Rapid Resolution of Prolonged Benzodiazepine-Refractory Catatonia With Electroconvulsive Therapy in an Adolescent Patient: A Case Report
Luccarelli, James; Fernandez-Robles, Carlos; Wininger, Bryce; Becker, Jessica E; Hazen, Eric P; Henry, Michael E
Cost-Effectiveness of Routine Screening for Autoimmune Encephalitis in Patients With First-Episode Psychosis in the United States
Ross, Eric L; Becker, Jessica E; Linnoila, Jenny J; Soeteman, DjÃ¸ra I
OBJECTIVE:Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is a highly treatable neurologic condition that can cause psychosis. Screening for AE is not currently recommended in routine workup for first-episode psychosis (FEP), owing partly to the high cost of testing for AE-associated neuronal autoantibodies. METHODS:This study used a decision-analytic model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of routine serum screening for AE compared with clinically targeted screening in patients with FEP. Model parameters drawn from prior published literature included the prevalence of neuronal autoantibodies in FEP (4.5%), serum autoantibody panel cost (US $291), remission probability with antipsychotics (0.58), and remission probability with immunotherapy for patients diagnosed with AE (0.85). Outcomes included quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), assessed over a 5-year horizon from the US health care sector and societal perspectives. ICER thresholds of $50,000/QALY to $150,000/QALY were used to define cost-effectiveness. The analysis was conducted between June 2018 and January 2020. RESULTS:Routine screening led to mean QALY gains of 0.008 among all patients and 0.174 among the subgroup of patients with neuronal autoantibodies. Mean costs increased by $780 from a societal perspective and $1,150 from a health care sector perspective, resulting in ICERs of $99,330/QALY and $147,460/QALY, respectively. Incorporating joint input data uncertainty, the likelihood routine screening has an ICER â‰¤ $150,000/QALY was 55% from a societal perspective and 37% from a health care sector perspective. The model parameter with the greatest contribution to overall uncertainty was the effectiveness of immunotherapy relative to antipsychotics. CONCLUSIONS:Routine screening for AE in patients with FEP may be cost-effective in the United States. As further immunotherapy effectiveness data become available, a more definitive recommendation to perform routine screening could be warranted.
Pediatric Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry: An Update and Review
Becker, Jessica E; Smith, Joshua R; Hazen, Eric P
Background:In recent years, there has been an increasing burden of child and adolescent mental illness recognized in the United States, and the need for pediatric mental health care is growing. Pediatric consultation-liaison (C-L) psychiatrists are increasingly playing a role in the management of medical and psychiatric disease for pediatric patients. The field is a fast-moving one, with understanding of new neuropsychiatric disease entities; reformulation of prior disease entities; and new interdisciplinary treatments and models of care. Methods:In this study, we aim to review recent advances in the field of pediatric C-L psychiatry, including new diagnostic entities, updated management of frequently encountered clinical presentations, and developments in systems of care. Conclusion:The advances in pediatric C-L psychiatry are broad and serve to promote more streamlined, evidence-based care for the vulnerable population of psychiatrically ill pediatric medical patients. More work remains to determine the most effective interventions for the wide array of presentations seen by pediatric C-L psychiatrists.
