Tunnel Management in Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Current Concepts
Bone tunnel-related complications are frequently encountered during revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Issues with tunnel positioning, enlargement, containment, and hardware interference may complicate surgery and compromise outcomes. As a result, several strategies have emerged to address these issues and optimize results. However, a systematic, unified approach to tunnel pathology in revision ACLR is lacking. The purpose of this review is to highlight the current state of the literature on bone tunnel complications and, although extensive literature on the subject is lacking, present an updated approach to the evaluation and management of tunnel-related issues in revision ACLR.
Tibial Sagittal Slope in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury and Treatment
Although anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is a generally successful procedure, failure is still relatively common. An increased posterior tibial slope (PTS) has been shown to increase the anterior position of the tibia relative to the femur at rest and under load in biomechanical studies. Increased PTS has also been shown to increase forces on the native and reconstructed ACL. Clinical studies have demonstrated elevated PTS in patients with failed ACLR and multiple failed ACLR, compared with control subjects. Anterior closing-wedge osteotomies have been shown to decrease PTS and may be indicated in patients who have failed ACLR with a PTS of â‰¥12Â°. Available clinical data suggest that the procedure is safe and effective, although evidence is limited to case series. This article presents the relevant biomechanics, clinical observational data on the effects of increased PTS, and an algorithm for evaluating and treating patients with a steep PTS.
There are differences in knee stability based on lateral extra-articular augmentation technique alongside anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of the current study is to systematically review and network meta-analyze the current evidence in the literature to ascertain if there is a superior lateral extra-articular augmentation technique in conjunction with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACL.R) with respect to knee stability, re-rupture rates and functional outcomes. METHODS:The literature search was performed based on the PRISMA guidelines. Cohort studies comparing ACL.R to ACL.Râ€‰+â€‰lateral extra-articular augmentation were included. Lateral extra-articular techniques included were anterolateral ligament reconstruction (ALL.R), Cocker-Arnold, Lemaire, Losee, Maraccaci, and McIntosh. Clinical outcomes were compared between ACL.R alone and the different lateral extra-articular augmentation techniques using a frequentist approach to network meta-analysis, with statistical analysis performed using R. The treatment options were ranked using the P-Score. RESULTS:Twenty-eight studies with a total of 2990 patients were included. ACL.Râ€‰+â€‰Cocker-Arnold technique had the highest P-Score for ACL re-ruptures and residual pivot-shift. ACL.Râ€‰+â€‰Cocker-Arnold, Lemaire, and ALL.R all significantly reduced the rate of ACL re-rupture, and residual pivot-shift, compared to ACL.R alone. There was no significant difference between any of the lateral extra-articular augmentation techniques and ACL.R alone. ALL.R had the highest P-Score for return to play, and return to play at pre-injury level. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This study established that ACL.Râ€‰+â€‰Cocker-Arnold, Lemaire and ALL.R resulted in significantly lower ipsilateral ACL re-ruptures, as well as reduced pivot-shift, compared to ACL.R alone. Whereas, the other lateral extra-articular augmentation techniques did not reduce pivot-shift and re-rupture. Additionally, functional outcomes and return to play were comparable between those who underwent ACL.R and lateral extra-articular augmentation and ACL.R alone. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III.
Patients unable to return to play following medial patellofemoral ligament reconstructions demonstrate poor psychological readiness
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction (MPFLR) is often indicated in athletes with lateral patellar instability to prevent recurrence and allow for a successful return to play. In this patient population, the ability to return to play is one of the most important clinical outcomes. The purpose of the current study was to analyze the characteristics of patients who were unable return to play following MPFL reconstruction. METHODS:A retrospective review of patients who underwent MPFL reconstruction and subsequently did not return to play after a minimum of 12-months of follow-up was performed. Patients were evaluated for their psychological readiness to return to sport using the MPFL-Return to Sport after Injury (MPFL-RSI) score, which is a modification of the ACL-RSI score. A MPFL-RSI scoreâ€‰>â€‰56 is considered a passing score for being psychologically ready to return to play. Additionally, reasons for not returning to play including Visual Analog Scale for pain (VAS), Kujala score, satisfaction, and recurrent instability (including dislocations and subluxations) were evaluated. RESULTS:The study included a total of 35 patients who were unable to return to play out of a total cohort of 131 patients who underwent MPFL reconstruction as treatment for patellar instability. Overall, 60% were female with a mean age of 24.5, and a mean follow-up of 38Â months. Nine patients (25.7%) passed the MPFL-RSI benchmark of 56 with a mean overall score of 44.2â€‰Â±â€‰21.8. The most common primary reasons for not returning to play were 14 were afraid of re-injury, 9 cited other lifestyle factors, 5 did not return due to continued knee pain, 5 were not confident in their ability to perform, and 2 did not return due to a feeling of instability. The mean VAS score was 1.9â€‰Â±â€‰2.3, the mean Kujala score was 82.5â€‰Â±â€‰14.6, and the mean satisfaction was 76.9%. Three patients (8.7%) reported experiencing a patellar subluxation event post-operatively. No patient sustained a post-operative patellar dislocation. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Following MPFL reconstruction, patients that do not return to play exhibit poor psychological readiness with the most common reason being fear of re-injury. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:IV.
