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Immunohistochemical analysis of estrogen receptor in breast cancer with ESR1 mutations detected by hybrid capture-based next-generation sequencing

Ross, Dara S; Zehir, Ahmet; Brogi, Edi; Konno, Fumiko; Krystel-Whittemore, Melissa; Edelweiss, Marcia; Berger, Michael F; Toy, Weiyi; Chandarlapaty, Sarat; Razavi, Pedram; Baselga, José; Wen, Hannah Y
Estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), encoded by ESR1, is detected by immunohistochemistry in approximately 70% of invasive breast cancers and serves as a strong predictive biomarker. ESR1-activating mutations in the ligand-binding domain have been reported in up to 35-40% of ER-positive metastatic breast cancers and are associated with endocrine therapy resistance and disease progression. At present, it is unclear whether ESR1 mutations alter the immunohistochemical detection of ER performed in routine clinical practice. In this study, ESR1 mutations in breast cancer were identified utilizing Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets (MSK-IMPACT), a Food and Drug Administration-approved hybridization capture-based next-generation sequencing assay. Five hundred and eighty-six breast cancers from patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease were analyzed using MSK-IMPACT in the study period. ESR1 somatic alterations were identified in 67 breast cancer samples from 66 patients. Immunohistochemical analysis of ER, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 was performed on the primary and treated breast cancers from these patients at the time of diagnosis. Twenty unique ESR1 mutations were identified involving the ligand-binding domain, all in breast cancer samples from patients previously treated with endocrine therapy. The most frequent mutations were D538G (n = 22), Y537S (n = 7), and E380Q (n = 7). All breast cancer samples with an ESR1 mutation were ER-positive by immunohistochemistry. Review of the ER immunohistochemistry in the paired untreated primary tumor and treated tumor from 34 patients showed no detectable change in the ER-positive immunohistochemical status (median percentage of invasive tumor cells with nuclear staining: untreated primary tumor 90%, treated tumor 95%). We conclude that ESR1 mutations do not appreciably diminish ER-positive staining by immunohistochemistry. In addition to standard biomarker testing by immunohistochemistry, the assessment of ESR1 mutations by molecular testing can help guide the clinical management of patients with ER-positive breast cancer in the setting of endocrine resistance and progression of disease.
PMID: 30158597
ISSN: 1530-0285
CID: 5161432

Breast carcinoma with an Oncotype Dx recurrence score <18: Rate of distant metastases in a large series with clinical follow-up

Wen, Hannah Y; Krystel-Whittemore, Melissa; Patil, Sujata; Pareja, Fresia; Bowser, Zenica L; Dickler, Maura N; Norton, Larry; Morrow, Monica; Hudis, Clifford A; Brogi, Edi
BACKGROUND:A 21-gene expression assay (Oncotype DX recurrence score [RS]) that uses reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction is used clinically in patients with early-stage, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast carcinoma (ER+/HER2- BC) to determine both prognosis with tamoxifen therapy and the usefulness of adding adjuvant chemotherapy. Use of the assay is associated with reductions in overall chemotherapy use. The current study examined the treatments and outcomes in patients with low RS. METHODS:The authors reviewed the institutional database to identify patients with lymph node-negative, ER+/HER2- BC who were treated at the study institution between September 2008 and August 2013 and their 21-gene RS results. RESULTS:A total of 1406 consecutive patients with lymph node-negative ER+/HER2- BC and a low RS were identified (510 patients had an RS of 0-10 and 896 patients had an RS of 11-17). The median age at the time of diagnosis of BC was 56 years; 63 patients (4%) were aged <40 years. Overall, 1361 patients (97%) received endocrine therapy and 170 patients (12%) received chemotherapy. The median follow-up was 46 months. Six patients (0.4%) developed distant metastases (1 patient with an RS of 5 and 5 patients with an RS of 11-17). In the cohorts of patients with an RS of 11 to 17, the absolute rate of distant metastasis among patients aged <40 years was 7.1% (3 of 42 patients) versus 0.2% among patients aged ≥40 years (2 of 854 patients). CONCLUSIONS:The data from the current study document a 0.4% rate of distant metastasis within 5 years of BC diagnosis among patients with lymph node-negative ER+/HER2- BC with an RS <18. Patients aged <40 years at the time of BC diagnosis were observed to have a higher rate of distant metastases. Analysis of data from other studies is necessary to validate this observation further. Cancer 2017;131-137. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
PMID: 27526056
ISSN: 1097-0142
CID: 4134562

