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A National Assessment of the Association Between Patient Race and Physician Visit Time During New Outpatient Urology Consultations

Appiah, Jude; Barlow, LaMont; Mmonu, Nnenaya A; Makarov, Danil V; Sugarman, Allison; Matulewicz, Richard S
OBJECTIVE:To determine if there is an association between patient race and physician time spent with the patient during outpatient urology consultations. METHODS:We identified all adult urology new outpatient visits in the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey dataset for 2012-2016. Patient race was dichotomized as White or non-White. Our primary outcome was time spent during the visit between the patient and urologist. Using population-level weighting, we compared differences in mean time spent during visits with White and non-White patients. Mixed-effects linear regression was used to adjust for confounding factors and to account for clustering among individual physicians. Secondary outcomes included number of services provided and if ancillary providers were seen. RESULTS:Over the 5 year period, 1668 raw visits met criteria and were used to estimate 21million new outpatient urology visits nationwide. 80% of all visits were with White patients. Mean physician time spent among visits with white patients was 23.9 minutes and 24.4 minutes for non-White patients. There was no difference in number of services provided but visits with non-white patients were less likely to include an ancillary provider. After adjustment, there was no significant difference in mean time spent with the urologist among visits with White and non-White patients (difference 0.9 minutes, 95% CI: -0.6-2.4). There were also no differences in adjusted mean time spent among return visits or new visits for hematuria, urologic cancers, or BPH. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We found no statistically significant difference in time spent with a urologist during outpatient office consultations between White and non-White patients.
PMID: 34380056
ISSN: 1527-9995
CID: 5085382

Morbidity and Mortality Caused by Noncompliance With California Hospital Licensure: Immediate Jeopardies in California Hospitals, 2007-2017

Zheng, Micha Y; Lui, Hansen; Patino, German; Mmonu, Nnenaya; Cohen, Andrew J; Breyer, Benjamin N
OBJECTIVE:The California Department of Public Health investigates compliance with hospital licensure and issues an administrative penalty when there is an immediate jeopardy. Immediate jeopardies are situations in which a hospital's noncompliance of licensure requirements causes serious injury or death to patient. In this study, we critically examine immediate jeopardies between 2007 and 2017 in California. METHODS:All immediate jeopardies reported between 2007 and 2017 were abstracted for hospital, location, date, details of noncompliance, and patient's health outcome. RESULTS:Of 385 unique immediate jeopardies, 141 (36.6%) caused mortality, 120 (31.2%) caused morbidity, 96 (24.9%) led to a second surgery, 9 (2.3%) caused emotional trauma without physical trauma, and 19 (4.9%) were caught before patients were harmed. Immediate jeopardy categories included the following: surgical (34.2%), medication (18.9%), monitoring (14.2%), falls (7.8%), equipment (5.4%), procedural (5.4%), resuscitation (4.4%), suicide (3.9%), MD/RN miscommunication (3.4%), and abuse (2.3%). CONCLUSIONS:Noncompliance to hospital licensure causes significant morbidity and mortality. Statewide hospital licensure policies should focus on enacting standardized reporting requirements of immediate jeopardies into an Internet-based form that public health officials can regularly analyze to improve hospital safety.
PMID: 35188929
ISSN: 1549-8425
CID: 5172002

Interest in Sex and Conversations About Sexual Health with Health Care Providers Among Older U.S. Adults

Agochukwu-Mmonu, Nnenaya; Malani, Preeti N; Wittmann, Daniela; Kirch, Matthias; Kullgren, Jeff; Singer, Dianne; Solway, Erica
Objectives: Sexual health is an important component of overall health and well-being for older adults. Despite this, little is known about the importance of sex to quality of life, as part of romantic relationships for older adults, and potential drivers of interactions between healthcare providers and older adults about sexual health. In this study using a nationally representative population, we describe perceptions and experiences of sex among older adults.Methods: A nationally representative, cross-sectional sample of community-dwelling U.S. adults aged 65-80 was surveyed about their sexual health and interaction with their health care providers about sexual health.Results: The survey completion rate was 75% (N = 1,002). Overall, 50.9% of men and 30.8% of women reported being sexually active. In all, 17.3% of adults aged 65-80 reported speaking to their health care provider about sexual health in the past two years and of those, 60.5% of patients initiated the conversation. Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that sexual activity (yes/no), interest in sex, and satisfaction with sex life are major drivers of sexual health conversations between patients and healthcare providers.Conclusions: Many adults aged 65-80 are interested in and engage in sexual activity. While the majority of older adults reported a willingness to discuss their sexual health with their health care providers, few had done so, and most conversations were initiated by patients. Iterest in sex and satisfaction with sex life may be targets for intervention and offer a segue for providers as they begin the conversation to engage with older adults about their sexual health.Clinical Implications: Providers may have conversations with older adults about sexual health and may need sexual health training to have effective discussions; age nor chronic conditions should preclude this essential conversation. Clinical gerontologists may be helpful in this training and in encouraging patients to bring up sexual health concerns during their medical appointments.
PMID: 33616005
ISSN: 1545-2301
CID: 4868032

