Pedicled nasoseptal flap reconstruction for craniopharyngiomas in pediatric patients
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Though the use of the pedicled nasoseptal flap (NSF), a reconstructive technique used after endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEA) for resection of craniopharyngiomas, has been shown to reduce the occurrence of post-operative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks in adults, less is known about its use in pediatric populations, specifically in children under the age of 7. The goal of this retrospective cohort study is to determine the viability of the pedicled NSF for pediatric patients. METHODS:Retrospective review of 12 pediatric patients (ages 2-16) undergoing 13 NSF reconstructions after resection of craniopharyngiomas. Radioanatomic analysis of computed tomography (CT) scans was utilized to classify the pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus depending on the thickness of the sphenoid bone margin. Intercarotid distances were measured from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to assess the feasibility of this reconstruction technique in pediatric patients. RESULTS:At the time of surgery, all patients were noted to have adequate NSF length and width. No post-operative high-flow CSF leaks were found within the group. Lack of pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus and narrow intercarotid distances in the youngest of patients did not lead to negative clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:Based on our results and experience, the pedicled nasoseptal flap is a viable reconstructive option after EEA in the pediatric population, including even the youngest of patients. In these patients, a narrowed window between the intercarotid arteries and the lack of pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus present a challenge that can be overcome by using stereotactic navigation and advanced endoscopic techniques.
Outcomes following endoscopic endonasal resection of sellar and supresellar lesions in pediatric patients
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) is a credible surgical alternative for the resection of sellar and suprasellar lesions such as pituitary adenomas, craniopharyngiomas, and Rathke cleft cysts. However, its application to pediatric patients poses several unique challenges that have not yet been well evaluated. The authors evaluate the safety, efficacy, and outcomes associated with the use of the EEA for treatment of these pathologic entities in pediatric patients. METHODS:Retrospective review of 30 patients between the ages of two and 24 who underwent endoscopic endonasal resection of sellar or suprasellar lesions between January 2010 and December 2015. Endocrinological and ophthalmological outcomes, as well as extent of resection and complications were all evaluated. RESULTS:Gross total resection was achieved in eight of the nine pituitary adenomas, nine of the 12 craniopharyngiomas, and six of the nine Rathke cleft cysts. Of the 30 patients, 22 remained disease free at last follow-up. A total of six patients developed hypopituitarism and five developed diabetes insipidus. Eleven patients experienced improved vision, sixteen experienced no change, and one patient experienced visual worsening. Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak was seen in a single case and later resolved, vasospasm/stroke was experienced by 10%Â of patients, and new obesity was recorded in 10% of patients. There were no perioperative deaths. CONCLUSIONS:Endoscopic endonasal resection is a safe and effective surgical alternative for the management of sellar and suprasellar pathologies in pediatric populations with excellent outcomes, minimal complications, and a low risk of morbidity.
Hydrocephalus associated with childhood nonaccidental head trauma
OBJECTIVE The incidence of posttraumatic ventriculomegaly (PTV) and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus after nonaccidental head trauma (NAHT) is unknown. In the present study, the authors assessed the timing of PTV development, the relationship between PTV and decompressive craniectomy (DC), and whether PTV necessitated placement of a permanent shunt. Also, NAHT/PTV cases were categorized into a temporal profile of delay in admission and evaluated for association with outcomes at discharge. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the cases of patients diagnosed with NAHT throughout a 10-year period. Cases in which sequential CT scans had been obtained (n = 28) were evaluated for Evans' index to determine the earliest time ventricular dilation was observed. Discharge outcomes were assessed using the King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury score. RESULTS Thirty-nine percent (11 of 28) of the patients developed PTV. A low admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score predicted early PTV presentation (within < 3 days) versus a high GCS score (> 1 week). A majority of PTV/NAHT patients presented with a subdural hematoma (both convexity and interhemispheric) and ischemic stroke, but subarachnoid hemorrhage was significantly associated with PTV/NAHT (p = 0.011). Of 6 patients undergoing a DC for intractable intracranial pressure, 4 (67%) developed PTV (p = 0.0366). These patients tended to present with lower GCS scores and develop ventriculomegaly early. Only 2 patients developed hydrocephalus requiring shunt placement. CONCLUSIONS PTV presents early after NAHT, particularly after a DC has been performed. However, the authors found that only a few PTV/NAHT patients developed shunt-dependent hydrocephalus.
