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Psychiatric Considerations in Perinatal Mental Illness

Azarchi, Sarah; Ackerman, Marra; Caravella, Rachel; Jones, Clancy; Kondas, Cathy; Madanes, Sharon; Rehim, Aimy; Deutch, Allison
ISSN: 0048-5713
CID: 5525362

(175) Creating Operational and Safety Metrics for a Consultation-Liaison (C-L) Psychiatry Service [Meeting Abstract]

Ying, P; CARAVELLA, R A; Ackerman, M G; Ginsberg, D L; Sreedhar, A; Casale, J A
Background: Data that demonstrates productivity, value or quality in clinical practice are high priority in healthcare systems but are less developed for the field of C-L Psychiatry. Recent work has focused on qualitative metrics (Kovacs et al., 2021) and service effectiveness (Wood, et al., 2014) but there is no consensus on what operational or safety metrics CL teams should track. Without reliable metrics, it can be challenging to illustrate daily CL service operations or provide quantitative support to justify expansion of staffing to hospital leadership. In response to an administrative need, our service started an ongoing collaboration with departmental leadership, administrative support staff, and medical center information technology to develop CL operational and safety metrics.
Method(s): We developed 17 monthly and 9 daily metrics to describe our operations. These metrics cluster into the following groups: clinical volume and encounters; behavioral emergency response activations (BERTs) and bedside safety huddles for patients with recent violence; length of stay; proactive Addiction CL service; behavioral acuity highlights (ex: 1:1s for suicide risk); and "CL Dwell Time" which is the time from medical clearance to discharge to inpatient psychiatry (if applicable). From this data, we selected key metrics to display on a quarterly basis to senior hospital leadership in the form of a "metrics card" to parallel our medicine and surgical colleagues who present High Reliability Organization score cards.
Result(s): Our service demonstrated increases in consultation requests, completed consultations, total clinical encounters and activation of BERTs. We compared trends for total length of stay by ultimate discharge destination, such as psychiatric admission vs acute rehabilitation vs home. The data allowed for deeper dives into concerning trends, such as the problem of escalating violence in the general medical hospital as evidenced by the increasing BERTs per month over several years. We examined the number of unique patients with BERTs, BERTs per patient, BERTs per patient by psychiatric diagnoses, and BERT total per medical unit or service. The data has allowed for the development of interventions to reduce BERTs for specific populations and medical units.
Discussion(s): The creation of comprehensive CL service operational metrics has provided our team with the ability to analyze clinical, acuity, and safety trends over the past 2 years. This ability has led to improved advocacy for service needs (i.e. expansion of FTE and fellowship lines), data-informed communication with hospital leadership, and identification of clinical care gaps needing quality improvement. References: 1. Kovacs Z, Asztalos M, et al. Quality assessment of a consultation-liaison psychiatry service. BMC Psychiatry. 2021 Jun 1;21(1):281. 2. Wood R, Wand AP. The effectiveness of consultation-liaison psychiatry in the general hospital setting: a systematic review. J Psychosom Res. 2014 Mar;76(3):175-92.
ISSN: 2667-2960
CID: 5511782

(PO-050) Considerations for Transplant Risk Assessment in the Setting of Co-occurring Alcohol Use Disorder and Eating Disorder [Meeting Abstract]

