The Clinical Signal-to-Noise Ratio of OCT Angiography: Key Applications for Routine Clinical Use [Comment]
Ramakrishnan, Meera S; Ehlers, Justis P; Modi, Yasha S
Evolution of the 'omega sign' on optical coherence tomography
Ramakrishnan, Meera S; Naguib, Mina M; Modi, Yasha S
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To present the early post-operative evolution of retained subretinal perfluoro-n-octane (PFO) as captured on OCT. METHODS:Case report of a patient. RESULTS:A 58-year-old woman was noted to have subretinal PFO after undergoing autologous retinal graft for macular hole closure under PFO tamponade. Serial OCT identified the subretinal PFO as early as the first postoperative day and demonstrates progressive consolidation and encapsulation of the PFO bubble by the surrounding outer retina. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Subretinal PFO is usually seen several weeks in the postoperative course once the gas endotamponade has resorbed sufficiently for OCT imaging. In this case, PFO tamponade enabled its imaging early. Its subsequent evolution into the classic "omega sign" may suggest a granulomatous encapsulation of the PFO bubble.
Intraocular Metastasis of Large T-cell Lymphoma Transformed from Mycosis Fungoides [Letter]
Chen, Dinah; Modi, Yasha; Goduni, Lediana; Chong, Jillian; Tsui, Edmund; Breazzano, Mark P; Dedania, Vaidehi; Marr, Brian; Sarraf, David
PURPOSE/UNASSIGNED:To describe a rare case of intraocular lymphoma that metastasized from cutaneous mycosis fungoides and transformed to large cell T cell lymphoma resulting in vitreoretinal pathology. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Retrospective case report. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:A 57-year-old male presented with 3Â months of blurred vision in the right eye. He reported only a medical history of psoriasis. Examination revealed keratic precipitates and dense vitritis in the right eye. He was taken for a diagnostic vitrectomy. Histopathology showed that atypical lymphoid cells and flow cytometry were consistent with transformed large cell T-cell lymphoma. During follow-up, pre- and inner retinal lesions were noted throughout the posterior pole. Histopathology of the psoriatic lesions was consistent with mycosis fungoides. He was initiated on systemic and intravitreal methotrexate with improvement in vision. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Ocular involvement in metastatic transformed T-cell lymphoma is extremely rare but can be present with vitritis and retinal deposits. Our patient responded well to intravitreal methotrexate therapy.
EVALUATION OF SEGMENTAL RETINAL ARTERITIS WITH OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY
Tsui, Edmund; Leong, Belinda C S; Mehta, Nitish; Gupta, Akash; Goduni, Lediana; Cunningham, Emmett T; Freund, K Bailey; Lee, Gregory D; Dedania, Vaidehi S; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A; Modi, Yasha S
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To describe the vascular anatomy and intraluminal flow characteristics of segmental retinal arteritis (SRA) using structural and angiographic optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS:Retrospective case series of consecutive patients presenting with SRA. All patients were evaluated at presentation with fundus photography, spectral domain OCT, and OCT angiography. One patient was imaged with dense B-scan OCT angiography. RESULTS:Three eyes of three male patients were evaluated. All examinations were consistent with reactivation of ocular toxoplasmosis with an area of active retinochoroiditis adjacent to a focal chorioretinal scar. Spectral domain OCT through areas of SRA noted on clinical examination demonstrated areas of hyperreflectivity circumscribing the affected vessel with a normoreflective lumen. Optical coherence tomography angiography and dense B-scan OCT angiography demonstrated narrowing of the intraluminal flow signal that correlated with areas of segmental hyperreflectivity on spectral domain OCT. Vascular sections proximal and distal to areas of SRA showed normal flow signal. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Vessels with SRA demonstrated hyperreflectivity highlighting the vessel wall on spectral domain OCT. Optical coherence tomography angiography showed narrowing of the flow signal within these segments suggesting reduced lumen diameter. Coupling these finding with previous indocyanine green imaging findings in SRA, the collective data suggest the plaques are localized within the vessel wall to either the endothelium or the muscular tunica media without occlusion of the vessel lumen.
Treating diabetic retinopathy: Anti-vegf vs prp
Nair, Archana A.; Modi, Yasha S.
PRESUMED FOVEAL BACILLARY LAYER DETACHMENT IN A PATIENT WITH TOXOPLASMOSIS CHORIORETINITIS AND PACHYCHOROID DISEASE
Mehta, Nitish; Chong, Jillian; Tsui, Edmund; Duncan, Jacque L; Curcio, Christine A; Freund, K Bailey; Modi, Yasha
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To report a detachment that apparently separated photoreceptor inner segment myoids from inner segment ellipsoids as a manifestation of toxoplasmosis chorioretinitis in a patient with pachychoroid spectrum disease. METHODS:Multimodal imaging including fundus photography, spectral domain and enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography (OCT), indocyanine green angiography, and OCT angiography. RESULTS:A 33-year-old man with a history of toxoplasmosis chorioretinitis reported 1 week of decreased vision to 20/200 in his right eye. Examination of the right eye demonstrated mild vitritis with recurrent chorioretinitis inferior to the fovea and adjacent to a chorioretinal scar. A dome-shaped, foveal photoreceptor layer-splitting detachment was noted on OCT. Because degenerating cone photoreceptors are capable of shedding their inner segments, we inferred the location of the detachment at the level of the inner segment myoid and provided a histological example of such from an unrelated donor case. In addition, multimodal imaging revealed dilated choroidal veins (pachyvessels) with attenuation of the inner choroid in both eyes and asymptomatic findings of central serous chorioretinopathy in the left eye. After 1 month of antibiotic and steroid therapy, the chorioretinitis resolved, as did the detachment. Hyperreflective foci on the vitreoretinal interface were appreciated with en face OCT that appeared to aggregate throughout the course of therapy, induce inner retinal striae, and resolve without inducing epiretinal membrane formation. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Patients with preexisting pachychoroid spectrum disease may manifest a more significant retinal fluid accumulation in the setting of superimposed chorioretinal inflammation. In this case of macular toxoplasmosis chorioretinitis, inflammation manifested as a retinal detachment at the level of photoreceptor inner segment myoids that we named as a bacillary layer detachment. In this case, inflammatory sequelae of toxoplasmosis reactivation responded well to oral and intravitreal therapy.
