Immediate vs. delayed post-abortal copper T 380A IUD insertion in cases over 12 weeks of gestation
BACKGROUND: The intrauterine device (IUD) is a safe, effective, well-tolerated form of contraception. Immediate placement after second-trimester abortion could increase high-tier contraception use in women who are at high risk for unintended pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: This randomized controlled trial compared immediate vs. delayed placement of Copper T380A IUD insertion 2-4 weeks after second trimester abortion. The primary outcome analyzed was the percentage of women using a copper T380A IUD 6 months after surgery. Secondary outcomes were percentage of subjects using other high or middle tier contraception, expulsion, infection and repeat pregnancy rates as well as IUD satisfaction. In expectation of a high loss to follow-up at 6 months, 215 subjects were enrolled for a desired sample size of 158 subjects. RESULTS: Contraceptive and pregnancy status at 6 months was known for 159 of 215 subjects. Women randomized to immediate insertion were significantly more likely to have an IUD at 6 months compared to delayed (81.7% vs. 28.4%, p=.003). Relative risk was 11.2 (95% CI 5-26). There were 8 (5.1%) of 159 repeat unintended pregnancies. No women had a repeat pregnancy that had an IUD placed in the operating room. In the as-treated analysis, 64 women in the immediate group received the IUD and 0% had a repeat pregnancy. Of the remaining 95 women, 8 (8.4%) had a repeat pregnancy. This is a statistically significant difference (p=.022). CONCLUSION: Placing the IUD immediately after the procedure significantly increases the likelihood of use of effective contraception following a second-trimester procedure. Women who have an IUD placed immediately after their procedure may also be less likely to have a subsequent unplanned pregnancy
Effectiveness and safety of digoxin to induce fetal demise prior to second-trimester abortion
BACKGROUND: The study was conducted to assess the effectiveness in inducing fetal demise through digoxin injection given 1 day prior to second-trimester pregnancy termination and to evaluate related maternal safety. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort analysis of 1795 pregnant women between 17 and 24 weeks' gestation who received varying doses of digoxin by transabdominal intrafetal or intra-amniotic injection at the time of laminaria placement was conducted. Fetal heart activity documented by M-mode Doppler sonography on the subsequent day was considered failure. Digoxin dosages started at 1.0 mg for intrafetal and 0.5 mg for intra-amniotic injections and were progressively decreased based on best clinical judgment. RESULTS: The overall rate of failure to achieve fetal demise was 6.6% (95% CI, 5.5-7.9). Failure rates varied according to route of administration and dosage. There were no failures using a 1.0-mg intrafetal dose, but failures occurred with lower doses. Failure rates were higher with 0.5 mg for intra-amniotic (8.3%) than intrafetal administration (3.6%). There were no adverse maternal events at any of the doses in this study. CONCLUSION: Intrafetal digoxin injection at a dose of 1.0 mg is safe and effective for fetal demise prior to pregnancy termination in the second trimester. Significantly lower doses are effective in most cases. Additional doses merit further testing.