Ali, S F; Deutch, A; Sidelnik, S; Ackerman, M
Background: Rates of alcohol use disorder amongst women have increased markedly since the start of the Covid-19 Pandemic with some studies showing as much as a 41% increase in heavy drinking days (1). Among women with alcohol use disorder, there is a high degree of comorbidity with eating disorders (ED) with studies suggesting rates of co-occurring disease as high as 23-50%(2). However, there is little data on the assessment of transplant recipients presenting with co-occuring ED and AUD. Case: A 34-year-old woman with no known past psychiatric or substance use history presented to our hospital in acute hepatic failure (MELD Score 34) in the context of escalating alcohol use over the course of the COVID-19 Pandemic. As the patient did not respond to multiple medical therapies, evaluation for liver transplantation was initiated. The patient was assessed using the Stanford Integrated Psychosocial Assessment for Transplant (SIPAT), and found to be a high risk candidate. During the course of our evaluation, the patient demonstrated a lack of interest in eating food, refusing to eat food that required chewing, and expressed multiple consequences about the aversive consequences of eating. She described extremely restrictive eating patterns with her lowest weight being 95 lbs (BMI < 16), leading to nutritional deficiencies, peripheral neuropathy and anemia. Given the absence of excessive concern regarding appearance or body weight, a diagnosis of avoidant restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) was made. Despite efforts to engage the patient, she demonstrated little understanding of her ED. The patient was declined for listing and medically stabilized. She was declined by all inpatient substance use programs given the extent of her ED and rejected recommendations for targeted ED treatment. She was ultimately discharged to an intensive outpatient program for AUD.
Discussion(s): There is a paucity of information regarding liver transplantation in patients with co-occurring AUD and EDs. However, there are many unique considerations in the management of this patient population in both the pre- and post- transplant period. Existing screening methods such as the SIPAT do little to evaluate transplant risk in patients with EDs relative to other psychiatric illnesses. And while predictive risk factors for recurrence of alcohol use after transplant have been identified, little is known about the risk factors for ED relapse. It appears that the emphasis on abstinence from alcohol in the post-transplant period can be a potent trigger for ED relapse(3). Post-transplant, patients with ED have an increased risk of relapse to alcohol and poorer retention in residential treatment(4).
Conclusion(s): Patients with co-occurring ED and AUD requiring liver transplantation are a challenging patient population with complex pre- and post-transplant considerations. References: 1. Pollard M, et al. "Changes in Adult Alcohol Use and Consequences During COVID-19 Pandemic in the US." JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(9). 2. Bulik, Cynthia, et al. "Alcohol Use Disorder Comorbidity in Eating Disorders: A Multi-center Study." Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 65:7, July 2004. 3. Coffman K L, et al. Treatment of the Postoperative Alcoholic Liver Transplant Recipient With Other Addictions." Liver Transpl Surg. 1997;3:322-327. 4. Elmquist, J. et al., "Eating Disorder Symptoms and Length of Stay in Residential Treatment for Substance Use: A Brief Report." Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 11(3-4), 233-237.
ISSN: 2667-2960
CID: 5291762

(PO-048) Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Prevalence of Substance Use Disorders in Medically Hospitalized Patients [Meeting Abstract]

