Acceptable clinical outcomes despite high reoperation rate at minimum 12-month follow-up after concomitant arthroscopically assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and medial meniscal allograft transplantation
Shankar, Dhruv S.; Vasavada, Kinjal D.; Avila, Amanda; DeClouette, Brittany; Aziz, Hadi; Strauss, Eric J.; Alaia, Michael J.; Jazrawi, Laith M.; Gonzalez-Lomas, Guillem; Campbell, Kirk A.
Background: Single-stage medial meniscus allograft transplantation (MAT) with concomitant anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is a technically challenging procedure for management of knee pain and instability in younger patients, but clinical and functional outcomes data are sparse. The purpose of this study was to assess surgical and patient-reported outcomes following concomitant ACLR and medial MAT. Methods: We conducted a retrospective case series of patients who underwent medial MAT with concomitant primary or revision ACLR at our institution from 2010 to 2021 and had minimum 12-month follow-up. Complications, reoperations, visual analog scale (VAS) pain, satisfaction, Lysholm score, return to sport, and return to work outcomes were assessed. Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Pain Interference, Pain Intensity, and Physical Function Scores were used to measure patients"™ functional status relative to the US population. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The cohort consisted of 17 knees of 16 individual patients. The cohort was majority male (82.4%) with mean age of 31.9 years (range 19"“49 years) and mean body mass index (BMI) of 27.9 kg/m2 (range 22.5"“53.3 kg/m2). Mean follow-up time was 56.8 months (range 13"“106 months). Most patients underwent revision ACLR (64.7%). The 1-year reoperation rate was high (23.5%), with two patients (11.8%) tearing their meniscus graft. Patient-reported outcomes indicated low VAS pain (mean 2.2), high satisfaction (mean 77.9%), and fair Lysholm score (mean 81.1). Return to work rate was high (92.9%), while return to sport rate was low (42.9%). Postoperative PROMIS scores were comparable or superior to the national average and correlated significantly with patient satisfaction (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The concomitant ACLR and MAT procedure is associated with excellent knee pain and functional outcomes and high rate of return to work after surgery, though the 1-year reoperation rate is high and rate of return to sport is low. Level of evidence: IV.
Treatment Options for Acute Rockwood III - V Acromioclavicular Dislocations: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Control Trials
Bi, Andrew S; Robinson, Jake; Anil, Utkarsh; Hurley, Eoghan T; Klifto, Christopher S; Gonzalez-Lomas, Guillem; Alaia, Michael J; Strauss, Eric J; Jazrawi, Laith M
BACKGROUND:Acute Rockwood type III-V acromioclavicular (AC) dislocations have been treated with numerous surgical techniques over the years. The purpose of this study was to perform a network meta-analysis (NMA) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to quantitatively define the optimal treatment for operative AC dislocations. METHODS:A literature search of three databases was performed on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. RCTs comparing one of ten treatments for acute Rockwood type III-V AC dislocations (Nonoperative [NO]; Kirschner wire fixation [KW]; Coracoclavicular screw fixation [Scr]; Hook plate [HP]; Open coracoclavicular cortical button [CBO]; Arthroscopic coracoclavicular cortical button [CBA]; Two or more coracoclavicular cortical buttons [CB2]; Isolated graft reconstruction [GR]; cortical button with graft augmentation [CB+GR]; coracoclavicular and acromioclavicular fixation [AC]) were included. Clinical outcomes were compared using a frequentist approach to NMA, with statistical analysis performed using R. Treatment options were ranked using the P-score, which estimates the likelihood that the investigated treatment is the ideal method for an optimal result in each outcome measure on a scale from 0 - 1. RESULTS:From 5362 reviewed studies, 26 studies met the inclusion criteria, with a total of 1581 patients included in the NMA. AC, CB+GR, GR, CB2, CBA, and CBO demonstrated superiority over HP, Scr, KW, and NO treatments at final follow up for Constant-Murley and DASH scores, with AC and CB+GR demonstrating the highest P-scores for Constant (P-score = 0.957 and 0.781, respectively) and GR and CBO with the highest P-scores for DASH (P-score = 0.896 and 0.750, respectively). GR had the highest P-score for VAS (P-score = 0.986). HP, CB2, CB+GR, AC, CBA, and CBO demonstrated superiority with final follow up coracoclavicular distance (CCD) and recurrence, with HP and CB2 having the highest P-score for CCD (P-score = 0.798 and 0.757, respectively) and GR and CB+GR having the highest P-score for recurrence (P-score = 0.880 and 0.855, respectively). KW and Scr had the shortest operative times (P-score = 0.917 and 0.810, respectively), with GR and CBA demonstrating longest operative times (P-score = 0.120 and 0.097, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:While there are multiple fixation options for acute surgical AC dislocations, adding AC fixation or graft augmentation likely improves functional outcomes and decreases CCD and recurrence at final follow up, at the expense of longer operative times.
