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Superior Pain Reduction with Anteromedialization Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy Versus Non-Operative Management for Patellofemoral Osteoarthritis

Manjunath, Amit K; Gotlin, Matthew; Bloom, David A; Hurley, Eoghan T; Alaia, Michael J; Jazrawi, Laith M; Strauss, Eric J
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of patients with patellofemoral osteoar-thritis (PFOA) treated non-operatively with those treated operatively with an unloading anteromedialization tibial tubercle osteotomy (TTO). METHODS:A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients with isolated PFOA who were either managed non-operatively or surgically with a TTO and who had a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Patients were surveyed with the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for Joint Replacement (KOOS-JR), Anterior Knee Pain scale (Kujala), and Tegner Activity scale. Statistical analysis included two-sample t-testing, one-way ANOVA, and bivariate analysis. RESULTS:The clinical outcomes of 49 non-operatively managed patients (mean age: 52.7 ± 11.3 years; mean follow-up: 1.7 ± 1.0 years) and 35 operatively managed patients (mean age: 31.8 ± 9.4 years; mean follow-up: 3.5 ± 1.7 years) were assessed. The mean VAS improved sig-nificantly in both groups [6.12 to 4.22 (non-operative), p < 0.0001; 6.94 to 2.45 (TTO); p < 0.0001], with operatively treated patients having significantly lower postoperative pain than non-operatively managed patients at the time of final follow-up [2.45 (TTO) vs. 4.22 (non-operative), p < 0.001]. The mean KOOS-JR score was significantly greater in the operative group at time of final follow-up [78.7 ± 11.6 (TTO) vs. 71.7 ± 17.8 (non-operative), p = 0.035]. There was no significant difference in Kujala or Tegner scores between the treatment groups. Additionally, there was no sig-nificant relationship between the number of intra-articular injections, duration of NSAID use, and number of physical therapy sessions on clinical outcomes in the non-operatively treated group (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:An unloading anteromedialization TTO provides significantly better pain relief and restoration of function compared to non-operative management in the treatment of symptomatic PFOA.
PMID: 38739657
ISSN: 2328-5273
CID: 5658552

Segond fracture: an indicator for increased risk of lateral meniscus injury in patients with acute anterior cruciate ligament ruptures

Garra, Sharif; Moore, Michael R; Li, Zachary I; Eskenazi, Jordan; Jazrawi, Taylor; Bi, Andrew S; Campbell, Kirk A; Alaia, Michael J; Strauss, Eric J
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and anatomic distribution of meniscus injury in patients who have sustained acute ACL injuries with and without concomitant Segond fracture. We hypothesized that patients who have sustained a torn ACL with a concomitant Segond fracture would have a higher incidence of lateral meniscal injuries than patients with an isolated ACL injury. METHODS:Patients who underwent ACL reconstruction from 2012 to 2022 were retrospectively reviewed. Segond fractures were identified on knee radiographs. Inclusion criteria were age 18-40, injury during sports activity, and reconstruction within 90 days of injury. Sports activity, anatomic location of meniscus injury, and meniscus treatment were documented. Multivariable regression was used to identify predictors of meniscus injury/treatment. RESULTS:There were 25 of 603 (4.1%) patients who had an ACL tear with concomitant Segond fracture. The incidence of lateral meniscus injury in the Segond group (72%) was significantly higher than in the non-Segond cohort (49%; p = 0.024). A significantly smaller proportion of medial meniscus injuries among patients with Segond fractures were repaired (23.1%) compared to the non-Segond group (54.2%; p = 0.043). Multivariate analysis found patients with Segond fractures to have increased odds of lateral meniscus injury (OR 2.68; [1.09, 6.60], p = 0.032) and were less likely to have medial meniscus injuries repaired (OR 0.35; [0.15, 0.81], p = 0.014). Additionally, males had increased odds of lateral meniscus injury (OR 1.54; [1.08 - 2.91], p = 0.017), which were more likely to require repair (OR 1.48; [1.02, 2.14], p = 0.038). CONCLUSIONS:Among acute ACL injuries, the incidence of lateral meniscus injury is greater among patients with Segond fractures. Patients with Segond fracture were less likely to undergo repair of medial meniscal injuries.
PMID: 38448565
ISSN: 1432-1068
CID: 5672842