Collins, K; Sidelnik, S; Ackerman, M; Chong, C; Flatow, S; Siegel, C; Ginsberg, D
Background/Significance: During the COVID-19 pandemic, people with substance use disorders have experienced increased rates of overdose, decreased access to substance use disorder treatment, and increased risk for adverse COVID outcomes (NIDA, 2020). Throughout the pandemic, NYU Langone Health has continued using the Tobacco, Alcohol, and Prescription Substance (TAPS) screening tool for all inpatient admissions in order to identify and provide proactive consultation to hospitalized patients at risk for substance use disorders.
Method(s): We conducted a retrospective review of adult inpatient medical and surgical admissions to NYU Langone Health, using data collected from a pre-defined Epic report based on TAPS documentation. We compared groups pre-COVID-19 pandemic (defined as 9/2018-9/2019) and during COVID-19 pandemic (defined as 3/2020-3/2021) for the following outcomes: (1) nursing compliance rate with TAPS administration, (2) prevalence of patients with substance use disorders as measured by positive TAPS screen, and (3) severity of alcohol use disorder among patients with TAPS positive for alcohol.
Result(s): During the pre-COVID-19 period, 24,057 patients were screened with a compliance rate of 90% and a positivity rate of 6% (N=1673). ICU compliance was 84%. Prevalence of patients at risk for various substance use disorders was as follows: 4.3% (N=1027) alcohol, 1.5% (N=357) cannabis, 0.32% (N=78) heroin, 0.24% (N=57) opiates, 0.15% (N=35) sedatives, 0.48% (N=116) stimulants, and 0.01% (N=3) prescription stimulants. Of positive alcohol screens, 26.7% (274/1027) represented the highest severity of use (Alcohol Score 4). During the COVID-19 period, 17,931 patients were screened with a compliance rate of 82% and positivity rate of 6% (N=1374). ICU compliance was 74%. Prevalence of patients at risk for various substance use disorders was as follows: 4.3% (N=772) alcohol, 1.5% (N=272) cannabis, 0.60% (N=108) heroin, 0.26% (N=46) opiates, 0.20% (N=35) sedatives, 0.69% (N=124) stimulants, and 0.04% (N=7) prescription stimulants. Of positive alcohol screens, 41.2% (318/772) were highest severity. We were unable to meaningfully test for significant given limitations of Epic datasets and variability in unit composition and staffing throughout COVID-19 period.
Discussion(s): There was decreased compliance with TAPS administration during COVID-19 as compared to pre-COVID-19, as well as overall low compliance in ICUs during both time periods. There were similar rates of positive screens for all substance use disorders pre-COVID-19 and during COVID-19, with an increase in positive heroin and other opiate screens during COVID-19. Among patients with positive alcohol screens, there was increased severity of alcohol scores during COVID-19 relative to pre-COVID-19. Conclusion/Implications: These results suggest a change in patterns of substance use during the COVID-19 pandemic, consistent with findings from prior studies of increased opioid overdoses (Slavova 2020, Georgia Department of Public Health 2020) and severity of substance use (NIDA 2020). Poor ICU compliance suggests increased barriers to TAPS administration in patients with critical illness and/or altered mental status, which may lead to decreased identification and treatment of patients at increased risk for substance use disorders. These results may inform clinical practice and future studies regarding utilization of TAPS screen and proactive addiction psychiatry consultation service in acute care settings. References: 1. NIDA. 2020, September 14. Addressing the Unique Challenges of COVID-19 for People in Recovery. Retrieved from nique-challenges-covid-19-people-in-recovery on 2021, March 15 2. Slavova, S., Rock, P., Bush, H. M., Quesinberry, D., & Walsh, S. L. (2020). Signal of increased opioid overdose during COVID-19 from emergency medical services data. Drug and alcohol dependence, 214, 108176. 3. Georgia Department of Public Health. 2020, June 19. Suspected Drug Overdose Increases in Georgia Amid COVID-19. Retrieved from e_increases_in_georgia_amid_covid-19_1.pdf
ISSN: 2667-2960
CID: 5291772

#BlackLivesMatter to C-L Psychiatrists: Examining Racial Bias in Clinical Management of Behavioral Emergencies in the Inpatient Medical Setting [Meeting Abstract]

Caravella, R A; Ying, P; Ackerman, M; Deutch, A; Siegel, C; Lin, Z; Vaughn, R; Madanes, S; Caroff, A; Storto, M; Polychroniou, P; Lewis, C; Kozikowski, A
Background: CL psychiatrists are uniquely positioned to combat structural racism in medicine Currently, there are no published papers examining racial bias in the management of psychiatric emergencies in the general medical hospital. Given the potential for restrictive clinical interventions that directly challenge a patient's autonomy (including intramuscular injections and restraints), our group embarked on a long-term, quality improvement project to detect and address racial bias affecting the clinical management of these psychiatric emergencies.
Method(s): Our institution has a multidisciplinary behavioral code team known as the Behavioral Emergency Response Team (BERT) that responds to behavioral emergencies throughout the medical hospital. Secondary BERT event data occurring from 2017 to 2020 was combined with demographic data from the electronic medical record. Race and ethnic data were collapsed into unique, phenotypic categories. BERT events were coded based on the most restrictive intervention utilized. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample and examine whether race / ethnicity correlated with BERT intervention utilized, diagnostic impression, reason for BERT activation, or recurrent BERTs.
Result(s): Our sample included 1532 BERT events representing N = 902 unique patients. The main interaction of BERT intervention by Race / Ethnic category reached statistical significance (p=0.04). Though most BERTs only required verbal de-escalation (n=419, 46.45%), 3% of BERTs (n = 29) escalated to 4-pt restraints (most restrictive intervention). Though reaching level 5 was rare, Black patients had a statistically significant higher likelihood of receiving this intervention compared with White patients (6% v 2%, p=0.027) and compared with all other non-Black patients (6% v 2%, p=0.040). Although the overall comparison for Race/Ethnicity and the diagnostic impression "Psychosis" did not reach significance (p=0.086), targeted analysis showed that Black patients were significantly more likely to have "Psychosis" listed as a contributing factor compared with White patients (p=0.009) and all other non-Black patients (p=0.016). Several other comparisons with Race / Ethnic category reached statistical significance: Age (p=0.048), and need for interpreter yes/no (p<0.001). Closer examination of the interaction of Race/Ethnicity x Need for Interpreter revealed that half of events involving Asian patients (n=22, 53.66%) and a third of events involving Hispanic patients (n=29, 30.53%) required interpreter services.
Discussion(s): This study demonstrates the feasibility of investigating racial bias in behavioral emergency management. The results of this preliminary analysis suggest multiple areas for enhanced education, self-awareness development, and programmatic improvement to target systemic racism, decrease racial bias, and improve patient care. These areas include bias in restraints use, the role of language in behavioral emergencies, and the influence of race on perception of underlying diagnosis.
ISSN: 2667-2960
CID: 5291782