Over One-Third of Patients With Multiligament Knee Injuries and an Intact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Demonstrate Medial Meniscal Ramp Lesions on Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Moran, Jay; Schneble, Christopher A; Katz, Lee D; Jimenez, Andrew E; McLaughlin, William M; Vasavada, Kinjal; Wang, Annie; Kunze, Kyle N; Chahla, Jorge; LaPrade, Robert F; Alaia, Michael J; Medvecky, Michael J
PURPOSE:To determine the incidence of ramp lesions and posteromedial tibial plateau (PMTP) bone bruising on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with multiligament knee injuries (MLKIs) and an intact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). METHODS:A retrospective review of consecutive patients surgically treated for MLKIs at 2 level I trauma centers between January 2001 and March 2021 was performed. Only MLKIs with an intact ACL that received MRI scans within 90 days of the injury were included. All MLKIs were diagnosed on MRI and confirmed with operative reports. Two musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively rereviewed preoperative MRIs for evidence of medial meniscus ramp lesions (MMRLs) and PMTP bone bruises using previously established classification systems. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to calculate the reliability between the radiologists. The incidence of MMRLs and PMTP bone bruises was quantified using descriptive statistics. RESULTS:A total of 221 MLKIs were identified, of which 32 (14.5%) had an intact ACL (87.5% male; mean age of 29.9 ± 8.6 years) and were included. The most common MLKI pattern was combined injury to the posterior cruciate ligament and posterolateral corner (n = 27, 84.4%). PMTP bone bruises were observed in 12 of 32 (37.5%) patients. Similarly, MMRLs were diagnosed in 12 of 32 (37.5%) patients. A total of 8 of 12 (66.7%) patients with MMRLs demonstrated evidence PMTP bone bruising. CONCLUSIONS:Over one-third of MLKI patients with an intact ACL were diagnosed with MMRLs on MRI in this series. PMTP bone bruising was observed in 66.7% of patients with MMRLs, suggesting that increased vigilance for identifying MMRLs at the time of ligament reconstruction should be practiced in patients with this bone bruising pattern. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level IV, retrospective case series.
Examining Preoperative MRI for Medial Meniscal Ramp Lesions in Patients Surgically Treated for Acute Grade 3 Combined Posterolateral Corner Knee Injury
Moran, Jay; Jimenez, Andrew E.; Katz, Lee D.; Wang, Annie; McLaughlin, William M.; Gillinov, Stephen M.; Patel, Rohan R.; Kunze, Kyle N.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Alaia, Michael J.; LaPrade, Robert F.; Medvecky, Michael J.
