Maintenance lenalidomide in newly diagnosed transplant eligible and non-eligible myeloma patients; profiling second primary malignancies in 4358 patients treated in the Myeloma XI Trial
Background: Early trials of long-term lenalidomide use reported an increased incidence of second primary malignancy (SPM), including acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. Later, meta-analysis suggested the link to be secondary to lenalidomide in combination with melphalan. Methods: Myeloma XI is a large, phase III randomised trial in-which lenalidomide was used at induction and maintenance, in transplant eligible (TE) and non-eligible (TNE) newly diagnosed patients (NCT01554852). Here we present an analysis of SPM incidence and profile the SPM type to determine the impact of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and lenalidomide exposure in 4358 patients treated on study. Data collection took place from the start of the trial in May 2010, to May 2019, as per the protocol timeline. The Median follow-up following maintenance randomisation was 54.5 and 46.1 months for TE and TNE patients, respectively. Findings: In the TE pathway, the overall SPM incidence was 7.7% in lenalidomide maintenance patients compared to 3.2% in those being observed (p = 0.006). Although the TNE lenalidomide maintenance patients had the greatest SPM incidence (15.4%), this was not statistically significant when compared to the observed patients (10%, p = 0.10). The SPM incidence was higher in patients who received lenalidomide at induction and maintenance (double exposure), when compared to those treated with lenalidomide at one time point (single exposure). Again, this was most marked in TNE patients where the overall SPM incidence was 16.9% in double exposed patients, compared to 11.7% in single exposed patients, and 11.2% in patients who did not receive lenalidomide (p = 0.04). This is likely an effect of treatment duration, with the median number of cycles being 27 in the TNE double exposed patients, vs 6 in the single exposure patients. Haematological SPMs were uncommon, diagnosed in 50 patients (incidence 1.1%). The majority of cases were diagnosed in TE patients treated with lenalidomide maintenance (n = 25, incidence 2.8%), suggesting a possible link with melphalan. Non-melanoma skin cancer incidence was highest in patients receiving lenalidomide maintenance, particularly in TNE patients, where squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma were diagnosed in 5.5% and 2.6% of patients, respectively. The incidence of most solid tumour types was higher in lenalidomide maintenance patients. Mortality due to progressive myeloma was reduced in patients receiving lenalidomide maintenance, noted to be 16.6% compared 22.6% in those observed in TE patients and 32.7% compared to 41.5% in TNE patients. SPM related mortality was low, 1.8% and 6.1% in TE and TNE lenalidomide maintenance patients, respectively, compared to 0.4% and 2.8% in those being observed. Interpretation: This provides reassurance that long-term lenalidomide treatment is safe and associated with improved outcomes in TE and TNE populations, although monitoring for SPM development should be incorporated into clinic review processes. Funding: Primary financial support was from Cancer Research UK [ C1298/A10410].
Multiomic mapping of acquired chromosome 1 copy number and structural variants to identify therapeutic vulnerabilities in multiple myeloma
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Chromosome 1 (chr1) copy number abnormalities (CNAs) and structural variants (SV) are frequent in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) and associate with a heterogeneous impact on outcome the drivers of which are largely unknown. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN/METHODS:A multiomic approach comprising CRISPR, gene mapping of CNA and SV, methylation, expression, and mutational analysis was used to document the extent of chr1 molecular variants and their impact on pathway utilisation. RESULTS:We identified two distinct groups of gain(1q): focal gains associated with limited gene expression changes and a neutral prognosis, and whole-arm gains, which associate with substantial gene expression changes, complex genetics and an adverse prognosis. CRISPR identified a number of dependencies on chr1 but only limited variants associated with acquired CNAs. We identified seven regions of deletion, nine of gain, three of chromothripsis (CT) and two of templated-insertion (TI), which contain a number of potential drivers. An additional mechanism involving hypomethylation of genes at 1q may contribute to the aberrant gene expression of a number of genes. Expression changes associated with whole-arm gains were substantial and gene set enrichment analysis identified metabolic processes, apoptotic resistance, signaling via the MAPK pathway, and upregulation of transcription factors as being key drivers of the adverse prognosis associated with these variants. CONCLUSIONS:Multiple layers of genetic complexity impact the phenotype associated with CNAs on chr1 to generate its associated clinical phenotype. Whole-arm gains of 1q are the critically important prognostic group that deregulate multiple pathways, which may offer therapeutic vulnerabilities.