Preoperative Opioid Education has No Effect on Opioid Use in Patients Undergoing Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair: A Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trial
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to determine whether a preoperative video-based opioid education reduced narcotics consumption after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in opioid-naive patients. METHODS:This was a single-center randomized controlled trial. Preoperatively, the control group received our institution's standard of care for pain management education, whereas the experimental group watched an educational video on the use of opioids. Patients were discharged with 30 Ã— 5 mg/325 mg oxycodone-acetaminophen prescribed: 1 to 2 tablets every 4 to 6 hours. They were contacted daily and asked to report opioid use and visual analog scale pain. A chart review at 3 months post-op was used to analyze for opioid refills. RESULTS:A total of 130 patients completed the study (65 control and 65 experimental). No statistically significant differences were noted in patient demographics between groups (P > 0.05). Patients in the education group did not use a statistically significant different number of narcotics than the control group throughout the first postoperative week (14.0 pills experimental versus 13.7 pills control, P = 0.60). No statistically significant differences were noted between groups at follow-regarding the rate of prescription refills (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This study suggests that preoperative video-based opioid education may have no effect on reducing the number of narcotic pills consumed after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. CLINICAL RELEVANCE/CONCLUSIONS:Data exist to suggest that preoperative video-based opioid education has an effect on postoperative consumption; however, the effect of this education in the setting of already-limited opioid-prescribing is not known. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER/UNASSIGNED:NCT04018768.
High Return to Sport in Patients Over 45 Years of Age Undergoing Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation for Isolated Chondral Defects in the Knee
OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of osteochondral allograft (OCA) in patients older than 45 years of age, particularly with respect to return to sport. DESIGN/UNASSIGNED:A retrospective review was performed to evaluate patients greater than 45 who underwent an OCA for a symptomatic osteochondral defect of the knee between June 2011 and January 2019. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:< 0.01). Furthermore, the mean Visual Analogue Scale while playing sport was 3.4 Â± 3.2, and the mean Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score was 77.5 Â± 12.7 at final follow-up. Overall, 11 patients (78.6%) were able to return to their desired sport. No clinical failures were identified during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:In our series of patients 45 years and older who were treated with OCA for focal osteochondral injuries of the knee, we found a significant improvement in clinical outcome scores at a midterm follow-up of 37 months with no revision OCA procedures or conversion to any form of knee arthroplasty. In addition, a high percentage of patients were able to return to their preferred level of athletic activity.