Distant Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients with Oncotype Dx Recurrence Score Lower Than 18 [Meeting Abstract]

Krystel-Whittemore, Melissa; Brogi, Edi; Bowser, Zenica L.; Dickler, Maura; Hudis, Clifford; Wen, Hannah Y.
ISSN: 0893-3952
CID: 4135022

Distant Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients with Oncotype Dx Recurrence Score Lower Than 18 [Meeting Abstract]

Krystel-Whittemore, Melissa; Brogi, Edi; Bowser, Zenica L.; Dickler, Maura; Hudis, Clifford; Wen, Hannah Y.
ISSN: 0023-6837
CID: 5161542

Polyomavirus nephropathy of the native kidney in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary fibrosis [Case Report]

Krystel-Whittemore, Melissa; McCarthy, Ellen T; Damjanov, Ivan; Fields, Timothy A
Polyomavirus nephropathy is commonly seen in the renal allograft setting but is uncommon in native kidneys. This paper describes polyomavirus nephropathy that developed in the native kidneys of a patient following immunosuppressive therapy for rheumatoid arthritis/Sjögren's syndrome associated lung disease. The patient presented with dyspnoea and a slow steady rise in serum creatinine. Owing to chronic immunosuppression, calcineurin-inhibitor toxicity was suspected. However, renal biopsy revealed polyomavirus nephropathy. The treatment of choice, lowered immunosuppression, was complicated by exacerbation of the patient's lung disease. This case highlights features of polyomavirus nephropathy in the native kidney, as well as the difficulty in its treatment when immunosuppressive treatment is necessary for medical comorbidities.
PMID: 26318171
ISSN: 1757-790x
CID: 5161412

Mast Cell: A Multi-Functional Master Cell

Krystel-Whittemore, Melissa; Dileepan, Kottarappat N; Wood, John G
Mast cells are immune cells of the myeloid lineage and are present in connective tissues throughout the body. The activation and degranulation of mast cells significantly modulates many aspects of physiological and pathological conditions in various settings. With respect to normal physiological functions, mast cells are known to regulate vasodilation, vascular homeostasis, innate and adaptive immune responses, angiogenesis, and venom detoxification. On the other hand, mast cells have also been implicated in the pathophysiology of many diseases, including allergy, asthma, anaphylaxis, gastrointestinal disorders, many types of malignancies, and cardiovascular diseases. This review summarizes the current understanding of the role of mast cells in many pathophysiological conditions.
PMID: 26779180
ISSN: 1664-3224
CID: 5161422

Changes in Donor Charcteristics over Time Shows Donor BMI Has Minimal Impact on Liver Allograft Utilization in an Area Where Obesity Is Prevalent. [Meeting Abstract]

Raglow, Zoe; Reintjes, Mark; Krystel-Whittemore, Melissa; Dunn, Winston; Schmitt, Timothy; Olson, Jody; Gilroy, Richard
ISSN: 1527-6465
CID: 5161512

Evaluation of Bilary Strictures in Liver Transplantation and the Bacterial Pathogens Associated with Hospitalizations; Review of a 10 Year Cohort. [Meeting Abstract]

Easton, Jessica; Faulman, Abigail; Brase, Michelle; Van Acker, Gustaf; Raglow, Zoe; Krystel-Whittemore, Melissa; Waller, Stephen; Johnson, Phillip; Ellerbeck, Ed; Olyaee, Moji; Gilroy, Richard
ISSN: 1527-6465
CID: 5161522