Phenotypic and genotypic evaluation of fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in Tehran
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones are broad-spectrum antibiotics widely used in the treatment of bacterial infections such as Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Resistance to these antibiotics is increasing. MATERIAL/METHODS: The occurrence of mutations in the grlA and gyrA loci were evaluated in 69 fluoroquinolone-resistant S. aureus isolates from 2 teaching hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. RESULTS: Out of the 165 S. aureus isolates, 87 (52.7%) were resistant to methicillin and 69 (41.8%) were resistant to fluoroquinolone. Fluoroquinolone-resistant S. aureus isolates had a mutation at codon 80 in the grlA gene and different mutational combinations in the gyrA gene. These mutational combinations included 45 isolates at codons 84 and 86, 23 isolates at codons 84, 86 and 106 and 1 isolate at codons 84, 86 and 90. Fluoroquinolone-resistant S. aureus isolates were clustered into 33 PFGE types. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study show that the fluoroquinolone-resistant S. aureus strains isolated in the teaching hospitals in Tehran had multiple mutations in the QRDRs region of both grlA and gyrA genes.
Low dose ethanol potentiates indomethacin induced inhibition of wound re-epithelialization in duodenal monolayers
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induce gastroduodenal mucosal injury and ulceration, and delay ulcer healing. In contrast, the effects of low dose ethanol in induction of gastroduodenal mucosal injury, and the subsequent wound repair remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine, using an in-vitro duodenal epithelial wound model, whether low clinically relevant doses of ethanol or indomethacin interfere with the wound re-epithelialization of duodenal epithelial monolayers. The possible potentiating effect of ethanol on indomethacin modulation of duodenal re-epithelialization was also examined. In-vitro epithelial wounds were created in confluent IEC-6 duodenal epithelial monolayers by a razor blade scrape. Ethanol at low concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 0.75%) did not have significant effect on duodenal wound re-epithelialization. Similarly, low doses of indomethacin (.01,.05, 0.1 mM) also did not have a significant effect on wound re-epithelialization. However, the combination of ethanol (0.5 or 0.75%) and indomethacin (0.1mM) produced a marked inhibition of IEC-6 re-epithelialization. At the low doses used, ethanol and indomethacin (individually or in combination) did not have direct cytotoxic effect on IEC-6 cells. Ethanol or indomethacin (at the studied concentrations) had only minimal effect on the actin stress fibers in the cells at the migration front. However, in combination, they almost completely abolished the actin stress fibers at the migration front. These findings demonstrate that while low clinically relevant doses of ethanol and indomethacin individually do not affect re-epithelialization of wounded duodenal epithelial monolayers, in combination they produce a significant inhibition.