The efficacy of intra-articular injections in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: A network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating joint disease characterized by progressive loss of articular cartilage. Intra-articular injections are a mainstay of nonoperative treatment, however, there is controversy as to the optimal injectable for these patients. The purpose of the current study is to perform a network meta-analysis of the randomized control trials in the literature to ascertain whether there is a superior injectable nonoperative treatment for knee OA. METHODS:The literature search was conducted based on the PRISMA guidelines. Randomized control trials (RCTs) evaluating intra-articular injectables in osteoarthritic knees were included. Data was extracted and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores, where available were analyzed at 1, 3, 6 and 12Â months. Clinical outcomes were compared using a frequentist approach to network meta-analysis, with statistical analysis performed using R. The treatment options were ranked using the P-Score. RESULTS:Seventy-nine RCTs with 8761 patients were included in this review. Intra-articular injectables evaluated included autologous conditioned serum (ACS), bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC), botulinum toxin, corticosteroids (CS), hyaluronic acid (HA), mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), ozone, saline placebo, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), plasma rich in growth factor (PRGF), and stromal vascular fraction (SVF). At 4-6Â weeks and 3Â months of follow-up, the treatment with the highest P-Score for WOMAC score was high molecular weight (HMW) HAÂ +Â CS [P-ScoreÂ =Â 0.9500 and 8503, respectively]. At 6-months follow-up, the treatment with the highest P-Score for WOMAC score was PRP [P-ScoreÂ =Â 0.7676]. At all post-injection time points, the treatment with the highest P-Score for VAS score [P-Score RangeÂ =Â 0.8631-9927] and Womac score at 12 Months [P-ScoreÂ =Â 0.9044] was SVF. CONCLUSIONS:The current evidence shows that SVF injections result in the greatest improvement in pain and functional outcomes in patients with knee OA at up to 1Â year of follow-up.
Clinical outcomes of revision arthroscopic Bankart repair for anterior shoulder instability: a systematic review of studies
BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to review the literature to ascertain the functional outcomes, recurrence rates, and subsequent revision rates following revision arthroscopic Bankart repair. METHODS:Two independent reviewers performed a literature search based on PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guidelines using the Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library databases. Studies in which arthroscopic Bankart repair was performed as a revision procedure were included. The clinical outcomes extracted and analyzed were functional outcomes, return to play, and recurrent instability. RESULTS:Fourteen studies with 433 patients met the inclusion criteria. The majority of patients were male patients (63.7%); the average age was 26.1 years (range, 14-58 years), and the mean follow-up period was 37.6 months (range, 10-144 months). The mean Rowe score was 84.2, and 79.7% of patients had good to excellent outcomes. The rate of return to play was 78.5%, with 47.5% of patients returning to their preinjury level of play across 10 studies. The rate of recurrent instability was reported in 12 studies, with 328 shoulders demonstrating 86 instability events (26.2%). The rate of recurrent instability due to dislocation was reported in 7 studies (n = 176), with 19 events (10.8%), whereas the rate of subluxation was reported in 4 studies (n = 76), with 6 events (7.9%). CONCLUSIONS:Revision arthroscopic Bankart repair for anterior shoulder instability was shown to result in a high rate of recurrent shoulder instability. There was a relatively poor rate of return to sport among athletes, and only about half of the patients were able to return at or above their preoperative level of ability.
Staged Reconstruction of a Moore Type 4 Fracture Dislocation, Parts 1 and 2
SUMMARY:High-energy tibial plateau fractures are associated with knee fracture dislocations and concomitant ligamentous injury. Both bony and ligamentous injuries can require surgical fixation, often requiring a multidisciplinary team and staged treatment. This article and accompanying video describe the workup and treatment of a Moore type 4 tibial plateau rim compression fracture with posterolateral corner and anterior cruciate ligament rupture that underwent open reduction internal fixation of the tibial plateau with posterolateral corner reconstruction and then staged anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with quad tendon autograft.
Cartilage Restoration of Bipolar Lesions Within the Patellofemoral Joint Delays Need for Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review of Rates of Failure
Purpose/UNASSIGNED:The purpose of the present review is to systematically review the available literature for failure rates and complications of cartilage restoration of bipolar chondral defects in the patellofemoral (PF) joint to assess the ability to treat these lesions without arthroplasty. Methods/UNASSIGNED:PubMed and MEDLINE databases were queried between 2000 to 2020 using the keywords "osteochondral" and "knee" and "microfracture," "autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI)," or "transplantation." Patient selection included patients with bipolar chondral lesions of the patellofemoral joint that were treated with cartilage restoration procedures. Treatment of PF joints were reviewed for surgical indications/technique, rates of failure, defect characteristics, and time to failure. For the purposes of this study, failure was defined by each individual author on their respective studies. Results/UNASSIGNED:Â = 79.0%). Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:From the available data, established cartilage restoration procedures may provide favorable patient-reported function, avoidance of secondary surgery, and joint preservation in at least 80% of patients at short- to mid-term follow-up. Level of Evidence/UNASSIGNED:Level IV, systematic review of Level IV studies.