Patients With Segond Fracture Demonstrate Similar Rates of Return to Sport and Psychological Readiness After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Matched Cohort Study at Minimum 2-Year Follow-up

Garra, Sharif; Li, Zachary I; Eskenazi, Jordan; Jazrawi, Taylor; Rao, Naina; Campbell, Kirk A; Alaia, Michael J; Strauss, Eric J; Jazrawi, Laith M
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To compare clinical outcomes, rate of return to sports, and psychological readiness among patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) with and without concomitant Segond fracture. METHODS:We retrospectively identified patients who underwent primary ACLR from January 2012 to December 2020 with minimum 2-year follow-up. Exclusion criteria were additional ligamentous injury, age <16 years, or a concomitant lateral augmentation procedure. Preoperative knee radiographs were reviewed to identify Segond fractures. Identified patients were matched 1:2 to controls by age/sex/body mass index/graft type. Charts were reviewed for pre- and postoperative knee stability. Surveys administered included preinjury sport participation and return status, Lysholm score, Tegner activity scale, and ACL-Return to Sport Index (ACL-RSI), a metric of psychological sport readiness. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to identify predictors of return to sport. RESULTS:There were 120 patients who were included in the final analysis (40 Segond, 80 controls) at a mean follow-up of 5.7 ± 2.4 years. A total of 52.5% of patients received bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft. The overall rate of return to sport was 79.5% in the Segond group compared with an 83.8% rate of return in the control group (P = .569). In total, 48.7% of the Segond group and 56.8% of the control group returned to their preinjury level of sport (P = .415). Lysholm (89.6 ± 10.3 vs 85.4 ± 16.7, P = .296), Tegner (5.7 ± 1.8 vs 6.1 ± 2.2, P = .723), and ACL-RSI (62.2 ± 25.4 vs 56.6 ± 25.4, P = .578) scores were similar between Segond and control groups. There was a single graft failure in the Segond group 5 years' postoperatively. Increasing ACL-RSI score was significantly predictive of return to sport (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS:Patients who had an ACL tear and a concomitant Segond fracture who underwent isolated ACLR without lateral augmentation procedures had similar clinical outcomes and rates of return sport compared with a matched isolated ACLR control group at minimum 2-year follow-up. There was no significant difference in psychological readiness between groups as measured by the ACL-RSI. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level III, retrospective cohort study.
PMID: 37716633
ISSN: 1526-3231
CID: 5593392

Editorial: Utilization of Knee Arthroscopy for Degenerative Meniscus Tears is on the Decline Alongside Reimbursements Rates [Editorial]

Rynecki, Nicole D; Charalambous, Lefko; Alaia, Michael J
In recent years, there has been a shift in healthcare away from the fee-for-service model to a value-based care model. Concomitantly, there have been changes in inflation-adjusted surgeon reimbursements for arthroscopic meniscectomies. Nationally, albeit at different rates, there has been a decrease in partial meniscectomy utilization. We feel that this is in part due to the change in healthcare economics and reimbursements as well as the growing evidence that partial meniscectomy may not be as efficacious in the treatment of degenerative meniscus tears as we once thought.
PMID: 38518868
ISSN: 1526-3231
CID: 5640922

Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Current Concepts Review

Akpinar, Berkcan; DeClouette, Brittany; Gonzalez-Lomas, Guillem; Alaia, Michael J
Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries are a rare form of knee injury often seen in the setting of high energy polytraumas; however, these injuries can occur in isolation as well. Often, the posterolateral corner (PLC) is involved, which imparts further posterior translational and rotational instability to these injuries. While non-operative management is certainly a reliable option for low grade isolated PCL tears, high grade injuries with concomitant PLC involvement, additional intra-articular pathologies requiring operative management, multiligamentous injuries, or patients who have failed non-operative management require PCL repair or reconstruction. The current review focuses on the many facets of PCL reconstruction, including single versus double bundle reconstruction, tibial slope implications, graft selection, multiligamentous injury considerations, tunnel management, and onlay versus inlay tibial footprint creation. We conclude with a proposed algorithm in the management of this injury.
PMID: 38431970
ISSN: 2328-5273
CID: 5670442

Perspectives and institutional policies on patient safety and image quality regarding the use of knee-spanning external fixators in MRI: A survey study of the Society of Skeletal Radiology

