early development of emotion knowledge. This study examines emotion knowledge development among children attending pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten programmes in high-poverty urban schools. The study considers child pre-academic abilities, self-regulation, peer relations and parental education as predictors of emotion knowledge development over two years. The sample (nâ€‰=â€‰1034) of children living in historically disinvested neighbourhoods was primarily Black (85%) and low-income (âˆ¼61%). The sample was part of a longitudinal follow-up study of a cluster (school) randomised controlled trial in ten public elementary schools. Children's emotion knowledge was assessed with a series of tasks three times over a two-year period. At baseline, parents and teachers reported on peer relations, children completed a test of pre-academic abilities, independent observers rated child self-regulation, and parents reported on their educational attainment. Results demonstrate that emotion knowledge increases over time, and pre-academic abilities, self-regulation, peer relations, and parent education independently predict children's emotion knowledge. This study highlights multiple factors that predict emotion knowledge among primarily Black children living in historically disinvested neighbourhoods.