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Structural or functional defects of PTEN in urothelial cells lacking P53 drive basal/squamous-subtype muscle-invasive bladder cancer

He, Feng; Zhang, Fenglin; Liao, Yi; Tang, Moon-Shong; Wu, Xue-Ru
Muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) exhibits strong inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity that affects biological behaviors, therapeutic responses, and prognoses. Mutations that activate RTK-RAS-PI3K and inactivate P19-P53-P21 coexist in 60-70% of MIBC. By time-controlled ablation of Tp53 and Pten, singly or combined, in adult mouse urothelium, we found that Tp53 loss alone produced no abnormality. While Pten loss elicited hyperplasia, it synergized with Tp53 loss to trigger 100% penetrant MIBC that exhibited basal/squamous features that resembled its human counterpart. Furthermore, PTEN was inactivated in human MIBC cell lines and specimens primarily by hyperphosphorylation of the C-terminus. Mutated or tailless PTEN incapable of C-terminal phosphorylation demonstrated increased inhibition of proliferation and invasion than full-length PTEN in cultured MIBC cells. In xenograft and transgenic mice, tailless PTEN, but not full-length PTEN, prevented further growth in established tumors. Collectively, deficiencies of both PTEN and P53 drive basal/squamous subtype MIBC. PTEN is inactivated by C-terminal hyperphosphorylation, and this modification may serve as a biomarker for subtyping MIBC and predicting tumor progression. Tailless PTEN is a potential molecular therapeutic for tumors, such as bladder cancer (BC), that can be readily accessed.
PMID: 36195293
ISSN: 1872-7980
CID: 5351542

PKM2 is essential for bladder cancer growth and maintenance

Xia, Yong; Wang, Xing; Liu, Yan; Shapiro, Ellen; Lepor, Herbert; Tang, Moon-Shong; Sun, Tung-Tien; Wu, Xue-Ru
Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) has been shown to promote tumorigenesis by facilitating the Warburg effect and enhancing the activities of oncoproteins. However, this paradigm has recently been challenged by studies in which the absence of PKM2 failed to inhibit and instead accelerated tumorigenesis in mouse models. These results seem inconsistent with the fact that most human tumors overexpress PKM2. To further elucidate the role of PKM2 in tumorigenesis, we investigated the effect of PKM2 knockout in oncogenic HRAS-driven urothelial carcinoma. While PKM2 ablation in mouse urothelial cells did not affect tumor initiation, it impaired the growth and maintenance of HRAS-driven tumors. Chemical inhibition of PKM2 recapitulated these effects. Both conditions substantially reduced complex formation of PKM2 with STAT3, their nuclear translocation, and HIF1α- and VEGF-related angiogenesis. The reduction in nuclear STAT3 in the absence of PKM2 also correlated with decreased autophagy and increased apoptosis. Time-controlled, inducible PKM2 overexpression in simple urothelial hyperplasia did not trigger tumorigenesis, while overexpression of PKM2, but not PKM1, in nodular urothelial hyperplasia with angiogenesis strongly accelerated tumorigenesis. Finally, in human patients, PKM2 was overexpressed in low-grade non-muscle invasive and high-grade muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Based on these data, PKM2 is not required for tumor initiation but is essential for tumor growth and maintenance by enhancing angiogenesis and metabolic addiction. The PKM2-STAT3-HIF1α/VEGF signaling axis may play a critical role in bladder cancer and may serve as an actionable therapeutic target.
PMID: 34903602
ISSN: 1538-7445
CID: 5109682

DNA damage, DNA repair and carcinogenicity: Tobacco smoke versus electronic cigarette aerosol