Background: While medial meniscocapsular tears (ramp lesions) are commonly associated with isolated anterior cruciate ligament injuries, there are limited descriptions of these meniscal injuries in multiligament knee injuries (MLKIs). Purpose: To (1) retrospectively evaluate preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans for the presence of ramp lesions in patients surgically treated for acute grade 3 combined posterolateral corner (PLC) knee injuries and (2) determine if a preoperative posteromedial tibial plateau (PMTP) bone bruise is associated with the presence of preoperative ramp lesions on MRI in these same patients. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Data on consecutive patients at a level 1 trauma center with MLKIs between 2001 and 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. Only patients with acute grade 3 combined PLC injuries who received an MRI scan within 30 days of injury were assessed. Two musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively reviewed each patient"™s preoperative MRI for evidence of ramp lesions and bone bruises. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to calculate reliability among the reviewers. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between PMTP bruising and the presence of a ramp lesion on MRI. Results: A total of 68 patients (79.4% male; mean age, 33.8 ± 13.7 years) with an acute grade 3 combined PLC injury were included in the study. On MRI, the ICCs for detection of ramp lesions and PMTP bone bruising were 0.921 and 0.938, respectively. Medial meniscal ramp lesions were diagnosed in 18 of 68 (26.5%) patients. Eleven of 18 (61.1%) patients with ramp lesions also showed evidence of PMTP bruising, while 13 of 50 (26.0%) patients without ramp lesions had PMTP bruising (P =.008). When controlling for age and sex, PTMP bruising was significantly associated with the presence of a ramp lesion in combined PLC injuries (odds ratio, 4.62; P =.012). Conclusion: Preoperative medial meniscal ramp lesions were diagnosed on MRI in 26.5% of patients with acute grade 3 combined PLC injuries. PMTP bone bruising was significantly associated with the presence of a ramp lesion on MRI. These findings reinforce the need to assess for potential ramp lesions at the time of multiligament reconstruction.
Increased incidence of acute achilles tendon ruptures in the peri-pandemic COVID era with parallels to the 2021"“22 NFL season
Bi, Andrew S.; Azam, Mohammad T.; Butler, James J.; Alaia, Michael J.; Jazrawi, Laith M.; Gonzalez-Lomas, Guillem; Kennedy, John G.
Purpose: Acute Achilles tendon ruptures (AATRs) are a common sporting injury, whether for recreational athletes or elite athletes. Prior research has shown returning to physical activity after extended periods of inactivity leads to increased rates of musculoskeletal injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate rates of acute Achilles"™ tendon ruptures at a single academic institute in the peri-COVID era, with corollary to the recent NFL season. Methods: A retrospective search was conducted using current procedural terminology to identify the total number of Achilles acute primary repair surgeries performed from years 2017 to 2021. Non-operatively managed AATRs were identified from the same electronic medical record using ICD-10 codes. NFL data were obtained from publicly available sites according to previously validated studies. Results: A total of 588 patients who sustained AATRs and underwent primary surgical repair were identified, primarily men (75.7%, n = 445), with an average age of 43.22 ± 14.4 years. The number and corresponding incidence of AATR repairs per year was: 2017: n = 124 (21.1%), 2018: n = 110 (18.7%), 2019: n = 130 (22.1%), 2020: n = 86 (14.6%), 2021: n = 138 (23.5%), indicating a 7.5% decrease in rate of AATRs from 2019 to 2020, followed by an 8.9% increase in incidence from 2020 to 2021. Within the NFL, the number of AATRs resulting in an injured reserve stint increased every regular season from 2019 to 2020: n = 11 (21.2%), to 2020"“2021: n = 17 (32.7%), to this past 2021"“2022 season: n = 24 (46.2%). Conclusion: AATR surgeries seem to have increased in 2021 following a 2020 COVID pandemic-induced quarantine for recreational athletes at a single academic institution and for professional athletes in the NFL, although these results are of questionable clinical significance. This provides prognostic information when counseling patients and athletes on return to activity or sport. Level of evidence: Level IV.
Does the tidemark location matter in osteochondral allograft transplantation? A finite element analysis
Manjunath, Amit K.; Pendola, Martin; Hurley, Eoghan T.; Lin, Charles C.; Jazrawi, Laith M.; Alaia, Michael J.; Strauss, Eric J.
Introduction: While OCA has been shown to result in good long-term outcomes, there is still a considerable failure rate present with room for improvement. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact that osteochondral allograft cartilage thickness has on contact pressures, and to simulate whether a mismatch of the subchondral bony interface relative to the host-recipient site results in altered biomechanics. Methods: Properties of articular cartilage and bone were incorporated into a finite element model to create a simulated osteochondral lesion (diameter: 10 mm, height: 10 mm, cartilage thickness: 2 mm, subchondral bone thickness: 8 mm). Five osteochondral plugs were constructed to fill the defect, with cartilage-to-bone ratios between 1:9 and 1:1. The plugs were inserted and given a static downward force of 5000 N. Resultant stresses and displacements were measured. Results: The 2:8 cartilage-to-bone ratio plug, matched with the recipient site, was deemed optimal based on its resultant stress and displacement. The 1:9 plug displaced less than the 2:8 match and endured greater stress per unit of cartilage volume, whereas the 3:7 plug also displayed similar displacement to the 1:9 plug but had greater cartilage volume and was able to distribute less stress per unit of cartilage volume. The 4:6 plug displaced to a similar extent as the 3:7 plug but displayed a unique pattern of strain. The 5:5 plug was considered nonfunctional, as the majority of displacement was seen in the cartilage of the recipient site rather than in the plug itself. Conclusions: The relationship between the cartilage-to-bone ratio in osteochondral allografts and that of their surroundings significantly impacts the distribution of stresses and predilection for micromotion at the repair site.