Patient Satisfaction with and Use of Telemental Health Services in the Perinatal Period: a Survey Study

Ackerman, Marra; Greenwald, Elizabeth; Noulas, Paraskevi; Ahn, Christina
We aimed to assess patients' utilization of and satisfaction with telemental health (TMH) in the perinatal period. We hypothesized that satisfaction with TMH would be at least equal to, if not greater than, with in-person appointments. We conducted a cross-sectional survey between March 2018-June 2019 to evaluate patient satisfaction with and use of TMH services in the perinatal period. Participants used TMH services across the second and third trimester of pregnancy and the first year post-partum. Nearly half of the patients (8/19, 42%) used TMH to see their provider within the first two weeks post-partum. Participants were most commonly in treatment for anxiety (14/19, 74%) and/or depression (9/19, 47%). Most participants agreed or strongly agreed (13/19, 69%) that TMH improved their access to healthcare and that they could see the clinician as well as if they met in person (14/19, 74%). TMH was a highly accepted and appreciated method of mental health care delivery for perinatal women when offered as an alternative to in-person or telephone sessions.
PMID: 33389477
ISSN: 1573-6709
CID: 4738442

Prenatal exposure to bisphenols and phthalates and postpartum depression: The role of neurosteroid hormone disruption

Jacobson, Melanie H; Stein, Cheryl R; Liu, Mengling; Ackerman, Marra G; Blakemore, Jennifer K; Long, Sara E; Pinna, Graziano; Romay-Tallon, Raquel; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Zhu, Hongkai; Trasande, Leonardo
CONTEXT/BACKGROUND:Postpartum depression (PPD) is a serious psychiatric disorder. While causes remain poorly understood, perinatal sex hormone fluctuations are an important factor, and allopregnanolone in particular has emerged as a key determinant. While synthetic environmental chemicals such as bisphenols and phthalates are known to affect sex hormones, no studies have measured allopregnanolone and the consequences of these hormonal changes on PPD have not been interrogated. OBJECTIVE:To investigate associations of repeated measures of urinary bisphenols and phthalates in early- and mid-pregnancy with serum pregnenolone, progesterone, allopregnanolone, and pregnanolone concentrations in mid-pregnancy and PPD symptoms at four months postpartum. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTION/UNASSIGNED:Prospective cohort study of 139 pregnant women recruited between 2016-18. Bisphenols and phthalates were measured in early- and mid-pregnancy urine samples. Serum sex steroid hormone concentrations were measured in mid-pregnancy. PPD was assessed at 4 months postpartum using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Multiple informant models were fit using generalized estimating equations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:Serum levels of allopregnanolone, progesterone, pregnanolone, and pregnenolone were examined as log-transformed continuous variables. PPD symptoms were examined as continuous EPDS scores and dichotomously with scores ≥10 defined as PPD. RESULTS:Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) metabolites were associated with reduced progesterone concentrations. Log-unit increases in ∑DnOP and ∑DiNP predicted 8.1% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): -15.2%, -0.4%) and 7.7% (95% CI: -13.3%, -1.7%) lower progesterone, respectively. ∑DnOP was associated with increased odds of PPD (odds ratio=1.48 (95% CI: 1.04, 2.11)). CONCLUSIONS:Endocrine disrupting chemicals may influence hormonal shifts during pregnancy as well as contribute to PPD.
PMID: 33792735
ISSN: 1945-7197
CID: 4862732

