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The Clinical Signal-to-Noise Ratio of OCT Angiography: Key Applications for Routine Clinical Use [Comment]

Ramakrishnan, Meera S; Ehlers, Justis P; Modi, Yasha S
PMID: 36084992
ISSN: 2468-6530
CID: 5332672

Evolution of the 'omega sign' on optical coherence tomography

Ramakrishnan, Meera S; Naguib, Mina M; Modi, Yasha S
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To present the early post-operative evolution of retained subretinal perfluoro-n-octane (PFO) as captured on OCT. METHODS:Case report of a patient. RESULTS:A 58-year-old woman was noted to have subretinal PFO after undergoing autologous retinal graft for macular hole closure under PFO tamponade. Serial OCT identified the subretinal PFO as early as the first postoperative day and demonstrates progressive consolidation and encapsulation of the PFO bubble by the surrounding outer retina. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Subretinal PFO is usually seen several weeks in the postoperative course once the gas endotamponade has resorbed sufficiently for OCT imaging. In this case, PFO tamponade enabled its imaging early. Its subsequent evolution into the classic "omega sign" may suggest a granulomatous encapsulation of the PFO bubble.
PMID: 36026714
ISSN: 1937-1578
CID: 5338502

Intraocular Metastasis of Large T-cell Lymphoma Transformed from Mycosis Fungoides [Letter]

Chen, Dinah; Modi, Yasha; Goduni, Lediana; Chong, Jillian; Tsui, Edmund; Breazzano, Mark P; Dedania, Vaidehi; Marr, Brian; Sarraf, David
PURPOSE/UNASSIGNED:To describe a rare case of intraocular lymphoma that metastasized from cutaneous mycosis fungoides and transformed to large cell T cell lymphoma resulting in vitreoretinal pathology. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Retrospective case report. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:A 57-year-old male presented with 3 months of blurred vision in the right eye. He reported only a medical history of psoriasis. Examination revealed keratic precipitates and dense vitritis in the right eye. He was taken for a diagnostic vitrectomy. Histopathology showed that atypical lymphoid cells and flow cytometry were consistent with transformed large cell T-cell lymphoma. During follow-up, pre- and inner retinal lesions were noted throughout the posterior pole. Histopathology of the psoriatic lesions was consistent with mycosis fungoides. He was initiated on systemic and intravitreal methotrexate with improvement in vision. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Ocular involvement in metastatic transformed T-cell lymphoma is extremely rare but can be present with vitritis and retinal deposits. Our patient responded well to intravitreal methotrexate therapy.
PMID: 35201959
ISSN: 1744-5078
CID: 5172312


Tsui, Edmund; Leong, Belinda C S; Mehta, Nitish; Gupta, Akash; Goduni, Lediana; Cunningham, Emmett T; Freund, K Bailey; Lee, Gregory D; Dedania, Vaidehi S; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A; Modi, Yasha S
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To describe the vascular anatomy and intraluminal flow characteristics of segmental retinal arteritis (SRA) using structural and angiographic optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS:Retrospective case series of consecutive patients presenting with SRA. All patients were evaluated at presentation with fundus photography, spectral domain OCT, and OCT angiography. One patient was imaged with dense B-scan OCT angiography. RESULTS:Three eyes of three male patients were evaluated. All examinations were consistent with reactivation of ocular toxoplasmosis with an area of active retinochoroiditis adjacent to a focal chorioretinal scar. Spectral domain OCT through areas of SRA noted on clinical examination demonstrated areas of hyperreflectivity circumscribing the affected vessel with a normoreflective lumen. Optical coherence tomography angiography and dense B-scan OCT angiography demonstrated narrowing of the intraluminal flow signal that correlated with areas of segmental hyperreflectivity on spectral domain OCT. Vascular sections proximal and distal to areas of SRA showed normal flow signal. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Vessels with SRA demonstrated hyperreflectivity highlighting the vessel wall on spectral domain OCT. Optical coherence tomography angiography showed narrowing of the flow signal within these segments suggesting reduced lumen diameter. Coupling these finding with previous indocyanine green imaging findings in SRA, the collective data suggest the plaques are localized within the vessel wall to either the endothelium or the muscular tunica media without occlusion of the vessel lumen.
PMID: 31313702
ISSN: 1937-1578
CID: 3977882