Despite Equivalent Clinical Outcomes, Patients Report Less Satisfaction With Telerehabilitation Versus Standard In-Office Rehabilitation After Arthroscopic Meniscectomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Mojica, Edward S.; Vasavada, Kinjal; Hurley, Eoghan T.; Lin, Charles C.; Buzin, Scott; Gonzalez-Lomas, Guillem; Alaia, Michael J.; Strauss, Eric J.; Jazrawi, Laith M.; Campbell, Kirk A.
Purpose: To evaluate functional outcomes and satisfaction in patients who underwent telerehabilitation (telerehab) compared with in-person rehabilitation after arthroscopic meniscectomy. Methods: A randomized-controlled trial was conducted including patients scheduled to undergo arthroscopic meniscectomy for meniscal injury by 1 of 5 fellowship-trained sports medicine surgeons between September 2020 and October 2021. Patients were randomized to receive telerehab, defined as exercises and stretches provided by trained physical therapists over a synchronous face-to-face video visit or in-person rehabilitation for their postoperative course. International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC) score and satisfaction metrics were collected at baseline and 3 months postoperatively. Results: Analysis was conducted on 60 patients with 3-month follow-up outcomes. There were no significant differences in IKDC scores between groups at baseline (P =.211) and 3 months"™ postoperatively (P =.065). Patients were more likely to report being satisfied with their rehabilitation group 73% vs. 100% (P =.044) if there were in the in-person group. Satisfaction differed significantly between the 2 groups at the end of their rehabilitation course, and only 64% of those in the telerehab group would elect to undergo telerehab again for future indications. Furthermore, they believed that future rehabilitation would benefit from a hybrid model. Conclusions: Telerehab showed no difference versus traditional in-person rehabilitation in terms of functional outcomes up to 3 months after arthroscopic meniscectomy. However, patients were less satisfied with telerehab. Level of Evidence: I, randomized controlled trial.
Poorer functional Outcomes in Patients with Multi-Ligamentous Knee Injury with Concomitant Patellar Tendon Ruptures at 5 years Follow-Up
Mojica, Edward S; Bi, Andrew S; Vasavada, Kinjal; Moran, Jay; Buzin, Scott; Kahan, Joseph; Alaia, Erin F; Jazrawi, Laith M; Medvecky, Michael J; Alaia, Michael J
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Multi-ligamentous knee injuries (MLKIs) are high-energy injuries that may infrequently present with concomitant patellar tendon rupture. There is limited information in the literature regarding these rare presentations, with even less information regarding clinical outcomes. Using propensity-score matching, the purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of MLKIs with and without patellar tendon ruptures and to investigate the overall predictors of these outcomes. METHODS:Twelve patients who underwent surgical repair for combined MLKI and patellar tendon rupture from 2011 to 2020 with minimum 1-year follow-up data were identified from two separate institutions. Patients were propensity-score matched with a 1:1 ratio with controls based on age, body mass index (BMI), gender, and time from surgery. Patient-reported outcomes included International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Form, Lysholm and Tegner scores. RESULTS:Twelve MLKIs with concomitant patellar tendon injuries were identified out of a multicenter cohort of 237 (5%) patients sustaining MLKI and were case matched 1:1 with 12 MLKIs without extensor mechanism injuries. The average follow-up was 5.5â€‰Â±â€‰2.6Â years. There were no differences in Schenck Classification injury patterns. There were significant differences found across IKDC (Patellar Tendon mean: 53.1â€‰Â±â€‰24.3, MLKI mean 79.3â€‰Â±â€‰19.6, Pâ€‰<â€‰0.001) and Lysholm scores (Patellar Tendon mean: 63.6â€‰Â±â€‰22.3, MLKI mean 86.3â€‰Â±â€‰10.7, Pâ€‰<â€‰0.001) between the two, illustrating poorer outcomes for patients with concomitant patellar tendon ruptures. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In the setting of MLKI, patients who have a concomitant patellar tendon rupture have worse functional outcomes compared to those without. This information will be important for patient counseling and might be considered to be added to Schenck classification, reflecting its prognostic value. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level IV.