Tang, Moon-Shong; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Weng, Mao-Wen; Wang, Hsiang-Tsui; Hu, Yu; Chen, Lung-Chi; Park, Sung-Hyun; Chan, Huei-Wei; Xu, Jiheng; Wu, Xue-Ru; Wang, He; Yang, Rui; Galdane, Karen; Jackson, Kathryn; Chu, Annie; Halzack, Elizabeth
The allure of tobacco smoking is linked to the instant gratification provided by inhaled nicotine. Unfortunately, tobacco curing and burning generates many mutagens including more than 70 carcinogens. There are two types of mutagens and carcinogens in tobacco smoke (TS): direct DNA damaging carcinogens and procarcinogens, which require metabolic activation to become DNA damaging. Recent studies provide three new insights on TS-induced DNA damage. First, two major types of TS DNA damage are induced by direct carcinogen aldehydes, cyclic-1,N2-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (γ-OH-PdG) and α-methyl-1, N2-γ-OH-PdG, rather than by the procarcinogens, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic amines. Second, TS reduces DNA repair proteins and activity levels. TS aldehydes also prevent procarcinogen activation. Based on these findings, we propose that aldehydes are major sources of TS induce DNA damage and a driving force for carcinogenesis. E-cigarettes (E-cigs) are designed to deliver nicotine in an aerosol state, without burning tobacco. E-cigarette aerosols (ECAs) contain nicotine, propylene glycol and vegetable glycerin. ECAs induce O6-methyl-deoxyguanosines (O6-medG) and cyclic γ-hydroxy-1,N2--propano-dG (γ-OH-PdG) in mouse lung, heart and bladder tissues and causes a reduction of DNA repair proteins and activity in lungs. Nicotine and nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK) induce the same types of DNA adducts and cause DNA repair inhibition in human cells. After long-term exposure, ECAs induce lung adenocarcinoma and bladder urothelial hyperplasia in mice. We propose that E-cig nicotine can be nitrosated in mouse and human cells becoming nitrosamines, thereby causing two carcinogenic effects, induction of DNA damage and inhibition of DNA repair, and that ECA is carcinogenic in mice. Thus, this article reviews the newest literature on DNA adducts and DNA repair inhibition induced by nicotine and ECAs in mice and cultured human cells, and provides insights into ECA carcinogenicity in mice.
PMID: 35690412
ISSN: 1388-2139
CID: 5248622

Nicotine dose-dependent epigenomic-wide DNA methylation changes in the mice with long-term electronic cigarette exposure

Peng, Gang; Xi, Yibo; Bellini, Chiara; Pham, Kien; Zhuang, Zhen W; Yan, Qin; Jia, Man; Wang, Guilin; Lu, Lingeng; Tang, Moon-Shong; Zhao, Hongyu; Wang, He
Epigenomic-wide DNA methylation profiling holds the potential to reflect both electronic cigarette exposure-associated risks and individual poor health outcomes. However, a systemic study in animals or humans is still lacking. Using the Infinium Mouse Methylation BeadChip, we examined the DNA methylation status of white blood cells in male ApoE-/- mice after 14 weeks of electronic cigarette exposure with the InExpose system (2 hr/day, 5 days/week, 50% PG and 50% VG) with low (6 mg/ml) and high (36 mg/ml) nicotine concentrations. Our results indicate that electronic cigarette aerosol inhalation induces significant alteration of 8,985 CpGs in a dose-dependent manner (FDR<0.05); 7,389 (82.2%) of the CpG sites are annotated with known genes. Among the top 6 significant CpG sites (P-value<1e-8), 4 CpG sites are located in the known genes, and most (3/5) of these genes have been related to cigarette smoking. The other two CpGs are close to/associated with the Phc2 gene that was recently linked to smoking in a transcriptome-wide associations study. Furthermore, the gene set enrichment analysis highlights the activation of MAPK and 4 cardiomyocyte/cardiomyopathy-related signaling pathways (including adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy) following repeated electronic cigarette use. The MAPK pathway activation correlates well with our finding of increased cytokine mRNA expression after electronic cigarette exposure in the same batch of mice. Interestingly, two pathways related to mitochondrial activities, namely mitochondrial gene expression and mitochondrial translation, are also activated after electronic cigarette exposure. Elucidating the relationship between these pathways and the increased circulating mitochondrial DNA observed here will provide further insight into the cell-damaging effects of prolonged inhalation of e-cigarette aerosols.
PMID: 36119846
ISSN: 2156-6976
CID: 5335232

The role of TAp63γ and P53 point mutations in regulating DNA repair, mutational susceptibility and invasion of bladder cancer cells

