Imaging of Emerging Infectious Diseases
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:Emerging infectious diseases have seen a record increase in prevalence, and understanding their management is critical in an increasingly global community. In this paper, we review current literature detailing the role of radiology in the diagnosis and treatment of the Ebola (EVD), Zika (ZVD), Chikungunya (CHIKF), H1N1, Middle East Respiratory (MERS), and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) viruses. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:Complex protocols are required to safely use portable imaging in EVD to prevent nosocomial spread of disease. In ZVD, antenatal ultrasound can detect fetal abnormalities early, allowing implementation of care and support to affected families. Imaging is useful in assessing the extent of involvement of chronic CHIKF and monitoring treatment effect. Chest radiography and CT play a more direct role in the diagnosis and monitoring of the viral infections with primarily respiratory manifestations (H1N1, MERS, and SARS). SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS:Radiology plays a variable role in emerging infectious diseases, requiring an understanding of disease transmission and safe imaging practices, as well as imaging features that affect clinical management.
Outcomes of Preoperative MRI-Guided Needle Localization of Nonpalpable Mammographically Occult Breast Lesions
OBJECTIVE: MRI-guided needle localization allows access to MRI-detected mammographically occult breast lesions that are not amenable to MRI-guided biopsy. The purpose of this study was to examine the safety and outcomes of MRI-guided needle localization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-nine consecutive breast lesions that underwent preoperative MRI-guided needle localization were identified. Clinical indications for breast MRI, reasons for performing MRI-guided needle localization, and surgical pathology results were recorded. Lesion characteristics, procedure time, and complications were assessed. RESULTS: Of 99 lesions, 60 (60.6%) were in a location inaccessible for MRI biopsy, necessitating MRI-guided needle localization. Histologic evaluation revealed 38 (38.4%) carcinomas, 31 (31.3%) high-risk lesions, and 30 (30.3%) benign lesions. Carcinoma was more likely to be found in women with known cancer (31/61 [50.8%]; p = 0.003) than in women undergoing imaging for high-risk screening (2/18 [11.1%]) or problem solving (6/20 [30%]). Masses (p = 0.013) and foci (p < 0.001) were more likely to be malignant than were lesions with nonmass enhancement. Foci were significantly more often malignant compared with all other lesion types (9/10 [90%]; p < 0.001). The mean (+/- SD) procedure time was 32.9 +/- 9.39 minutes. All lesions were occult on specimen radiographs. There were no procedure-related complications. CONCLUSION: The positive predictive value of MRI-guided needle localization (38.4%) is comparable to that of mammography- and tomosynthesis-guided localizations and is highest in women with a known diagnosis of cancer. It is highly accurate in targeting small enhancing lesions, thereby improving surgical management. MRI-guided needle localization is a safe, accurate, and time-efficient procedure.
Orientation to Chest MR Imaging with CT Correlation
[New York] : NYUSOM Digital Press (Institute for Innovations in Medical Education), 2015
Extent: 32 p.
WNT10B/Î²-catenin signalling induces HMGA2 and proliferation in metastatic triple-negative breast cancer
Wnt/Î²-catenin signalling has been suggested to be active in basal-like breast cancer. However, in highly aggressive metastatic triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) the role of Î²-catenin and the underlying mechanism(s) for the aggressiveness of TNBC remain unknown. We illustrate that WNT10B induces transcriptionally active Î²-catenin in human TNBC and predicts survival-outcome of patients with both TNBC and basal-like tumours. We provide evidence that transgenic murine Wnt10b-driven tumours are devoid of ERÎ±, PR and HER2 expression and can model human TNBC. Importantly, HMGA2 is specifically expressed during early stages of embryonic mammogenesis and absent when WNT10B expression is lost, suggesting a developmentally conserved mode of action. Mechanistically, ChIP analysis uncovered that WNT10B activates canonical Î²-catenin signalling leading to up-regulation of HMGA2. Treatment of mouse and human triple-negative tumour cells with two Wnt/Î²-catenin pathway modulators or siRNA to HMGA2 decreases HMGA2 levels and proliferation. We demonstrate that WNT10B has epistatic activity on HMGA2, which is necessary and sufficient for proliferation of TNBC cells. Furthermore, HMGA2 expression predicts relapse-free-survival and metastasis in TNBC patients.