Marcel, Aaron J; Alaia, Erin F; Alaia, Michael J; Katz, Lee D; Medvecky, Michael J; Porrino, Jack
OBJECTIVE:Concerns regarding patient safety and image quality have made the use of knee-spanning external fixators in MRI a challenging clinical scenario. The purpose of our study was to poll practicing musculoskeletal radiologists on their personal experiences regarding the use of knee-spanning external fixators in MRI in an effort to consolidate practice trends for the radiologists' benefit. METHODS:A 27-item survey was created to address the institutional use, safety, adverse events, quality, and perspectives of the radiologist related to MRI of an externally fixated knee. The survey was distributed to 1739 members of the Society of Skeletal Radiology. RESULTS:A total of 72 members of the Society of Skeletal Radiology completed the survey. Most notably, 40 of 72 (55.56%) respondents are permitted to place a knee-spanning external fixator inside the MR bore at their institution, while19 of 72 (26.39%) respondents are not permitted to do so. Fourteen of 32 (43.75%) respondents have institutional guidelines for safely performing an MRI of an externally fixated knee. Twenty-five of 32 (78.13%) respondents are comfortable permitting an MRI of an externally fixated knee. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We found a general lack of consensus regarding the decision to scan a patient with a knee-spanning external fixator in MRI. Many institutions lack safety guidelines, and providers rely upon a heterogeneous breadth of resources for safety information. A re-examination of the FDA device labeling nomenclature and expectations of the individual manufacturers may be needed to bridge this gap and help direct management decisions placed upon the provider.
PMID: 37695343
ISSN: 1432-2161
CID: 5593642

Clinical and Functional Outcomes of Documented Knee Dislocation Versus Multiligamentous Knee Injury: A Comparison of KD3 Injuries at Mean 6.5 Years Follow-up

Hughes, Andrew J; Li, Zachary I; Garra, Sharif; Green, Joshua S; Chalem, Isabel; Triana, Jairo; Jazrawi, Laith M; Medvecky, Michael J; Alaia, Michael J
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Previous research has found that the incidence of neurovascular injury is greatest among multiligamentous knee injuries (MLKIs) with documented knee dislocation (KD). However, it is unknown whether there is a comparative difference in functional recovery based on evidence of a true dislocation. PURPOSE/UNASSIGNED:To determine whether the knee dislocation-3 (KD3) injury pattern of MLKI with documented tibiofemoral dislocation represents a more severe injury than KD3 MLKI without documented dislocation, as manifested by poorer clinical outcomes at long-term follow-up. STUDY DESIGN/UNASSIGNED:Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:A multicenter retrospective cohort study was performed of patients who underwent surgical treatment for KD3 MLKI between May 2012 and February 2021. Outcomes were assessed using the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Lysholm score, Tegner activity scale, and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. Documented dislocation was defined as a radiographically confirmed tibiofemoral disarticulation, the equivalent radiology report from outside transfer, or emergency department documentation of a knee reduction maneuver. Subgroup analysis was performed comparing lateral (KD3-L) versus medial (KD3-M) injuries. Multivariable linear regression was conducted to determine whether documented dislocation was predictive of outcomes. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:= .007) scores. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:Patients undergoing surgical management of KD3 injuries with true, documented KD had significantly worse clinical and functional outcomes than those with nondislocated joints at a mean 6.5-year follow-up. The current MLKI classification based solely on ligament involvement may be obscuring outcome research by not accounting for true dislocation.
PMID: 38400667
ISSN: 1552-3365
CID: 5634642

Tranexamic Acid for Rotator Cuff Repair: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Hurley, Eoghan T; Rodriguez, Kaitlyn; Karavan, Mark P; Levin, Jay M; Helmkamp, Joshua; Anakwenze, Oke; Alaia, Michael J; Klifto, Christopher S
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been conducted to assess the use of tranexamic acid (TXA) in the setting of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR). However, these studies have shown mixed results, with some showing improved intraoperative visualization, subsequent operative times, and pain levels, and others finding no difference. PURPOSE/UNASSIGNED:To perform a systematic review of the RCTs in the literature to evaluate the use of TXA on ARCR. STUDY DESIGN/UNASSIGNED:Meta-analysis; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:value < .05 was deemed statistically significant. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:= .001). No study found any difference in intraoperative pump pressures or swelling. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:TXA improved visualization, operative time, and subsequent postoperative pain levels in patients undergoing ARCR.
PMID: 38343386
ISSN: 1552-3365
CID: 5635582

Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport (RTS) and RTS Rates Are Similar in Patients After Either Bilateral or Unilateral Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

Buldo-Licciardi, Michael; Rynecki, Nicole D.; Rao, Naina; Eskenazi, Jordan; Montgomery, Samuel R.; Li, Zachary I.; Moore, Michael; Alaia, Michael J.; Strauss, Eric J.; Jazrawi, Laith M.; Campbell, Kirk A.
Purpose: To compare psychological readiness to return to sport (RTS), RTS rate, level of return, and time to return between patients who underwent bilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) and those who underwent unilateral ACLR. Methods: The electronic medical record at a single academic medical center was queried for patients who underwent ACLR from January 2012 to May 2020. The inclusion criteria were skeletally mature patients who underwent either single or sequential bilateral ACLR and who had undergone either the primary ACLR or second contralateral ACLR at least 2 years earlier. Bilateral ACLRs were matched 1:3 to unilateral reconstructions based on age, sex, and body mass index. Psychological readiness to RTS was assessed using the validated ACL Return to Sport After Injury (ACL-RSI) scale. This, along with time to return and level of RTS, was compared between the 2 cohorts. Results: In total, 170 patients were included, of whom 44 underwent bilateral ACLR and 132 underwent unilateral ACLR. At the time of the first surgical procedure, patients in the unilateral cohort were aged 28.8 ± 9.4 years and those in the bilateral cohort were aged 25.7 ± 9.8 years (P = .06). The average time difference between the first and second surgical procedures was 28.4 ± 22.3 months. There was no difference in psychological readiness to RTS (50.5 in bilateral cohort vs 48.1 in unilateral cohort, P = .66), RTS rate (78.0% in unilateral cohort vs 65.9% in bilateral cohort, P = .16), percentage of return to preinjury sport level (61.2% in unilateral cohort vs 69.0% in bilateral cohort, P = .21), or time to return (41.2 ± 29.3 weeks in unilateral cohort vs 35.2 ± 23.7 weeks in bilateral cohort, P = .31) between the 2 cohorts. Conclusions: Compared with patients who undergo unilateral ACLR, patients who undergo bilateral ACLR are equally as psychologically ready to RTS, showing equal rates of RTS, time to return, and level of return. Level of Evidence: Level III, retrospective cohort study.
ISSN: 2666-061x
CID: 5620732

Increased kinesiophobia leads to lower return to sport rate and clinical outcomes following osteochondral allograft transplantation of the knee

Triana, Jairo; DeClouette, Brittany; Montgomery, Samuel R; Avila, Amanda; Shankar, Dhruv S; Alaia, Michael J; Strauss, Eric J; Campbell, Kirk A
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study is to describe the postoperative psychological state of patients following osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation in the knee and to determine whether patient-perceived kinesiophobia is associated with the rate of return to sport (RTS). METHODS:A retrospective review of the electronic medical record at a single institution was conducted for all patients that underwent OCA transplantation from January 2010 to 2020. Patient-reported outcomes including the visual analog scale (VAS), knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) and the Tampa scale of kinesiophobia-11 (TSK-11) were collected. Patients were surveyed regarding their postoperative RTS status. RESULTS:A total of 38 patients (52.6% female) were included in our analysis. Overall, 24 patients (63.2%) returned to sport with 12 (50%) of these patients returning at a lower level of play. When comparing patients that return to sport to those that did not, patients that return had significantly superior KOOS pain (p = 0.019) and KOOS QOL (p = 0.011). Measures of kinesiophobia (TSK-11) were significantly higher among patients that did not return to sport (p = 0.014), while satisfaction (n.s.) and pain intensity (n.s.) were comparable between groups. Logistic regression models controlling for demographic factors, VAS pain scores and lesion size showed that for every one-point increase in TSK-11 kinesiophobia score, patients were 1.33 times more likely to return to sport at a lower level (p = 0.009). For every one-point increase in TSK-11 scores KOOS QOL decreased by 2.4 points (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Fear of reinjury decreases the likelihood that patients will return to their preoperative level of sport after OCA transplantation. Patients that do not return to sport report significantly greater fear of reinjury and inferior clinical outcomes, despite similar levels of satisfaction and pain compared to those that return. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level III.
PMID: 38294055
ISSN: 1433-7347
CID: 5627612