Delay in Arrival to Care in Perpetrator - Identified Non-Accidental Head Trauma: Observations and Outcomes
BACKGROUND: Children who sustained non-accidental head trauma (NAHT) are at severe risk for mortality within the first 24 hours after presentation. OBJECTIVE: Extent of delay in seeking medical attention may be related to patient outcome. METHODS: A ten year, single-institution, retrospective review of 48 cases treated at a large tertiary Children's Hospital reported to the New York State Central Registrar by the child protection team was conducted. The perpetrator was identified in 28 cases based on confession or conviction. The medical and legal records allowed for identification of time of injury and the interval between injury and arrival to the hospital; this information was categorized as follows: <6 hours (without delay); 6-12 hours (moderate delay); >12 hours (severe delay). The King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury (KOSCHI) score was recorded for each case. RESULTS: All children were three years of age or younger (2.1 - 34 months) and predominantly male (68%; 19/28). 61% of patients (17/28) presented with moderate or severe delay in arrival. A low arrival Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score (p<0.0001) and extracranial injuries (p<0.0061) correlated with worse clinical patient outcomes. Patients with an arrival GCS score <7 predominantly arrived without delay or with moderate delay. Patients presenting without delay or with severe delay were more likely to have a higher KOSCHI outcome score upon discharge (p<0.0426). Four of the six patients who died presented after moderate delay. CONCLUSION: Patients presenting to medical care 6-12 hours after NAHT (moderate delay) appeared to have worse outcomes than those presenting earlier or later.
HbSC Disease and Spontaneous Epidural Hematoma with Kernohan's Notch Phenomena
Spontaneous (nontraumatic) acute epidural hematoma is a rare and poorly understood complication of sickle cell disease. A 19-year-old African American male with hemoglobin SC disease (HbSC) presented with generalized body aches and was managed for acute painful crisis. During his hospital stay he developed rapid deterioration of his mental status and computed topography revealed a spontaneous massive epidural hematoma with mass effect and midline shift with Kernohan's notch phenomena for which urgent craniotomy and evacuation was done. We report the first case of HbSC disease associated with catastrophic epidural hematoma progressing to transtentorial herniation and Kernohan's notch phenomena within few hours with rapid clinical deterioration. The etiopathogenesis and the rare presentation are discussed in detail in this case report.
Choroid plexus papilloma and Pierpont syndrome [Case Report]
The authors describe the case of a child who presented with hydrocephalus and phenotypic features characteristic of a multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndrome. Dysmorphic facies, medial plantar lipomatosis, and developmental delay were observed in this case and are identical to documented findings of Pierpont syndrome diagnosed in 3 boys. This is the fourth case reported to date and is the first documented case of an oncological process- an intraventricular atypical choroid plexus papilloma tumor-found in association with Pierpont syndrome. Syndromes associated with choroid plexus papilloma are reviewed.