Wang, Hsiang-Tsui; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Weng, Mao-Wen; Liu, Yan; Huang, William C; Lepor, Herbert; Wu, Xue-Ru; Tang, Moon-Shong
It has long been recognized that non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has a low propensity (20%) of becoming muscle-invasive (MIBC), and that MIBC carry many more p53 point mutations (p53m) than NMIBC (50% vs 10%). MIBC also has a higher mutation burden than NMIBC. These results suggest that DNA repair capacities, mutational susceptibility and p53m are crucial for MIBC development. We found MIBC cells are hypermutable, deficient in DNA repair and have markedly downregulated DNA repair genes, XPC, hOGG1/2 and Ref1, and the tumor suppressor, TAp63γ. In contrast, NMIBC cells are hyperactive in DNA repair and exhibit upregulated DNA repair genes and TAp63γ. A parallel exists in human tumors, as MIBC tissues have markedly lower DNA repair activity, and lower expression of DNA repair genes and TAp63γ compared to NMIBC tissues. Forced TAp63γ expression in MIBC significantly mitigates DNA repair deficiencies and reduces mutational susceptibility. Knockdown of TAp63γ in NMIBC greatly reduces DNA repair capacity and enhances mutational susceptibility. Manipulated TAp63γ expression or knockdown of p53m reduce the invasion of MIBC by 40-60%. However, the combination of p53m knockdown with forced TAp63γ expression reduce the invasion ability to nil suggesting that p53m contributes to invasion phenotype independent from TAp63γ. These results indicate that in BC, TAp63γ regulates DNA repair capacities, mutational susceptibility and invasion, and that p53m contribute to the invasion phenotype. We conclude that concurrent TAp63γ suppression and acquisition of p53m are a major cause for MIBC development.
PMID: 34747697
ISSN: 2050-084x
CID: 5050232

Dominant role of CDKN2B/p15INK4B of 9p21.3 tumor suppressor hub in inhibition of cell-cycle and glycolysis

Xia, Yong; Liu, Yan; Yang, Chao; Simeone, Diane M; Sun, Tung-Tien; DeGraff, David J; Tang, Moon-Shong; Zhang, Yingkai; Wu, Xue-Ru
Human chromosome 9p21.3 is susceptible to inactivation in cell immortalization and diseases, such as cancer, coronary artery disease and type-2 diabetes. Although this locus encodes three cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors (p15INK4B, p14ARF and p16INK4A), our understanding of their functions and modes of action is limited to the latter two. Here, we show that in vitro p15INK4B is markedly stronger than p16INK4A in inhibiting pRb1 phosphorylation, E2F activity and cell-cycle progression. In mice, urothelial cells expressing oncogenic HRas and lacking p15INK4B, but not those expressing HRas and lacking p16INK4A, develop early-onset bladder tumors. The potency of CDKN2B/p15INK4B in tumor suppression relies on its strong binding via key N-terminal residues to and inhibition of CDK4/CDK6. p15INK4B also binds and inhibits enolase-1, a glycolytic enzyme upregulated in most cancer types. Our results highlight the dual inhibition of p15INK4B on cell proliferation, and unveil mechanisms whereby p15INK4B aberrations may underpin cancer and non-cancer conditions.
PMID: 33824349
ISSN: 2041-1723
CID: 4840932

Electronic Cigarettes Induce Mitochondrial DNA Damage and Trigger TLR 9 (Toll-Like Receptor 9)-Mediated Atherosclerosis

Li, Jieliang; Huynh, Luong; Cornwell, William D; Tang, Moon-Shong; Simborio, Hannah; Huang, Jing; Kosmider, Beata; Rogers, Thomas J; Zhao, Huanqing; Steinberg, Michael B; Thu Thi Le, Le; Zhang, Lanjing; Pham, Kien; Liu, Chen; Wang, He
OBJECTIVE:classical monocytes. Surprisingly, we found that cytoplasmic mitochondrial DNA isolated from ECV extract-treated macrophages can enhance TLR9 activation in reporter cells and the induction of inflammatory cytokine could be suppressed by TLR9 inhibitor in macrophages. CONCLUSIONS:E-cig increases level of damaged mitochondrial DNA in circulating blood and induces the expression of TLR9, which elevate the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in monocyte/macrophage and consequently lead to atherosclerosis. Our results raise the possibility that intervention of TLR9 activation is a potential pharmacological target of ECV-related inflammation and cardiovascular diseases.
PMID: 33380174
ISSN: 1524-4636
CID: 4785712