Tracking the Evolution of Therapy-Related Myeloid Neoplasms Using Chemotherapy Signatures
Patients treated with cytotoxic therapies, including autologous stem cell transplantation, are at risk for developing therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (tMN). Pre-leukemic clones (i.e., clonal hematopoiesis; CH) are detectable years before the development of these aggressive malignancies, though the genomic events leading to transformation and expansion are not well-defined. Here, leveraging distinctive chemotherapy-associated mutational signatures from whole-genome sequencing data and targeted sequencing of pre-chemotherapy samples, we reconstruct the evolutionary life-history of 39 therapy-related myeloid malignancies. A dichotomy is revealed, in which neoplasms with evidence of chemotherapy-induced mutagenesis from platinum and melphalan are hypermutated and enriched for complex structural variants (i.e., chromothripsis) while neoplasms with non-mutagenic chemotherapy exposures are genomically similar to de novo acute myeloid leukemia. Using chemotherapy-associated mutational signatures as temporal barcodes linked to a discrete clinical exposure in each patient's life, we estimate that several complex events and genomic drivers are acquired after chemotherapy is administered. For patients with prior multiple myeloma who were treated with high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation, we demonstrate that tMN can develop from either a reinfused CH clone that escapes melphalan exposure and is selected following reinfusion, or from TP53-mutant CH that survives direct myeloablative conditioning and acquires melphalan-induced DNA-damage. Overall, we reveal a novel mode of tMN progression that is not reliant on direct mutagenesis or even exposure to chemotherapy. Conversely, for tMN that evolve under the influence of chemotherapy-induced mutagenesis, distinct chemotherapies not only select pre-existing CH, but also promote the acquisition of recurrent genomic drivers.
Optimizing the value of lenalidomide maintenance by genetic profiling - an analysis of 556 Myeloma XI trial patients
Prediction of individual patient benefit from lenalidomide (Len) maintenance post autologous transplant (ASCT) remains challenging. We investigated here extended molecular profiling for outcome prediction in NCRI Myeloma XI (MyXI) trial patients. MyXI patients randomized to Len maintenance or observation post-ASCT were genetically profiled for t(4;14), t(14;16), t(14;20), del(1p), gain(1q) and del(17p) and co-occurrence of risk markers computed. PFS, PFS2 and OS were calculated from maintenance randomization, and groups compared using Cox proportional hazards regression. 556 MyXI patients, 17% with double hit MM (≥2 risk markers), 32% with single hit (1 risk marker) and 51% without risk marker, were analyzed. Single hit MM derived the highest PFS benefit from Len maintenance, specifically isolated del(1p), del(17p) and t(4;14), with approximately 40-fold (HR 0.02; 95% CI: 0.002-0.24; P=0.0012), 10-fold (HR 0.1; 95% CI: 0.02-0.58; P=0.0095) and 7-fold (HR 0.14; 95% CI: 0.04-0.45; P=0.0009) reduced risk of progression or death (PFS) compared to observation, respectively. This benefit translated into improved PFS2 HR 0.27 (95% CI: 0.13-0.54; P=0.0002) and OS HR 0.41 (95% CI: 0.18-0.93; P=0.03) for this group of patients over observation; median PFS was 10.9 vs. 57.3 months for observation vs. Len maintenance. Patients with isolated gain(1q) derived no benefit, and double hit MM limited benefit, regardless or risk lesions involved, from Len maintenance. Extended genetic profiling identifies patients deriving exceptional benefit from Len maintenance and should be considered for newly diagnosed patients to support management discussions along their treatment pathway.
