Role of transoral robotic surgery in surgical treatment of early-stage supraglottic larynx carcinoma
BACKGROUND:There are several options for primary surgical treatment of early-stage supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), including transoral robotic surgery (TORS). The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes of TORS to open partial laryngectomy and transoral laser microsurgery (TLM). METHODS:Patients with clinical classification T1-2 supraglottic SCC diagnosed 2010-2019, treated with TORS, open partial laryngectomy, or TLM in the National Cancer Database were selected. RESULTS:One thousand six hundred three patients were included: 17% TORS, 26.5% TLM, 56.5% open. TORS patients had the lowest rates of adjuvant treatment (28.4% vs. TLM: 45.0%, open: 38.5%, p < 0.001), and lower positive margin rates than TLM (16.9% vs. 30.5%, p < 0.001). Thirty-day and ninety-day post-operative mortality did not differ between the approaches. Five-year survival was higher following TORS compared to open surgery (77.8% vs. 66.1%, p = 0.01); this difference persisted following matched-pair analysis. CONCLUSIONS:TORS may be a safe and effective surgical approach for early-stage supraglottic SCC in appropriate patients.
American Thyroid Association Guidelines and National Trends in Management of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
Importance/UNASSIGNED:Over time, the American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines have increasingly promoted more limited treatments for well-differentiated thyroid cancers. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To determine whether the 2009 and 2015 ATA guidelines were associated with changes in the management of low-risk papillary thyroid carcinomas on a national scale. Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:This historical cohort study used the National Cancer Database. All papillary thyroid carcinomas diagnosed from 2004 to 2019 in the National Cancer Database were selected. Patients with tumors of greater than 4 cm, metastases, or clinical evidence of nodal disease were excluded. Data were analyzed from August 1, 2021, to September 1, 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:The primary aim was to tabulate changes in the rates of thyroid lobectomy (TL), total thyroidectomy (TT), and TT plus radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy after the 2009 and 2015 ATA guidelines. The secondary aim was to determine in which settings (eg, academic vs community) the practice patterns changed the most. Results/UNASSIGNED:A total of 194â€¯254 patients (155â€¯796 [80.2%] female patients; median [range] age at diagnosis, 51 [18-90] years) who underwent treatment during the study period were identified. Among patients who underwent surgery, rates of TL decreased from 15.1% to 13.7% after the 2009 guidelines but subsequently increased to 22.9% after the 2015 changes. Among patients undergoing TT, rates of adjuvant RAI decreased from 48.7% to 37.1% after 2009 and to 19.3% after the 2015 guidelines. Trends were similar for subgroups based on sex and race and ethnicity. However, academic institutions saw larger increases in TL rates (14.9% to 25.7%) than community hospitals (16.3% to 19.5%). Additionally, greater increases in TL rates were observed for tumors 1 to 2 cm (6.8% to 18.9%) and 2 to 4 cm (6.6% to 16.0%) than tumors less than 1 cm (22.8% to 29.2%). Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:In this cohort study among patients with papillary thyroid carcinomas up to 4 cm, ATA guideline changes corresponded with increased TL and reduced adjuvant RAI. These changes were primarily seen in academic institutions, suggesting an opportunity to expand guideline-based care in the community setting.
Patterns of Care and Outcomes of Carcinosarcoma of the Major Salivary Glands
OBJECTIVE:Carcinosarcoma of the salivary gland is a rare malignant biphasic tumor. The present study investigates the epidemiology and clinical behavior of carcinosarcoma of the major salivary glands using the National Cancer Database (NCDB). STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Historical cohort study. SETTING/METHODS:NCDB. METHODS:All tumors were selected between 2004 and 2018. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, treatments, and survival were analyzed. Cox regression analysis was performed in surgically treated patients. RESULTS:= .008) remained significant. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Carcinosarcoma is a rare salivary gland tumor that frequently presents at a locally advanced stage. Despite multimodality treatments, the outcomes are poor. In the absence of clinical trial data, these data from the NCDB could guide clinicians in the management of this rare disease.
Depth of Invasion in Oral Tongue Cancer and Risk of Regional Failure [Letter]
Nodal Metastases in Pediatric and Adult Acinic Cell Carcinoma of the Major Salivary Glands
OBJECTIVE:Acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) is a rare, usually low-grade salivary malignancy. Evidence on rates of lymph node metastases (LNMs) is limited in pediatric patients and varies significantly (4%-45%) in adults. We set out to determine and compare rates of LNMs in pediatric and adult AciCC and to analyze their impact on survival, using the National Cancer Database. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Historical cohort study. SETTING/METHODS:National Cancer Database. METHODS:All AciCCs of the major salivary glands with complete clinical and pathologic nodal staging were selected between 2010 and 2016. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, treatment, and survival were analyzed. Univariable and multivariable regression were performed to determine factors associated with LNMs and survival. RESULTS:< .001) were associated with LNM in adult patients. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:LNMs in AciCC of the major salivary glands are rare in children and adults. However, high-grade and T3-T4 tumors are associated with an increased risk of LNM. LNM is associated with worse survival.