Why the global health community should support the EndSARS movement in Nigeria [Letter]

Mmonu, Nnenaya A; Aifah, Angela; Onakomaiya, Deborah; Ogedegbe, Gbenga
PMID: 33610205
ISSN: 1474-547x
CID: 4799942

Synchronous genitourinary lichen sclerosus signals a distinct urinary microbiome profile in men with urethral stricture disease

Cohen, Andrew J; Gaither, Thomas W; Srirangapatanam, Sudarshan; Castellanos, Erick R; Enriquez, Anthony; Fergus, Kirkpatrick B; Fadrosh, Douglas; Lynch, Susan; Mmonu, Nnenaya A; Breyer, Benjamin N
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Alterations in the urinary microbiome have been associated with urological diseases. The microbiome of patients with urethral stricture disease (USD) remains unknown. Our objective is to examine the microbiome of USD with a focus on inflammatory USD caused by lichen sclerosus (LS). METHODS:We collected mid-stream urine samples from men with LS-USD (cases; n = 22) and non-LS USD (controls; n = 76). DNA extraction, PCR amplification of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene, and sequencing was done on the samples. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were defined using a > 97% sequence similarity threshold. Alpha diversity measurements of diversity, including microbiome richness (number of different OTUs) and evenness (distribution of OTUs) were calculated and compared. Microbiome beta diversity (difference between microbial communities) relationships with cases and controls were also assessed. RESULTS:Fifty specimens (13 cases and 37 controls) produced a 16S rRNA amplicon. Mean sample richness was 25.9 vs. 16.8 (p = 0.076) for LS-USD vs. non-LS USD, respectively. LS-USD had a unique profile of bacteria by taxonomic order including Bacillales, Bacteroidales and Pasteurellales enriched urine. The beta variation of observed bacterial communities was best explained by the richness. CONCLUSIONS:Men with LS-USD may have a unique microbiologic richness, specifically inclusive of Bacillales, Bacteroidales and Pasteurellales enriched urine compared to those with non-LS USD. Further work will be required to elucidate the clinical relevance of these variations in the urinary microbiome.
PMID: 32274566
ISSN: 1433-8726
CID: 4458532

Risk factors for orgasmic and concomitant erectile dysfunction in men with type 1 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

Agochukwu-Mmonu, Nnenaya; Malaeb, Bahaa S; Hotaling, James M; Braffett, Barbara H; Holt, Sarah K; Dunn, Rodney L; Palmer, Melody R; Martin, Catherine L; Jacobson, Alan M; Herman, William H; Wessells, Hunter; Sarma, Aruna V
In this study, we sought to determine the burden and characteristics of orgasmic dysfunction (OD) and concomitant erectile dysfunction (ED) in men with type 1 diabetes (T1D) enrolled in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study. In 2010, we assessed orgasmic and erectile function using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Sociodemographic, clinical, and diabetes characteristics were compared by OD status (OD only, OD and ED, no ED or OD). Age-adjusted associations between risk factors and OD status were examined. OD and ED information was available from 563 men. Eighty-three men (14.7%) reported OD of whom 21 reported OD only and 62 reported OD and ED. Age-adjusted odds ratios demonstrated that men who reported OD only had higher odds of depression, low sexual desire, and decreased alcohol use compared with men reporting no dysfunction. Men with OD concomitant with ED had greater odds of elevated hemoglobin A1C, peripheral and autonomic neuropathy, and nephropathy. Men reporting both dysfunctions were also more likely to report smoking, lower urinary tract symptoms, and had greater odds of androgen deficiency than men with no sexual dysfunction. Men with longstanding T1D suffer from an increased burden of OD. Psychogenic factors predominate in men reporting OD only while men who present with concomitant ED report increased burden of diabetes severity, characteristics previously observed with incident ED. ED may be the central impediment to sexual function in men with OD and ED. Longitudinal studies to characterize OD and ED experience over time are warranted.
PMID: 32157243
ISSN: 1476-5489
CID: 4379412

