Impaired Humoral Immunity to SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and CLL Patients
Patients with hematologic malignancies are a high priority for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, yet the benefit they will derive is uncertain. We investigated the humoral response to vaccination in 53 non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), or CLL patients. Peripheral blood was obtained 2 weeks after first vaccination and 6 weeks after second vaccination for antibody profiling using the multiplex bead-binding assay. Serum IgG, IgA, and IgM antibody levels to the spike specific receptor binding domain (RBD) were evaluated as a measure of response. Subsequently, antibody-positive serum were assayed for neutralization capacity against authentic SARS-CoV-2. Histology was 68% lymphoma and 32% CLL; groups were: patients receiving anti-CD20-based therapy (45%), monitored with disease (28%), receiving BTK inhibitors (19%), or chemotherapy (all HL) (8%). SARS-CoV-2 specific RBD IgG antibody response was decreased across all NHL and CLL groups: 25%, 73%, and 40%, respectively. Antibody IgG titers were significantly reduced (p < 0.001) for CD20 treated and targeted therapy patients, and (p = 0.003) for monitored patients. In 94% of patients evaluated after first and second vaccination, antibody titers did not significantly boost after second vaccination. Only 13% of CD20 treated and 13% of monitored patients generated neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 with ICD50s 135 to 1767, and 445 and > 10240. This data has profound implications given the current guidance relaxing masking restrictions and for timing of vaccinations. Unless immunity is confirmed with laboratory testing, these patients should continue to mask, socially distance, and to avoid close contact with non-vaccinated individuals.
Microbial dysbiosis is associated with aggressive histology and adverse clinical outcome in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma
B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell survival depends on poorly understood immune evasion mechanisms. In melanoma, the composition of the gut microbiota (GMB) is associated with immune system regulation and response to immunotherapy. We investigated the association of GMB composition and diversity with lymphoma biology and treatment outcome. Patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), marginal zone (MZL), and follicular lymphoma (FL) were recruited at Mayo Clinic, Minnesota, and Perlmutter Cancer Center, NYU Langone Health. The pretreatment GMB was analyzed using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. We examined GMB compositions in 3 contexts: lymphoma patients (51) compared with healthy controls (58), aggressive (DLBCL) (8) compared with indolent (FL, MZL) (18), and the association of GMB with immunochemotherapy treatment outcomes (8 responders, 6 nonresponders). Respectively, we found that the pretreatment GMB in lymphoma patients had a distinct composition compared with healthy controls (P < .001); GMB compositions in DLBCL patients were significantly different than indolent patients (P = .01) with a trend toward reduced microbial diversity in DLBCL patients (P = .08); and pretreatment GMB diversity and composition were significant predictors of treatment responses (P = .01). The impact of these pilot results is limited by our small sample size, and should be considered a proof of principle. If validated, our results could lead toward improved treatment outcomes by improving medication stewardship and informing which GMB-targeted therapies should be tested to improve patient outcomes.
Hodgkin lymphoma patients demonstrate evidence of chronic activation/exhaustion in circulating T cell subsets [Meeting Abstract]
Development of highly aggressive mantle cell lymphoma after sofosbuvir treatment of hepatitis C
Circulating Memory T Cells Isolated from Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients Display Evidence of Exhaustion and Chronic Activation [Meeting Abstract]
The appearance of epidural extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (MALToma) on F-18 FDG PET/CT and post hoc PET/MRI fusion
Safety and tolerability of combined gemcitabine (G) and erlotinib (E) plus sorafenib (S) in the first-line treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer [Meeting Abstract]
Identification of oligoclonal CD4 T cells in diffuse large B cell lymphomas
Human B cell lymphomas often contain CD4 T cells. Here we show that, in diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLCL), such T cells are oligoclonal. The CDR3 lengths and nucleotide sequences of oligoclonal TCRBV of CD4 T cells in an original and relapsed lymphoma from one patient were compared. Three BV23 sequences were identical (12/17 and 16/16 clones in primary and relapsed lymphomas, respectively), but were absent in CD4 T cells from another patient's DLCL. Two of the repetitive BV23 sequences were found in peripheral blood CD4 T cells (5/17 clones); gamma-irradiated DLCL from this patient stimulated syngeneic BV23 response in CD4 cells (92% of BV23 had the same CDR3 length). Skew in TCRBV representation was observed in CD4 T cells from all the DLCL. One DLCL, with overrepresentation of BV13S1 in CD4 cells, stimulated the same TCR in CD4 cells from three unrelated individuals. These findings support the conclusion that there is clonal selection of CD4 T cells in DLCL
Capecitabine induced cutaneous hyperpigmentation: report of a case [Case Report]
We report an unusual case of cutaneous and mucosal hyperpigmentation in a thirty-six year old African American woman who was receiving capecitabine chemotherapy for Stage IV breast carcinoma. Possible etiologies for the hyperpigmentation are discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of capecitabine associated cutaneous hyperpigmentation
Vinorelbine/cisplatin therapy of locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer: an active regimen [Meeting Abstract]
Single agent activity of vinorelbine in previously untreated breast cancer and its predictable toxicity make it ideal for combination with cisplatin, a drug we found to be very active in combination with paclitaxel (J Clin Oncol; 14:1993, 1996), but with a high rate of neurotoxicity limiting duration of therapy. Eligibility included: histologically proven locally advanced or metastatic measurable breast cancer, ECOG performance status (PS) of 2 or less, adequate organ function. Cisplatin was given at a dose of 75 mg/m2 on day 1, with vinorelbine 30 mg/m2 days 1 and 8 of a 21 day cycle; day 8 vinorelbine dose was modified for neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. 24 patients (pts) entered the study, of whom 23 were eligible and 1 too early for response evaluation. 20 pts were treated as first line therapy for advanced disease (10 locally advanced and 10 metastatic). 3 pts were treated as second-line therapy for metastatic disease. Median age was 49 (range 32-67), median ECOG PS = 0. Nine pts had prior adjuvant chemotherapy and 8 pts had prior RT. A total of 91 cycles of chemotherapy were given with a median of 3 per pt. Hematological toxicity included leukopenia gr 3 = 4 pts, gr 4 = 2; neutropenia gr 3 = 4, gr 4 = 7 pts; no gr 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia. Non-heme toxicity included: N/V gr 2 = 6 pts, gr 3 = 1; neuropathy gr 1 = 10; gr 2 = 2; renal gr 2 = 1 pt. Responses seen included 2 CRs and 6 PRs (of 9 evaluable) locally advanced, 1 CR and 5 PRs (of 10) in metastatic disease, and 1 CR + 1 PR (of 3) second line therapy. Overall response rate was 73% (4 CR + 12 PR + 4 SD = 18% CR and 55% PR) of 22 evaluable pts. These data suggest that combined vinorelbine/cisplatin therapy is highly active in locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer without the high incidence of dose-limiting neurotoxicity seen in our prior paclitaxel/cisplatin trial. Accrual is continuing to improve the 95% confidence interval. (C) American Society of Clinical Oncology 1997