E-cigarette promotes breast carcinoma progression and lung metastasis: Macrophage-tumor cells crosstalk and the role of CCL5 and VCAM-1

Pham, Kien; Huynh, Do; Le, Le; Delitto, Daniel; Yang, Lei; Huang, Jing; Kang, Yibin; Steinberg, Michael B; Li, Jieliang; Zhang, Lanjing; Liu, Dongfang; Tang, Moon-Shong; Liu, Chen; Wang, He
Young women represent a target of E-cigarette (E-cig) companies, raising concern for potential connections with breast cancer (BC) that have not yet been elucidated. We hypothesized that E-cig promotes BC development and lung metastasis possibly through BC-monocyte/tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) crosstalk via CCL5 and V-CAM-1 axes. We demonstrated that E-cig promoted the infiltration of circulating monocytes in mammary fat pad (MFP) model. Furthermore, E-cig exposure significantly enhanced BC cell growth in MFP tumor and metastatic lung colonization; immunohistochemical stains illustrated the increase of TAMs infiltration, reduced BC cell apoptosis and increased proliferation index after E-cig exposure. In vitro studies show E-cig vapor condensate (EVC) treatment upregulated protein expressions of CCL5, V-CAM-1, and other pro-tumorigenic factors in BC cells. Mechanistically, co-culture system demonstrated both EVC and macrophages independently stimulated BC cell growth and the migration via CCL5/CCR1/CCR5 axis. During metastasis, E-Cig exposure stimulated BC cell survival via direct interaction with infiltrated macrophages, regulated by VCAM-1 and integrin α4β1. Our findings, for the first time, showed that E-cig promotes BC growth and metastasis. This study highlights the critical role of TAMs via CCL5 and VCAM-1 pathways in E-cig promoted BC tumor development.
PMID: 32829009
ISSN: 1872-7980
CID: 4586762

Reply to Young and Scott: Nicotine and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mutations in electronic-cigarette smoke lung carcinogenicity

Tang, Moon-Shong
PMID: 32047046
ISSN: 1091-6490
CID: 4304332

Electronic-cigarette smoke induces lung adenocarcinoma and bladder urothelial hyperplasia in mice

Tang, Moon-Shong; Wu, Xue-Ru; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Xia, Yong; Deng, Fang-Ming; Moreira, Andre L; Chen, Lung-Chi; Huang, William C; Lepor, Herbert
Electronic-cigarettes (E-cigs) are marketed as a safe alternative to tobacco to deliver the stimulant nicotine, and their use is gaining in popularity, particularly among the younger population. We recently showed that mice exposed to short-term (12 wk) E-cig smoke (ECS) sustained extensive DNA damage in lungs, heart, and bladder mucosa and diminished DNA repair in lungs. Nicotine and its nitrosation product, nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone, cause the same deleterious effects in human lung epithelial and bladder urothelial cells. These findings raise the possibility that ECS is a lung and bladder carcinogen in addition to nicotine. Given the fact that E-cig use has become popular in the past decade, epidemiological data on the relationship between ECS and human cancer may not be known for a decade to come. In this study, the carcinogenicity of ECS was tested in mice. We found that mice exposed to ECS for 54 wk developed lung adenocarcinomas (9 of 40 mice, 22.5%) and bladder urothelial hyperplasia (23 of 40 mice, 57.5%). These lesions were extremely rare in mice exposed to vehicle control or filtered air. Current observations that ECS induces lung adenocarcinomas and bladder urothelial hyperplasia, combined with our previous findings that ECS induces DNA damage in the lungs and bladder and inhibits DNA repair in lung tissues, implicate ECS as a lung and potential bladder carcinogen in mice. While it is well established that tobacco smoke poses a huge threat to human health, whether ECS poses any threat to humans is not yet known and warrants careful investigation.
PMID: 31591243
ISSN: 1091-6490
CID: 4129452