Treating diabetic retinopathy: Anti-vegf vs prp

Nair, Archana A.; Modi, Yasha S.
ISSN: 1825-0572
CID: 5054882


Mehta, Nitish; Chong, Jillian; Tsui, Edmund; Duncan, Jacque L; Curcio, Christine A; Freund, K Bailey; Modi, Yasha
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To report a detachment that apparently separated photoreceptor inner segment myoids from inner segment ellipsoids as a manifestation of toxoplasmosis chorioretinitis in a patient with pachychoroid spectrum disease. METHODS:Multimodal imaging including fundus photography, spectral domain and enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography (OCT), indocyanine green angiography, and OCT angiography. RESULTS:A 33-year-old man with a history of toxoplasmosis chorioretinitis reported 1 week of decreased vision to 20/200 in his right eye. Examination of the right eye demonstrated mild vitritis with recurrent chorioretinitis inferior to the fovea and adjacent to a chorioretinal scar. A dome-shaped, foveal photoreceptor layer-splitting detachment was noted on OCT. Because degenerating cone photoreceptors are capable of shedding their inner segments, we inferred the location of the detachment at the level of the inner segment myoid and provided a histological example of such from an unrelated donor case. In addition, multimodal imaging revealed dilated choroidal veins (pachyvessels) with attenuation of the inner choroid in both eyes and asymptomatic findings of central serous chorioretinopathy in the left eye. After 1 month of antibiotic and steroid therapy, the chorioretinitis resolved, as did the detachment. Hyperreflective foci on the vitreoretinal interface were appreciated with en face OCT that appeared to aggregate throughout the course of therapy, induce inner retinal striae, and resolve without inducing epiretinal membrane formation. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Patients with preexisting pachychoroid spectrum disease may manifest a more significant retinal fluid accumulation in the setting of superimposed chorioretinal inflammation. In this case of macular toxoplasmosis chorioretinitis, inflammation manifested as a retinal detachment at the level of photoreceptor inner segment myoids that we named as a bacillary layer detachment. In this case, inflammatory sequelae of toxoplasmosis reactivation responded well to oral and intravitreal therapy.
PMID: 30142112
ISSN: 1937-1578
CID: 3255492

Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge

Wilkins, Carl S; Goduni, Lediana; Dedania, Vaidehi S; Modi, Yasha S; Johnson, Brandon; Mehta, Nitish; Weng, Christina Y
PMID: 32332425
ISSN: 1539-2864
CID: 4411532

Position of in-the-bag posterior chamber intraocular lenses relative to the limbus: Applications to Scleral Sutured Lenses

Vingopoulos, Filippos; Nair, Archana; See, Craig W; Iyengar, Nishanth; Haberman, Ilyse; SperberMD, Laurence; Lazzaro, Douglas R; Singh, Rishi; Ho, Allen; Gupta, Omesh; Sharma, Sumit; Modi, Yasha
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To characterize the true position of in-the-bag intraocular lenses (IOLs) relative to the limbus using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and estimate scleral sutured IOL positioning. METHODS:This prospective single center study included 70 eyes of 41 patients with in-the-bag posterior chamber IOLs. Four vertical UBM captures were performed in each eye in the superior, inferior, nasal and temporal quadrants. Post-operative biometric data were collected. The primary outcome was the vertical distance of the in-the bag IOL from the sclero-corneal limbus. Secondary outcomes included anterior shift and refractive change of a theoretical scleral sutured IOL using sclerotomies at 2.5mm and 3mm posterior to the limbus. RESULTS:A total of 265 UBM images were analyzed, including 64 superior, 69 inferior, 66 nasal and 66 temporal. The true in-the-bag IOL position measured as distance posterior to the sclero-corneal limbus was 4.23 mm ± 0.56 mm superiorly, 4.22 ± 0.46 mm inferiorly, 3.95 ± 0.48 mm nasally and 3.86 ± 0.52 mm temporally. The anterior shift of a theoretical scleral sutured IOL was 0.60mm for a 3mm sclerotomy and 0.93mm for a 2.5mm sclerotomy, resulting in a theoretical myopic shift of 0.45 D and 0.79 D respectively, assuming a 15 D IOL. Larger biometric measurements correlated to a more posterior in-the-bag position. CONCLUSIONS:True in-the-bag IOL position was found to be more posterior than estimates of scleral sutured IOLs. Additional corrections in scleral sutured IOL calculations may improve refractive outcomes.
PMID: 33239547
ISSN: 1539-2864
CID: 4680872

Gender Compensation Gap for Ophthalmologists in the First Year of Clinical Practice