The Use of Telepsychiatry in Caring for Youth and Families: Overcoming the Shortages in Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists
Chapter by: Sossong, Anthony D; Zhrebker, Liora; Becker, Jessica E; Chaudhary, Neha P; Rubin, David H
in: Child and adolescent psychiatry and the media by Beresin, Eugene V; Olson, Cheryl K (Ed)
St. Louis : Elsevier, 
Registration, results reporting, and publication bias of clinical trials supporting FDA approval of neuropsychiatric drugs before and after FDAAA: a retrospective cohort study
Zou, Constance X; Becker, Jessica E; Phillips, Adam T; Garritano, James M; Krumholz, Harlan M; Miller, Jennifer E; Ross, Joseph S
BACKGROUND:Mandatory trial registration, and later results reporting, were proposed to mitigate selective clinical trial publication and outcome reporting. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments Act (FDAAA) was enacted by Congress on September 27, 2007, requiring the registration of all non-phase I clinical trials involving FDA-regulated medical interventions and results reporting for approved drugs. The association between FDAAA enactment and the registration, results reporting, and publication bias of neuropsychiatric trials has not been studied. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all efficacy trials supporting FDA new drug approvals between 2005 to 2014 for neuropsychiatric indications. Trials were categorized as pre- or post-FDAAA based on initiation and/or completion dates. The main outcomes were the proportions of trials registered and reporting results in ClinicalTrials.gov, and the degree of publication bias, estimated using the relative risks pre- and post-FDAAA of both the publication of positive vs non-positive trials, as well as of publication of positive vs non-positive trials without misleading interpretations. Registration and results reporting proportions were compared pre- and post-FDAAA using the two-tailed Fisher exact test, and the degrees of publication bias were compared by calculating the ratio of relative risks (RRR) for each period. RESULTS:The FDA approved 37 new drugs for neuropsychiatric indications between 2005 and 2014 on the basis of 142 efficacy trials, of which 101 were pre-FDAAA and 41 post-FDAAA. Post-FDAAA trials were significantly more likely to be registered (100% vs 64%; pÂ <â€‰0.001) and report results (100% vs 10%; pÂ <â€‰0.001) than pre-FDAAA trials. Pre-FDAAA, positive trials were more likely to be published (relative risk [RR]â€‰=â€‰1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]â€‰=â€‰1.17-1.99; pâ€‰=â€‰0.002) and published without misleading interpretations (RRâ€‰=â€‰2.47; CIâ€‰=â€‰1.57-3.73; pâ€‰<â€‰0.001) than those with non-positive results. In contrast, post-FDAAA positive trials were equally likely to have been published (RRâ€‰=â€‰1; CIâ€‰=â€‰1-1, pâ€‰=â€‰NA) and published without misleading interpretations (RRâ€‰=â€‰1.20; CIâ€‰=â€‰0.84-1.72; pâ€‰=â€‰0.30). The likelihood of publication bias pre-FDAAA vs post-FDAAA was greater for positive vs non-positive trials (RRRâ€‰=â€‰1.52; CIâ€‰=â€‰1.16-1.99; pâ€‰=â€‰0.002) and for publication without misleading interpretations (RRRâ€‰=â€‰2.06, CIâ€‰=â€‰1.17-3.61, pâ€‰=â€‰0.01). CONCLUSIONS:The enactment of FDAAA was followed by significantly higher proportions of trials that were registered and reporting results on ClinicalTrials.gov and significantly lower degrees of publication bias among trials supporting recent FDA approval of drugs for neuropsychiatric indications.
Patterns and predictors of off-label prescription of psychiatric drugs
Vijay, Aishwarya; Becker, Jessica E; Ross, Joseph S
Off-label prescribing of psychiatric drugs is common, despite lacking strong scientific evidence of efficacy and potentially increasing risk for adverse events. The goal of this study was to characterize prevalence of off-label prescriptions of psychiatric drugs and examine patient and clinician predictors of off-label use. This manuscript presents a retrospective, cross-sectional study using data from the 2012 and 2013 National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys (NAMCS). The study examined all adult outpatient visits to psychiatric practices for chronic care management with a single listed visit diagnosis in which at least one psychiatric drug was prescribed. The main outcome measure was off-label prescribing of at least one psychiatric drug, defined as prescription for a condition for which it has not been approved for use by the FDA. Among our sample representative of 1.85 billion outpatient visits, 18.5 million (1.3%) visits were to psychiatrists for chronic care management in which at least one psychiatric drug was prescribed. Overall, the rate of off-label use was 12.9% (95% CI: 12.2-15.7). The most common off-label uses were for manic-depressive psychosis treated with citalopram and primary insomnia treated with trazodone. Several patient and clinician characteristics were positively associated with off-label prescribing, including seeing a psychiatrist (OR: 1.06, 95% CI, 1.01-1.12; p = 0.03) instead of another type of clinician, the office visit taking place in the Western region of the country (OR: 1.09, 95% CI, 1.01-1.17; p = 0.02), and the patient having 3 or more chronic conditions (OR: 1.12, 95% CI, 1.02-1.14; p = 0.003). In contrast, having Medicare coverage (OR: 0.93, 95% CI, 0.84-0.97; p = 0.04) and receiving payment assistance from a medical charity (OR: 0.91, 95% CI, 0.88-0.96; p = 0.03) instead of private insurance were negatively associated with off-label prescribing. These results suggest that certain classes of psychiatric medications are being commonly prescribed to treat conditions for which they have not been determined by the FDA to be clinically efficacious and/or safe.