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge
Wilkins, Carl S; Goduni, Lediana; Dedania, Vaidehi S; Modi, Yasha S; Johnson, Brandon; Mehta, Nitish; Weng, Christina Y
Position of in-the-bag posterior chamber intraocular lenses relative to the limbus: Applications to Scleral Sutured Lenses
Vingopoulos, Filippos; Nair, Archana; See, Craig W; Iyengar, Nishanth; Haberman, Ilyse; SperberMD, Laurence; Lazzaro, Douglas R; Singh, Rishi; Ho, Allen; Gupta, Omesh; Sharma, Sumit; Modi, Yasha
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To characterize the true position of in-the-bag intraocular lenses (IOLs) relative to the limbus using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and estimate scleral sutured IOL positioning. METHODS:This prospective single center study included 70 eyes of 41 patients with in-the-bag posterior chamber IOLs. Four vertical UBM captures were performed in each eye in the superior, inferior, nasal and temporal quadrants. Post-operative biometric data were collected. The primary outcome was the vertical distance of the in-the bag IOL from the sclero-corneal limbus. Secondary outcomes included anterior shift and refractive change of a theoretical scleral sutured IOL using sclerotomies at 2.5mm and 3mm posterior to the limbus. RESULTS:A total of 265 UBM images were analyzed, including 64 superior, 69 inferior, 66 nasal and 66 temporal. The true in-the-bag IOL position measured as distance posterior to the sclero-corneal limbus was 4.23 mm Â± 0.56 mm superiorly, 4.22 Â± 0.46 mm inferiorly, 3.95 Â± 0.48 mm nasally and 3.86 Â± 0.52 mm temporally. The anterior shift of a theoretical scleral sutured IOL was 0.60mm for a 3mm sclerotomy and 0.93mm for a 2.5mm sclerotomy, resulting in a theoretical myopic shift of 0.45 D and 0.79 D respectively, assuming a 15 D IOL. Larger biometric measurements correlated to a more posterior in-the-bag position. CONCLUSIONS:True in-the-bag IOL position was found to be more posterior than estimates of scleral sutured IOLs. Additional corrections in scleral sutured IOL calculations may improve refractive outcomes.
Gender Compensation Gap for Ophthalmologists in the First Year of Clinical Practice
Jia, Jing Sasha; Lazzaro, Alexander; Lidder, Alcina K; Elgin, Ceyhun; Alcantara-Castillo, Jennifer; Gedde, Steven J; Khouri, Albert S; Shukla, Aakriti Garg; Sperber, Laurence T D; Law, Janice C; Modi, Yasha S; Kim, Eleanore T; SooHoo, Jeffrey R; Winn, Bryan J; Chen, Royce W; Al-Aswad, Lama A
OBJECTIVE:To identify the role of gender and other factors in influencing ophthalmologists' compensation. DESIGN/METHODS:Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:U.S. practicing ophthalmologists. METHODS:Between January and March 2020, an anonymous survey was sent to U.S. residency program directors and practicing ophthalmologists who recently completed residency training. Respondents who completed residency â‰¤10 years ago and responded to questions about gender, fellowship training, state of practice, and salary were included. Propensity score match (PSM) analysis was performed with age, academic residency, top residency, fellowship, state median wage, practice type, ethnicity and number of work days. Multivariate linear regression (MLR) analysis controlled for additional factors along with the aforementioned variables. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:Base starting salary with bonus (SWB) received in the first year of clinical position was the main outcome measure. A multiplier of 1.2 (20%) was added to the base salary to account for bonus. RESULTS:Of 684 respondents, 384 (56% female, 44% male) from 68 programs were included. Female ophthalmologists received a mean initial SWB that was $33,139.80 less than their male colleagues (12.5%, p=0.00). PSM analysis showed a SWB difference of -$27,273.89 (10.3% gap, p=0.0015). Additionally, SWB differences were calculated with the number of work days substituted by OR days [-$19727.85 (8.60% gap, p=0.0092)] and clinic days [--$27793.67 (10.5% gap, p=0.0013)] in separate PSM analyses. The SWB differences between genders were significant using MLR analyses, which also controlled for work, clinic, and OR days separately (-$22261.49, $-18604.65, and $-16191.26, respectively; p=0.017, p=0.015, p=0.002). Gender independently predicted income in all 3 analyses (p<0.05). Although an association between gender and the attempt to negotiate was not detected, a greater portion of men subjectively reported success in negotiation (p=0.03). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Female ophthalmologists earn significantly less than their male colleagues in the first year of clinical practice. Salary differences persist after controlling for demographic, educational, and practice type variables with MLR and PSM analyses. These income differences may lead to a substantial loss of accumulated earnings over an individual's career.
DNA testing for inherited retinal disease (IRD): Initial experience with the SPARK/Invitae 'ID your IRD' genetic testing panel [Meeting Abstract]
Lidder, A; Modi, Y; Dedania, V S; Brodie, S E