Significant Management Variability of Urethral stricture Disease in United States: Data from the AUA Quality (AQUA) Registry

Cohen, Andrew J; Agochukwu-Mmonu, Nnenaya; Makarov, Danil V; Meeks, William; Murphy, John; Fang, Raymond; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Breyer, Benjamin N
OBJECTIVE:To determine the degree of contemporary practice variation for the treatment of urethral stricture disease (USD) given repeated endoscopic management yields poor long-term success. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:The AUA Quality (AQUA) Registry collects data from participating urologists across practice settings by direct interface with local electronic health record systems. We identified procedures used for USD using Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) and International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD-9/-10) codes. We assessed the association between patient and provider factors and repeated endoscopic treatment using generalized linear models. Provider details were derived from AUA Census. RESULTS:We identified 20,640 male patients with USD treated surgically in AQUA from 2014-2018. The patients were cared for by 1343 providers at 171 practices, 95% of these community-based. Among patients with USD who had treatment, 20,101(97.9%) underwent endoscopic management. 6218(31%) underwent repeated endoscopic treatment during the study period. Urethroplasty was performed in 539(2.6%) patients.  Median patient age at first procedure for endoscopic surgery vs. urethroplasty was 73 vs. 39 years old, respectively (p<0.001). At the practice level, significant variation in rates of repeated endoscopic management was noted. Patients of older age (OR=1.08, 95%CI: 1.06-1.11 for ages ≥80) and patients with a bladder cancer diagnosis (OR=1.17, 95%CI: 1.15-1.20) had higher odds of receiving repeated endoscopic management. Increasing practitioner age was also associated with increased odds of repeated endoscopic management. (OR=1.13, 95%CI: 1.11- 1.16, for practitioners ≥64). CONCLUSIONS:Repeated endoscopic management for USD is overused. The utilization of endoscopic management is variable across practices and frequently guideline-discordant, presenting an opportunity for quality improvement.
PMID: 32777368
ISSN: 1527-9995
CID: 4554832

Relationship of symptom severity and bother in individuals seeking care for lower urinary tract symptoms

Agochukwu-Mmonu, Nnenaya; Wiseman, Jonathan B; Smith, Abigail R; Helmuth, Margaret E; Sarma, Aruna V; Cameron, Anne P; Amundsen, Cindy L; Flynn, Kathryn E; Cella, David; Weinfurt, Kevin P; Kirkali, Ziya; Clemens, J Quentin
AIMS/OBJECTIVE:Bother attributed to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) drives care-seeking and treatment aggressiveness. The longitudinal relationship of LUTS severity and bother in a care-seeking cohort, however, is not well understood. We aim to conduct a longitudinal evaluation of LUTS severity and bother and identify characteristics of patients with discordant LUTS bother relative to severity. METHODS:Men and women with LUTS seeking care at six US tertiary care centers enrolled in the symptoms of lower urinary tract dysfunction research network study. Patients reporting at least one urinary symptom based on the LUTS Tool were prospectively enrolled from June 2015 to January 2017. Correlations were used to assess the relationship between LUTS severity and bother. Discordance scores (ie, the difference between bother and severity) were used to classify patients with high and low bother. Patients were classified as having high or low bother phenotypes if scores were one standard deviation above or below zero, respectively. Repeated measures multinomial logistic regression evaluated characteristics associated with high and low bother phenotypes. RESULTS:LUTS severity and bother were at least moderately correlated for all symptom items and highly correlated for 13 out of 21 items. Correlations were highest for urgency, and lowest for daytime frequency and urinary incontinence. Odds of being in high bother phenotype were lowest at 3 and 12 months (3 months vs baseline odds ratio [OR] = 0.71, 95% confidence ninterval [CI] = 0.54-0.94; 12 months vs baseline OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.48-0.91), and highest for those who endorsed all urgency questions (OR = 3.65, 95% CI = 2.17-6.13). Odds of being in the low bother phenotype were lowest for patients who endorsed all urgency items (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.26-0.42), and all frequency items (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.53-0.88). CONCLUSIONS:LUTS severity and bother correlate highly and measurement of both in clinical practice is likely redundant. There are patient factors associated with discordance which may justify additional evaluation.
PMID: 32761962
ISSN: 1520-6777
CID: 4554822