Jia, Jing Sasha; Lazzaro, Alexander; Lidder, Alcina K; Elgin, Ceyhun; Alcantara-Castillo, Jennifer; Gedde, Steven J; Khouri, Albert S; Shukla, Aakriti Garg; Sperber, Laurence T D; Law, Janice C; Modi, Yasha S; Kim, Eleanore T; SooHoo, Jeffrey R; Winn, Bryan J; Chen, Royce W; Al-Aswad, Lama A
OBJECTIVE:To identify the role of gender and other factors in influencing ophthalmologists' compensation. DESIGN/METHODS:Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:U.S. practicing ophthalmologists. METHODS:Between January and March 2020, an anonymous survey was sent to U.S. residency program directors and practicing ophthalmologists who recently completed residency training. Respondents who completed residency ≤10 years ago and responded to questions about gender, fellowship training, state of practice, and salary were included. Propensity score match (PSM) analysis was performed with age, academic residency, top residency, fellowship, state median wage, practice type, ethnicity and number of work days. Multivariate linear regression (MLR) analysis controlled for additional factors along with the aforementioned variables. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:Base starting salary with bonus (SWB) received in the first year of clinical position was the main outcome measure. A multiplier of 1.2 (20%) was added to the base salary to account for bonus. RESULTS:Of 684 respondents, 384 (56% female, 44% male) from 68 programs were included. Female ophthalmologists received a mean initial SWB that was $33,139.80 less than their male colleagues (12.5%, p=0.00). PSM analysis showed a SWB difference of -$27,273.89 (10.3% gap, p=0.0015). Additionally, SWB differences were calculated with the number of work days substituted by OR days [-$19727.85 (8.60% gap, p=0.0092)] and clinic days [--$27793.67 (10.5% gap, p=0.0013)] in separate PSM analyses. The SWB differences between genders were significant using MLR analyses, which also controlled for work, clinic, and OR days separately (-$22261.49, $-18604.65, and $-16191.26, respectively; p=0.017, p=0.015, p=0.002). Gender independently predicted income in all 3 analyses (p<0.05). Although an association between gender and the attempt to negotiate was not detected, a greater portion of men subjectively reported success in negotiation (p=0.03). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Female ophthalmologists earn significantly less than their male colleagues in the first year of clinical practice. Salary differences persist after controlling for demographic, educational, and practice type variables with MLR and PSM analyses. These income differences may lead to a substantial loss of accumulated earnings over an individual's career.
PMID: 33248156
ISSN: 1549-4713
CID: 4693662

DNA testing for inherited retinal disease (IRD): Initial experience with the SPARK/Invitae 'ID your IRD' genetic testing panel [Meeting Abstract]

Lidder, A; Modi, Y; Dedania, V S; Brodie, S E
Purpose : To evaluate the diagnostic yield and clinical impact of the SPARK/Invitae gene panel in patients with known or suspected inherited degenerative retinal disease, in comparison with traditional clinical assessments. Methods : Patients of the authors' clinical practices obtained genetic screening at no charge via the SPARK/Invitae ID your IRD genetic testing panel, which ranged from 248 genes to 293 genes. Over 16 months, tests were submitted for 87 patients and results were available for 70 patients. Clinical diagnoses prior to submitting the gene panel . By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to included retinitis pigmentosa; Stargardt disease; Best vitelliform dystrophy; Leber our privacy policy. congenital amaurosis; choroideremia; achromatopsia; cone-rod dystrophy; congenital stationary night blindness; occult macular dystrophy; and familial dominant drusen in addition to patients with normal clinical findings and unclear diagnoses. Results : Of 70 patients, SPARK/Invitae considered the results ''Positive or Potentially Positive'' in 24 cases (34.3%), Carrier in 16 cases (22.9%) and ''Uncertain'' in 30 cases (42.9%). Uncertain results comprised patients with only Variants of Uncertain Significance. Patients categorized as a Carrier by SPARK/Invitae but who demonstrated pathogenic genetic changes correlating to the clinical diagnosis were considered to be in agreement with the clinical impression. The genetic diagnosis agreed with the clinical diagnosis in 30/70 (42.9%) total patients. Test results were consistent with the clinical impression in 13/26 (50.0%) retinitis pigmentosa cases, 6/8 (75.0%) Stargardt patients, 3/7 (42.9%) cone-rod dystrophy cases, and 2/4 (50.0%) Best vitelliform dystrophy patients. Gene testing helped elucidate diagnoses in two patients with unclear clinical impressions: one panel showed autosomal recessive achromatopsia and the other showed a carrier state for autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa. Of four patients with normal clinical exams, none had diagnostic results: all showed Uncertain findings. Conclusions : The SPARK/Invitae gene panel provided a genetic diagnosis consistent with the clinical impression in about 40 percent of patients. Retinitis pigmentosa and Stargardt disease were the most common clinical diagnoses and the diagnoses most often confirmed by testing. Genetic screening also assisted in clarifying unknown diagnoses for two patients
ISSN: 1552-5783
CID: 4982332