The addition of vorinostat to lenalidomide maintenance for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma of all ages: results from 'Myeloma XI', a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase III trial
Lenalidomide is an effective maintenance agent for patients with myeloma, prolonging first remission and, in transplant eligible patients, improving overall survival (OS) compared to observation. The 'Myeloma XI' trial, for newly diagnosed patients, aimed to evaluate whether the addition of the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat to the lenalidomide maintenance backbone could improve outcomes further. Patients included in this analysis were randomised to maintenance therapy with lenalidomide alone (10 mg/day on days 1-21 of each 28-day cycle), or in combination with vorinostat (300 mg/day on day 1-7 and 15-21 of each 28-day cycle) with treatment continuing until unacceptable toxicity or progressive disease. There was no significant difference in median progression-free survival between those receiving lenalidomide-vorinostat or lenalidomide alone, 34 and 40 months respectively (hazard ratio [HR] 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96-1.44, p = 0.109). There was also no significant difference in median OS, not estimable and 75 months respectively (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.76-1.29, p = 0.929). Subgroup analysis demonstrated no statistically significant heterogeneity in outcomes. Combination lenalidomide-vorinostat appeared to be poorly tolerated with more dose modifications, fewer cycles of maintenance therapy delivered and higher rates of discontinuation due to toxicity than lenalidomide alone. The trial did not meet its primary end-point, there was no benefit from the addition of vorinostat to lenalidomide maintenance.
A phase I/II open-label study of molibresib for the treatment of relapsed/refractory hematologic malignancies
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Molibresib is a selective, small molecule inhibitor of the BET protein family. This was an open-label, two-part, Phase I/II study investigating molibresib monotherapy for the treatment of hematological malignancies (NCT01943851). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN/METHODS:Part 1 (dose escalation) determined the recommended Phase 2 dose (RP2D) of molibresib in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), or multiple myeloma. Part 2 (dose expansion) investigated the safety and efficacy of molibresib at the RP2D in patients with relapsed/refractory myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; as well as AML evolved from antecedent MDS) or cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL). The primary endpoint in Part 1 was safety and the primary endpoint in Part 2 was objective response rate (ORR). RESULTS:There were 111 patients enrolled (87 in Part 1, 24 in Part 2). Molibresib RP2Ds of 75 mg QD (for MDS) and 60 mg QD (for CTCL) were selected. Most common Grade 3+ AEs included thrombocytopenia (37%), anemia (15%) and febrile neutropenia (15%). Six patients achieved complete responses (three in Part 1 [two AML, one NHL], three in Part 2 [MDS]), and seven patients achieved partial responses (six in Part 1 [four AML, two NHL], one in Part 2 [MDS]). The ORRs for Part 1, Part 2, and the total study population were 10% (95% CI: 4.8-18.7), 25% (95% CI: 7.3-52.4), and 13% (95% CI: 6.9-20.6), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:While anti-tumor activity was observed with molibresib, use was limited by gastrointestinal and thrombocytopenia toxicities. Investigations of molibresib as part of combination regimens may be warranted.
Whole-genome analysis identifies novel drivers and high-risk double-hit events in relapsed/refractory myeloma
Large-scale analyses of genomic data from newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma patients (ndMM) have been undertaken, however, large-scale analysis of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (rrMM) has not been performed. We hypothesize that somatic variants chronicle the therapeutic exposures and clonal structure of myeloma from ndMM to rrMM stages. We generated whole genome sequencing (WGS) data from 418 tumors (386 patients) derived from six rrMM clinical trials and compared them with WGS from 198 unrelated ndMM patients in a population-based case-control fashion. We identified significantly enriched events at the rrMM stage, including drivers (DUOX2, EZH2, TP53), biallelic inactivation (TP53), non-coding mutations in bona fide drivers (TP53BP1, BLM), copy number aberrations (CNA; 1qGain, 17pLOH) and double-hit events (Amp1q-ISS3, 1qGain-17pLOH). Mutational signature analysis identified a subclonal defective mismatch repair signature enriched in rrMM and highly active in high mutation burden tumors, a likely feature of therapy-associated expanding subclones. Further analysis focused on the association of genomic aberrations enriched at different stages of resistance to immunomodulatory agent (IMiDsÃ’)-based therapy. This analysis revealed that TP53, DUOX2, 1qGain and 17pLOH increased in prevalence from ndMM to lenalidomide (LEN)- to pomalidomide (POM)-resistant stages while enrichment of MAML3 along with IGL and MYC translocations distinguished POM from the LEN subgroup. Genomic drivers associated with rrMM are those that confer clonal selective advantage under therapeutic pressure. Their role in therapy evasion should be evaluated further in longitudinal patient samples, to confirm these associations with the evolution of clinical resistance and to identify molecular subsets of rrMM for the development of targeted therapies.
