Evolution of the 'omega sign' on optical coherence tomography
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To present the early post-operative evolution of retained subretinal perfluoro-n-octane (PFO) as captured on OCT. METHODS:Case report of a patient. RESULTS:A 58-year-old woman was noted to have subretinal PFO after undergoing autologous retinal graft for macular hole closure under PFO tamponade. Serial OCT identified the subretinal PFO as early as the first postoperative day and demonstrates progressive consolidation and encapsulation of the PFO bubble by the surrounding outer retina. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Subretinal PFO is usually seen several weeks in the postoperative course once the gas endotamponade has resorbed sufficiently for OCT imaging. In this case, PFO tamponade enabled its imaging early. Its subsequent evolution into the classic "omega sign" may suggest a granulomatous encapsulation of the PFO bubble.
Subacute Vision Loss in a Patient With HIV
Bilateral exudative retinal detachments after subretinal gene therapy with voretigene neparvovec-rzyl for RPE65 Leber Congenital Amaurosis
Purpose: To report panuveitis with exudative retinal detachments in a healthy 27-year-old woman with biallelic mutations in the RPE65 gene, who underwent bilateral sequential gene therapy with subretinal administration of voretigene neparvovec-rzyl. Observations: Visual acuity improved for 30 days after surgery as oral corticosteroids were tapered. At postoperative week 6, vision declined due to sudden onset uveitis and exudative retinal detachments in both eyes. HLA Class II typing revealed the haplotype associated with sympathetic ophthalmia and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH). The inflammation improved after corticosteroid, mycophenolate mofetil, and adalimumab therapy while vision remained poor. Conclusions and Importance: Surgically-induced sympathetic ophthalmia is a plausible explanation for the clinical findings; surgery of both eyes within one week would conceal the inciting eye. VKH or inflammation related to the gene therapy are other possible etiologies but severe bilateral panuveitis has not been reported with voretigene neparvovec-rzyl. Informed consent for gene therapy surgery should include a discussion of the rare complication of sympathetic ophthalmia following vitrectomy surgery.
[S.l.] : CRC Press, 2023
Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor dosing frequency and visual outcomes in macular oedema following branch retinal vein occlusion
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To determine the relationship between treatment frequency with intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents and visual acuity (VA) outcomes in eyes with macular oedema (MO) secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in US clinical practice. METHODS:Study eyes that initiated anti-VEGF injections between January 2012 and May 2016 were followed for ≥1 year in a retrospective analysis of medical records (Vestrum Health database). Eyes were analysed in 2 cohorts by treatment duration (years 1 and 2) and then in 2 subcohorts by injection frequency (≤6 or ≥7 injections/year). RESULTS:Among 3099 eyes with MO secondary to BRVO, 1197 (38.6%) received ≤6 injections (mean injections, 4.6; baseline mean VA, 53 letters) and 1902 (61.4%) received ≥7 injections through 1 year (mean injections, 8.8; baseline mean VA, 52 letters). At year 1, mean VA gain from baseline was 10.4 versus 13.9 letters in eyes receiving ≤6 versus ≥7 injections (p < 0.001). At year 2, mean VA in eyes receiving ≤6 (n = 42) versus ≥7 injections (n = 227) was 64 versus 68 letters, respectively (p = 0.19). Mean VA change between the start and end of year 2 in eyes receiving ≥7 injections in year 1 and ≤6 in year 2 differed significantly from that of eyes receiving ≥7 injections in both years (-3.0 vs 0.7 letters, respectively; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:In routine clinical practice, more frequent dosing with anti-VEGF agents was associated with greater visual benefits in eyes with MO secondary to BRVO.
Retinal Findings and Cardiovascular Risk: Prognostic Conditions, Novel Biomarkers, and Emerging Image Analysis Techniques
Many retinal diseases and imaging findings have pathophysiologic underpinnings in the function of the cardiovascular system. Myriad retinal conditions, new imaging biomarkers, and novel image analysis techniques have been investigated for their association with future cardiovascular risk or utility in cardiovascular risk prognostication. An intensive literature search was performed to identify relevant articles indexed in PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar for a targeted narrative review. This review investigates the literature on specific retinal disease states, such as retinal arterial and venous occlusions and cotton wool spots, that portend significantly increased risk of future cardiovascular events, such as stroke or myocardial infarction, and the implications for personalized patient counseling. Furthermore, conditions diagnosed primarily through retinal bioimaging, such as paracentral acute middle maculopathy and the newly discovered entity known as a retinal ischemic perivascular lesion, may be associated with future incident cardiovascular morbidity and are also discussed. As ever-more-sophisticated imaging biomarkers and analysis techniques are developed, the review concludes with a focused analysis of optical coherence tomography and optical coherence tomography angiography biomarkers under investigation for potential value in prognostication and personalized therapy in cardiovascular disease.
High Variation in Inner Retinal Reflectivity Predicts Poor Visual Outcome in Patients With Central Retinal Vein Occlusion: SCORE2 Report 21
PURPOSE:To assess the association of a novel spectral domain optical coherence tomography biomarker with 6-month visual acuity in in the Study of COmparative Treatments for REtinal Vein Occlusion 2. METHODS:Spectral domain optical coherence tomography volume scans were evaluated for inner retinal hyperreflectivity, quantified by optical intensity ratio (OIR) and OIR variation. Baseline visual acuity letter score (VALS), baseline OCT biomarkers, and month 1 OIR were correlated with VALS at month 6. Regression trees, a machine learning technique yielding readily interpretable models, were used to assess for variable interaction. RESULTS:Only baseline VALS correlated positively with month 6 VALS in multivariate regression. Regression trees detected a novel functional and anatomical interaction in a subgroup. Among patients with a baseline VALS worse than 43, those with an OIR variation at month 1 of more than 0.09 had a mean of 13 fewer letters of vision at 6 months compared with patients with an OIR variation of 0.09 or less. CONCLUSIONS:Baseline VALS was the strongest predictor of month 6 VALS. Regression tree analysis detected an interaction effect, in which higher OIR variation at month 1 predicted worse 6-month VALS in patients with low VALS at baseline. OIR variation may serve as a predictor for poor visual outcome despite treatment of macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion in patients with poor vision at baseline. TRANSLATIONAL RELEVANCE:Pixel heterogeneity in three-dimensional OCT data may serve as measure of disruption of the retinal laminations, and this factor may carry visually prognostic value.
Follow-up Rates After Teleretinal Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy: Assessing Patient Barriers to Care
The Clinical Signal-to-Noise Ratio of OCT Angiography: Key Applications for Routine Clinical Use [Comment]
Intraocular Metastasis of Large T-cell Lymphoma Transformed from Mycosis Fungoides [Letter]
PURPOSE/UNASSIGNED:To describe a rare case of intraocular lymphoma that metastasized from cutaneous mycosis fungoides and transformed to large cell T cell lymphoma resulting in vitreoretinal pathology. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Retrospective case report. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:A 57-year-old male presented with 3Â months of blurred vision in the right eye. He reported only a medical history of psoriasis. Examination revealed keratic precipitates and dense vitritis in the right eye. He was taken for a diagnostic vitrectomy. Histopathology showed that atypical lymphoid cells and flow cytometry were consistent with transformed large cell T-cell lymphoma. During follow-up, pre- and inner retinal lesions were noted throughout the posterior pole. Histopathology of the psoriatic lesions was consistent with mycosis fungoides. He was initiated on systemic and intravitreal methotrexate with improvement in vision. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Ocular involvement in metastatic transformed T-cell lymphoma is extremely rare but can be present with vitritis and retinal deposits. Our patient responded well to intravitreal methotrexate therapy.