Development of wellness programs during the COVID-19 pandemic response

Spray, Amanda M.; Patel, Nikhil A.; Sood, Ashvin; Wu, Stephanie X.; Simon, Naomi M.; Podbury, Rachel; Vasserman, Ariela; Caravella, Rachel A.; Silverman, Yona; Pochtar, Randi; Liaw, K. Ron Li; Ackerman, Marra G.
Health care workers are on the front lines of the recent pandemic, facing significant challenges to their physical and mental health. This article details the efforts undertaken by a health care system and two academically affiliated hospital systems to provide emotional support to their frontline staff. The multipronged approach describes coordinating efforts to decrease duplication of services and to increase centralization of information. This included enhancing pathways for faculty, staff, and trainees to obtain individual and group treatment and to have access to highquality self-help resources. Continuous feedback has been elicited to ensure that efforts are consistent with expressed needs and in turn services undergo modifications as needed. This article seeks to provide an overview of how one health system has thus far approached the important issue of staff support as well as the challenges experienced and lessons learned along the way.
ISSN: 0048-5713
CID: 4543512

Mental Illness and BRCA1/2 Genetic Testing Intention Among Multiethnic Women Undergoing Screening Mammography

Jones, Tarsha; Freeman, Katherine; Ackerman, Marra; Trivedi, Meghna S; Silverman, Thomas; Shapiro, Peter; Kukafka, Rita; Crew, Katherine D
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To examine associations between patient-reported mental illness diagnosis and symptoms and BRCA1/2 genetic testing intention among women undergoing screening mammography. SAMPLE &AMP; SETTING/UNASSIGNED:100 multiethnic women of lower socioeconomic status who were undergoing mammography screening and met family history criteria for BRCA1/2 genetic testing. METHODS &AMP; VARIABLES/UNASSIGNED:Descriptive and bivariate nonparametric statistics and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine associations between mental illness and genetic testing intention. Variables were anxiety, depression, patient-reported mental illness diagnosis and symptoms, and testing intention. RESULTS:Prevalence rates of mental illness symptoms were 36% for clinically significant depression and 36% for anxiety. Although 76% of participants intended to undergo genetic testing, only 5% had completed testing. History of mental illness and elevated levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms were positively correlated with testing intention in the bivariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, only younger age and less education were associated with testing intention. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING/CONCLUSIONS:Future studies should address psychosocial needs and other competing barriers at the patient, provider, and healthcare system levels to increase access to BRCA1/2 genetic testing among multiethnic women.
PMID: 31845917
ISSN: 1538-0688
CID: 4243572

The Impact of Mental Illness on Uptake of Genetic Counseling for Hereditary Breast Cancer and Ovarian Cancer in a Multiethnic Cohort of Breast Cancer Patients

Ackerman, Marra G; Shapiro, Peter A; Coe, Austin; Trivedi, Meghna S; Crew, Katherine D
We evaluated whether mental illness is a barrier to genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) in multiethnic breast cancer patients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 308 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer and eligible for HBOC genetic testing seen in the breast clinic of an academic, urban medical center from 2007 to 2015. Uptake of genetic services and history of mental health disorder (MHD), defined as a psychiatric diagnosis or treatment with an antidepressant, mood stabilizer, anxiolytic, or antipsychotic medication, were ascertained by medical chart review. The mean age at breast cancer diagnosis was 56 years, with 44% non-Hispanic whites, 37% Hispanics, and 15% non-Hispanic blacks. Ninety-nine (32%) women met study criteria for MHD, 73% had a genetics referral, 57% had genetic counseling, and 54% completed BRCA testing. Uptake of genetic counseling services did not differ by race/ethnicity or presence of MHD. In multivariable analysis, younger age at diagnosis, Ashkenazi Jewish heritage, and family history of breast cancer were associated with HBOC genetic counseling. A relatively high proportion of breast cancer patients eligible for HBOC genetic testing were referred to a genetic counselor and referral status did not vary by MHD or race/ethnicity.
PMID: 28323373
ISSN: 1524-4741
CID: 2499412