The lifetime medical cost savings from preventing HIV in the United States
Schackman, Bruce R; Fleishman, John A; Su, Amanda E; Berkowitz, Bethany K; Moore, Richard D; Walensky, Rochelle P; Becker, Jessica E; Voss, Cindy; Paltiel, A David; Weinstein, Milton C; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Gebo, Kelly A; Losina, Elena
OBJECTIVE:Enhanced HIV prevention interventions, such as preexposure prophylaxis for high-risk individuals, require substantial investments. We sought to estimate the medical cost saved by averting 1 HIV infection in the United States. METHODS:We estimated lifetime medical costs in persons with and without HIV to determine the cost saved by preventing 1 HIV infection. We used a computer simulation model of HIV disease and treatment (CEPAC) to project CD4 cell count, antiretroviral treatment status, and mortality after HIV infection. Annual medical cost estimates for HIV-infected persons, adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and transmission risk group, were from the HIV Research Network (range, $1854-$4545/mo) and for HIV-uninfected persons were from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (range, $73-$628/mo). Results are reported as lifetime medical costs from the US health system perspective discounted at 3% (2012 USD). RESULTS:The estimated discounted lifetime cost for persons who become HIV infected at age 35 is $326,500 (60% for antiretroviral medications, 15% for other medications, 25% nondrug costs). For individuals who remain uninfected but at high risk for infection, the discounted lifetime cost estimate is $96,700. The medical cost saved by avoiding 1 HIV infection is $229,800. The cost saved would reach $338,400 if all HIV-infected individuals presented early and remained in care. Cost savings are higher taking into account secondary infections avoided and lower if HIV infections are temporarily delayed rather than permanently avoided. CONCLUSIONS:The economic value of HIV prevention in the United States is substantial given the high cost of HIV disease treatment.
Reporting discrepancies between the clinicaltrials.gov results database and peer-reviewed publications [Comment]
Becker, Jessica E; Ross, Joseph S
Reporting of results in ClinicalTrials.gov and high-impact journals
Becker, Jessica E; Krumholz, Harlan M; Ben-Josef, Gal; Ross, Joseph S
Development, calibration and performance of an HIV transmission model incorporating natural history and behavioral patterns: application in South Africa
McCormick, Alethea W; Abuelezam, Nadia N; Rhode, Erin R; Hou, Taige; Walensky, Rochelle P; Pei, Pamela P; Becker, Jessica E; DiLorenzo, Madeline A; Losina, Elena; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Lipsitch, Marc; Seage, George R
Understanding HIV transmission dynamics is critical to estimating the potential population-wide impact of HIV prevention and treatment interventions. We developed an individual-based simulation model of the heterosexual HIV epidemic in South Africa and linked it to the previously published Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC) International Model, which simulates the natural history and treatment of HIV. In this new model, the CEPAC Dynamic Model (CDM), the probability of HIV transmission per sexual encounter between short-term, long-term and commercial sex worker partners depends upon the HIV RNA and disease stage of the infected partner, condom use, and the circumcision status of the uninfected male partner. We included behavioral, demographic and biological values in the CDM and calibrated to HIV prevalence in South Africa pre-antiretroviral therapy. Using a multi-step fitting procedure based on Bayesian melding methodology, we performed 264,225 simulations of the HIV epidemic in South Africa and identified 3,750 parameter sets that created an epidemic and had behavioral characteristics representative of a South African population pre-ART. Of these parameter sets, 564 contributed 90% of the likelihood weight to the fit, and closely reproduced the UNAIDS HIV prevalence curve in South Africa from 1990-2002. The calibration was sensitive to changes in the rate of formation of short-duration partnerships and to the partnership acquisition rate among high-risk individuals, both of which impacted concurrency. Runs that closely fit to historical HIV prevalence reflect diverse ranges for individual parameter values and predict a wide range of possible steady-state prevalence in the absence of interventions, illustrating the value of the calibration procedure and utility of the model for evaluating interventions. This model, which includes detailed behavioral patterns and HIV natural history, closely fits HIV prevalence estimates.