Variability of MRI reporting in proximal hamstring avulsion injuries: Are musculoskeletal radiologists and orthopedic surgeons utilizing similar landmarks?
Bloom, David A; Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Alaia, Michael J; Youm, Thomas; Campbell, Kirk A; Alaia, Erin F
BACKGROUND:Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an integral component of the treatment algorithm for proximal hamstring avulsion injuries. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to survey orthopedic surgeons and musculoskeletal radiologists on the reporting and analysis of proximal hamstring avulsions on MRI. METHODS:Two online surveys were developed to evaluate musculoskeletal radiologists' and orthopedic surgeons' perceptions of MRI-reporting for proximal hamstring avulsion injuries. Each survey was designed to provide information on physicians' best practices with respect to four primary questions (1) ischial tuberosity landmark determination (2) difficulties associated with measuring tendon retraction, (3) important ancillary findings, and (4) perceived clinical impact of measured retraction. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all categorical variables, which were reported as frequencies with percentages. Chi-squared test was utilized to compare rates of responses between surgeons and radiologists. Statistically significant differences were analyzed with post-hoc Fisher's exact tests; p < 0.05 considered statistically significant. RESULTS:218-Musculoskeletal radiologists and 33-orthopedic surgeons responded to their respective surveys. There were statistically significant differences with responses to two of the questions asked in both surveys; (1) in cases of complete hamstring avulsion (avulsion of both the semimembranosus and conjoint tendon), which arrow represents the tendon gap measurement used for planning surgery? p = 0.028; (2) in cases of avulsion of only the conjoint tendon, which arrow represents the tendon gap measurement used for planning surgery? p = 0.013. Post-hoc testing demonstrated that for either partial or complete hamstring avulsions, more surgeons use the conjoint tendon origin to measure tendon retraction than radiologists (p < 0.05 for both). Significantly more radiologists use the semimembranosus origin to measure hamstring retraction for partial or complete hamstring tears (p < 0.05 for both). However, for each of these questions, both radiologists and surgeons most frequently stated that the conjoint tendon landmark should be used for surgical planning. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Musculoskeletal radiologists and orthopedists frequently utilize the conjoint tendon origin as an anatomic landmark for measuring complete and partial proximal hamstring avulsion injuries; though, orthopedists are more likely to utilize this landmark. Additionally, the broad surface area of the ischial tuberosity may lead to variability in measurement. CLINICAL IMPACT/CONCLUSIONS:Standard landmarks at the ischial tuberosity and/or detailed descriptions of tendon retractions would improve communication between radiologists and surgeons for proximal hamstring avulsions.
An eponymous history of the anterolateral ligament complex of the knee
Morgan, Allison M; Bi, Andrew S; Kaplan, Daniel J; Alaia, Michael J; Strauss, Eric J; Jazrawi, Laith M
BACKGROUND:Recent interest has surged in the anterolateral ligament (ALL) and complex (ALC) of the knee. Its existence and role in rotary stability of the knee, particularly in the setting of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, remains a contentious and controversial topic. UNDERSTANDING THE ALC/UNASSIGNED:We must review our history and recognize the pioneers who pushed our understanding of the ALL forward before it was popularly recognized as a discrete structure. Additionally, given that many eponyms remain in common use related to the ALC, we must standardize our nomenclature to prevent misuse or misunderstanding of terms in the literature. In this review, modern understanding of the anterolateral ligament complex (ALC) is traced to 1829 by exploring eponymous terms first in anatomy and then in surgical technique. Understanding our history and terminology will allow us to better understand the ALC itself. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This review aims to provide historical context, define terminology, and provide insight into the clinical relevance of the ALC.