Alternative splicing in multiple myeloma is associated with the non-homologous end joining pathway
Alternative splicing plays a pivotal role in tumorigenesis and proliferation. However, its pattern and pathogenic role has not been systematically analyzed in multiple myeloma or its subtypes. Alternative splicing profiles for 598 newly diagnosed myeloma patients with comprehensive genomic annotation identified primary translocations, 1q amplification, and DIS3 events to have more differentially spliced events than those without. Splicing levels were correlated with expression of splicing factors. Moreover, the non-homologous end joining pathway was an independent factor that was highly associated with splicing frequency as well as an increased number of structural variants. We therefore identify an axis of high-risk disease encompassing expression of the non-homologous end joining pathway, increase structural variants, and increased alternative splicing that are linked together. This indicates a joint pathogenic role for DNA damage response and alternative RNA processing in myeloma.
A pooled analysis of outcomes according to cytogenetic abnormalities in patients receiving ixazomib- vs placebo-based therapy for multiple myeloma
Some cytogenetic abnormalities (CAs) are associated with poorer prognosis in multiple myeloma (MM); proteasome inhibitors appear to benefit patients with high-risk CAs. We evaluated 2247 MM patients from the TOURMALINE-MM1/-MM2/-MM3/-MM4 trials to assess the PFS benefit of ixazomib plus lenalidomide-dexamethasone (Rd) vs placebo-Rd (TOURMALINE-MM1/-MM2) or ixazomib vs placebo (TOURMALINE-MM3/-MM4) in specific high-risk CAs. After a pooled median follow-up of 25.6 months, the hazard ratio (HR) for PFS with ixazomib- vs placebo-based therapy for high-risk patients was 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59-0.93; median PFS [mPFS] 17.8 vs 13.2 months), and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.62-0.80; mPFS 26.3 vs 17.6 months) for complementary standard-risk patients. The HR for expanded high-risk patients was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.64-0.87; mPFS 18.1 vs 14.1 months), and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.59-0.85; mPFS 36.1 vs 21.4 months) for complementary standard-risk patients. The HR for PFS with ixazomib- vs placebo-based therapy was 0.68 in patients with t(4;14) (95% CI: 0.48-0.96; mPFS 22.4 vs 13.2 months), and 0.77 for patients with amp1q21 (95% CI: 0.63-0.93; mPFS 18.8 vs 14.5 months). A PFS benefit was demonstrated with ixazomib- vs placebo-based therapy regardless of cytogenetic status, with greatest benefit observed in patients with t(4;14) and amp1q21.
Characterizing the role of the immune microenvironment in multiple myeloma progression at a single cell level
Early alterations within the bone marrow microenvironment that contribute to the progression of multiple myeloma (MM) from its precursor stages could hold the key to identifying novel therapeutic approaches, yet the intrinsic variability in cellular populations between patients together with differences in sample processing and analysis methods have made it difficult to identify consistent changes between datasets. Here, we used single-cell RNA sequencing of BM cells from precursor stages, monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS), smoldering MM (SMM) and newly diagnosed MM and analyzed our data in combination with a previously published dataset that used a similar patient population and sample processing. Despite vast interpatient heterogeneity, some alterations were seen consistently in both datasets. We identified changes in immune cell populations as disease progressed that were characterized by a substantial decrease in memory and naÃ¯ve CD4 T cells and an increase in CD8+ effector T cells and T-regulatory cells. These alterations were further accompanied by an enrichment of non-clonal memory B cells and an increase of CD14 and CD16 monocytes in MM compared to its precursor stages. These results provide crucial information of the immune changes associated with the progression to clinical MM and can help to develop immune based strategies for patient stratification and early therapeutic intervention.