Cardiovascular Complications of Pregnancy
The physiologic changes in pregnancy predispose the pregnant patient to a variety of potential cardiovascular complications. In this article, we discuss the major cardiovascular disorders of pregnancy and their management, highlight specific diagnostic challenges, and discuss new developments in the field. Topics covered in this article include venous thromboembolism, acute myocardial infarction, peripartum cardiomyopathy, and aortic dissection.
Expression-Based Cell Lineage Analysis in Drosophila Through a Course-Based Research Experience for Early Undergraduates
A variety of genetic techniques have been devised to determine cell lineage relationships during tissue development. Some of these systems monitor cell lineages spatially and/or temporally without regard to gene expression by the cells, whereas others correlate gene expression with the lineage under study. The GAL4 Technique for Real-time and Clonal Expression (G-TRACE) system allows for rapid, fluorescent protein-based visualization of both current and past GAL4 expression patterns and is therefore amenable to genome-wide expression-based lineage screens. Here we describe the results from such a screen, performed by undergraduate students of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Undergraduate Research Consortium for Functional Genomics (URCFG) and high school summer scholars as part of a discovery-based education program. The results of the screen, which reveal novel expression-based lineage patterns within the brain, the imaginal disc epithelia, and the hematopoietic lymph gland, have been compiled into the G-TRACE Expression Database (GED), an online resource for use by the Drosophila research community. The impact of this discovery-based research experience on student learning gains was assessed independently and shown to be greater than that of similar programs conducted elsewhere. Furthermore, students participating in the URCFG showed considerably higher STEM retention rates than UCLA STEM students that did not participate in the URCFG, as well as STEM students nationwide.
Habituation of the C-start response in larval zebrafish exhibits several distinct phases and sensitivity to NMDA receptor blockade
The zebrafish larva has been a valuable model system for genetic and molecular studies of development. More recently, biologists have begun to exploit the surprisingly rich behavioral repertoire of zebrafish larvae to investigate behavior. One prominent behavior exhibited by zebrafish early in development is a rapid escape reflex (the C-start). This reflex is mediated by a relatively simple neural circuit, and is therefore an attractive model behavior for neurobiological investigations of simple forms of learning and memory. Here, we describe two forms of short-lived habituation of the C-start in response to brief pulses of auditory stimuli. A rapid form, persisting for â‰¥1 min but <15 min, was induced by 120 pulses delivered at 0.5-2.0 Hz. A more extended form (termed "short-term habituation" here), which persisted for â‰¥25 min but <1 h, was induced by spaced training. The spaced training consisted of 10 blocks of auditory pulses delivered at 1 Hz (5 min interblock interval, 900 pulses per block). We found that these two temporally distinguishable forms of habituation are mediated by different cellular mechanisms. The short-term form depends on activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), whereas the rapid form does not.