Use of GoFundMe® to crowdfund complementary and alternative medicine treatments for cancer

Song, Sikai; Cohen, Andrew J; Lui, Hansen; Mmonu, Nnenaya A; Brody, Hartley; Patino, German; Liaw, Aron; Butler, Christi; Fergus, Kirkpatrick B; Mena, Jorge; Lee, Austin; Weiser, Jeremy; Johnson, Kelly; Breyer, Benjamin N
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is common amongst cancer patients. However, there is growing concern about its safety and efficacy. Online crowdfunding campaigns represent a unique avenue to understand the cancer patient's perspective for using CAM or declining conventional cancer therapy (CCT). METHODS:Five hundred GoFundMe campaigns from 2012 to 2019 detailing financial need for cancer treatment were randomly selected and reviewed for endorsement of CAM use, reasons for using CAM, and reasons for declining CCT. Descriptive statistics were used to compare patient and campaign characteristics between 250 CAM users and 250 non-CAM users. RESULTS:Compared to non-CAM users, CAM users were more likely to be female (70% vs. 54%, p < 0.01), to report more stage IV cancer (54% vs. 12%, p < 0.01), and to have a history of delayed, missed, or misdiagnosis (10% vs. 4%, p < 0.01). Reasons for using CAM include endorsing curative/therapeutic effects 212 (85%), pain/stress reduction 137 (55%), and dissatisfaction with current or past medical treatment options 105 (42%). 87 (35%) CAM users that declined CCT reported that they wanted to try to fight off cancer using CAM first 57 (61%), that CCT was too "toxic" to the body 39 (42%), and cancer was already too advanced, so that CCT would be futile or too aggressive 25 (27%). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Cancer patients on GoFundMe using CAM highly value quality of life, comfort, and autonomy. Physicians should educate themselves on CAM to set realistic expectations and provide comprehensive counseling of the risks and benefits of CAM usage to patients who choose to use CAM to either augment or completely replace CCT.
PMID: 32219517
ISSN: 1432-1335
CID: 4458522

Resident-Driven Holistic Lean Daily Management System to Enhance Care Experience at a Safety Net Hospital

Tresh, Anas; Cohen, Andrew J; Mmonu, Nnenaya A; Berdy, Sara; Barnas, Kim; Krombach, Jens; Breyer, Benjamin N
OBJECTIVE:To describe the use of Lean in urology at Zuckerberg San Francisco General, a community safety-net and trauma hospital that serves as a major teaching site for the University of California San Francisco. METHODS:We examined our process improvement activities from 2016 to 2018. Our Lean Daily Management System (DMS) includes a 15-minute team huddle ("urology Lean work") of service residents, faculty, clinic and operating room nursing staff, and anesthesia liaisons. Our DMS also includes a 5-minute preoperative huddle. Besides team-building, urology Lean work surfaces logistics, safety or equipment improvement ideas, and ensures progress and completion of initiated projects. RESULTS:Over a 2-year period we developed and completed 67 projects. Projects impacted the outpatient setting (57%), followed by the operating room (22%), the Urology service (12%), and inpatient setting (9%). We completed projects in the following domains: safety (26%), quality (22%), care experience (21%), workforce care and development (13%), equity (11%), and financial stewardship (7%). Urology Lean work reduced new patient clinic access time (119-21 days) and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin in clinic treatment time (180-105 minutes). The average proportion of urology on-time surgeries was better than the overall surgery on-time surgeries (71% v 61%). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Urology Lean work successfully applied DMS in a service specific yet holistic approach. Urology Lean work improved resident engagement in quality and safety endeavors and served as a DMS model throughout perioperative and clinic areas.
PMID: 32145240
ISSN: 1527-9995
CID: 4458502