Intravascular Papillary Endothelial Hyperplasia/Masson's Change Status Post Surgery for Rasmussen's Encephalitis [Meeting Abstract]
Role of Rac1-regulated signaling in medulloblastoma invasion. Laboratory investigation
OBJECT: Medulloblastomas are the most common malignant brain tumors in children. These tumors are highly invasive, and patients harboring these lesions are frequently diagnosed with distant spread. In this study, the authors investigated the role of Rac1, a member of the Rho family of small guanosine triphosphatases, in medulloblastoma invasion. METHODS: Three established medulloblastoma cell lines were used: DAOY, UW-228, and ONS-76. Specific depletion of Rac1 protein was accomplished by transient transfection of small interfering RNA. Cell invasion through extracellular matrix (Matrigel) was quantified using a transwell migration assay. Mitogen activated protein kinase activation was determined using phospho-MAP kinase-specific antibodies, and inhibition of MAP kinase pathways was achieved by specific small molecule inhibitors. Localization of Rac1 and its expression levels were determined by immunohistochemical analysis using a Rac1-specific antibody, and Rac1 activation was qualitatively assessed by Rac1 plasma membrane association. RESULTS: Small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of Rac1 strongly inhibited medulloblastoma cell invasion. Although depletion of Rac1 inhibited the proliferation of UW-228 cells, and of ONS-76 cells to a lesser extent, it stimulated the proliferation of DAOY cells. Depletion of Rac1 also inhibited the activation of the ERK and JNK MAP kinase pathways, and inhibition of either pathway diminished invasion and proliferation. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the Rac1 protein was overexpressed in all medulloblastoma tumors examined, and indicated that Rac1 was hyperactive in 6 of 25 tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The authors' data show that Rac1 is necessary for the invasive behavior of medulloblastoma cells in vitro, and plays a variable role in medulloblastoma cell proliferation. In addition, these results indicate that Rac1 stimulates medulloblastoma invasion by activating the ERK and JNK pathways. The authors suggest that Rac1 and signaling elements controlled by this guanosine triphosphatase may serve as novel targets for therapeutic intervention in malignant medulloblastomas
Resting tremor secondary to a pineal cyst: case report and review of the literature
BACKGROUND: Patients with pineal lesions typically present with the classical signs of increased intracranial pressure (headache, nausea, vomiting) and/or Parinaud's syndrome. Rare symptomatology of secondary parkinsonism attributed to pineal lesions has been previously reported in the literature. We describe an unusual case of a pineal cyst in a patient with the presenting sign of a resting tremor. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report an 18-year-old Caucasian female who presented with a 1-month history of a new-onset progressive, unilateral low-frequency right-hand resting tremor with associated headache, nausea, vomiting, and excessive diarrhea. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an atypical appearance with enhancement of a mildly prominent pineal gland, possibly representing a pineal cyst. The patient did not exhibit radiographic signs of hydrocephalus. Based upon the radiographic appearance, one could not exclude with absolute certainty the presence of a malignancy. The patient ultimately underwent a bilateral suboccipital craniotomy with gross total resection of the lesion. Postoperatively, the patient exhibited immediate resolution of her preoperative resting tremor and continues to be symptom free at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: A new-onset, resting tremor and/or other secondary parkinsonism symptoms should raise clinical suspicions of pineal lesions. Treatment can be guided based on tissue type and the presence or absence of hydrocephalus. We observed that complete surgical resection of the lesion provided the best treatment option for the total resolution of symptoms attributed to the disturbance of the microvasculature surrounding the nigro-striatal-pallidal system
Astroblastoma. Case report, review of the literature, and analysis of treatment strategies
Astroblastoma, a unique glial tumor, has been described in the literature in case reports and small series. Its rarity has prevented evidenced-based treatment stratification. An 8-year-old boy presented with signs and symptoms of raised intracranial pressure. Imaging studies of the brain demonstrated a large heterogeneously enhancing solid mass in the left frontal lobe with punctate calcifications and cystic components that created subfalcine and uncal herniation. After tumor resection, histological diagnosis revealed a high-grade cerebral astroblastoma. The child's postoperative recovery was complicated by hydrocephalus that necessitated placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Fifty-four months after undergoing gross total resection and adjuvant radiation therapy, the patient, now 12-years-old, remains tumor free and neurologically stable. Chemotherapy was reserved in the event of tumor recurrence. Since the first description of astroblastoma, its histopathological and clinical features have been debated. We review the histology, immunohistochemistry, and cytogenetics of astroblastoma as well as examine the current literature and treatment strategies for the management of both low and high-grade tumors. Continued clinical studies and longer patient follow-up with a tumor based registry would further clarify optimal treatment for this rare tumor