Transoral robotic surgery adoption and safety in treatment of oropharyngeal cancers
BACKGROUND:Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2009 for the treatment of oropharyngeal cancers (oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma [OPSCC]). This study investigated the adoption and safety of TORS. METHODS:All patients who underwent TORS for OPSCC in the National Cancer Data Base from 2010 to 2016 were selected. Trends in the positive margin rate (PMR), 30-day unplanned readmission, and early postoperative mortality were evaluated. Outcomes after TORS, nonrobotic surgery (NRS), and nonsurgical treatment were compared with matched-pair survival analyses. RESULTS:From 2010 to 2016, among 73,661 patients with OPSCC, 50,643 were treated nonsurgically, 18,024 were treated with NRS, and 4994 were treated with TORS. TORS utilization increased every year from 2010 (n = 363; 4.2%) to 2016 (n = 994; 8.3%). The TORS PMR for base of tongue malignancies decreased significantly over the study period (21.6% in 2010-2011 vs 15.8% in 2015-2016; P = .03). The TORS PMR at high-volume centers (â‰¥10 cases per year; 11.2%) was almost half that of low-volume centers (<10 cases per year; 19.3%; P < .001). The rates of 30-day unplanned readmission (4.1%) and 30-day postoperative mortality (1.0%) after TORS were low and did not vary over time. High-volume TORS centers had significantly lower rates of 30-day postoperative mortality than low-volume centers (0.5% vs 1.5%; P = .006). In matched-pair analyses controlling for clinicopathologic cofactors, 30-, 60-, and 90-day posttreatment mortality did not vary among patients with OPSCC treated with TORS, NRS, or nonsurgical treatment. CONCLUSIONS:TORS has become widely adopted and remains safe across the country with a very low risk of severe complications comparable to the risk with NRS. Although safety is excellent nationally, high-volume TORS centers have superior outcomes with lower rates of positive margins and early postoperative mortality.
Including Surgical Resection in the Multimodal Management of Very Locally Advanced Sinonasal Cancer
OBJECTIVE:Sinonasal cancer often presents as locoregionally advanced disease. National guidelines recommend management of stage T4b tumors with systemic therapy and radiotherapy, but recent studies suggest that including surgical resection in the multimodal treatment of these tumors may improve local control and survival. We queried the National Cancer Database to examine patterns of care and outcomes in T4b sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Prospectively gathered data. SETTING/METHODS:National Cancer Database. METHODS:Patients with T4b N0-3 M0 sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed in 2004 to 2016 were stratified between those who received chemoradiotherapy and those who underwent surgical resection with neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment. The overall survival of each cohort was assessed via Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard models, with repeat analysis after reweighting of data via inverse probability of treatment weighting. RESULTS:= .004]). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Surgical treatment with neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment for stage T4b sinonasal SCC was associated with promising survival outcomes, suggesting a role for incorporating surgery in treatment of select T4b SCC, particularly when removal of all macroscopic disease is feasible.
Incidence, Treatment and Clinical Outcomes for Lacrimal Gland Cancer
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE(S): Lacrimal gland cancer is a rare tumor with little data regarding outcomes and optimal management. We performed a large database analysis using the National Cancer Database (NC
Improving Quality and Safety of Thyroidectomy [Meeting Abstract]
Introduction: Thyroidectomy is commonly performed in otolaryngology. Complications such as recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury and severe hypocalcemia have reported incidences in national studies as high as 3% and 8%, respectively. Narcotic pain medications are commonly used for postoperative pain management. Here, we present the long-term results of a thyroidectomy quality and safety improvement program, with an emphasis on reducing narcotic use.
Method(s): All surgeons who perform thyroidectomy established standards for antibiotic administration, postoperative calcium management, and narcotics use. The program was established in 2018 and data on adverse events, length of stay, antibiotic and narcotic use were recorded prospectively from June 2018 to January 2021. Data trends were analyzed throughout the course of the study.
Result(s): During the study period, 542 thyroidectomies were performed by 14 surgeons. The average length of stay was less than 24 hours. Five (0.9%) adverse events were recorded: 1 (0.2%) temporary RLN dysfunction, 3 (0.6%) hematomas, 1 (0.2%) surgical site infection, and 1 (0.2%) temporary hypocalcemia. The average number of narcotics prescribed declined from 18 doses (95%CI: 16.8-18.5) in 2019 to 9 in 2020 (95%CI: 8.5-9.6) (p<0.0001), without an increase in need for refills. No instances of permanent hypocalcemia or permanent RLN injury were identified.
Conclusion(s): By implementing a thyroidectomy quality improvement program, we achieved extremely low rates of adverse events and significantly reduced the use of narcotics without adverse effects. These data can inform practitioners and the public about expected outcomes of thyroid surgery, and establish benchmarks for quality and safety.
Shared Decision-making and Stakeholder Engagement in COVID-19 Tracheostomy-Reply