The Toxicology Investigators Consortium Case Registry-the 2019 Annual Report
The Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC) Registry was established by the American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT) in 2010. The Registry collects data from participating sites with the agreement that all bedside medical toxicology consultation will be entered. This tenth annual report summarizes the Registry's 2019 data and activity with its additional 7177 cases. Cases were identified for inclusion in this report by a query of the ToxIC database for any case entered from 1 January to 31 December 2019. Detailed data was collected from these cases and aggregated to provide information which included demographics, reason for medical toxicology evaluation, agent and agent class, clinical signs and symptoms, treatments and antidotes administered, mortality, and whether life support was withdrawn. 50.7% of cases were female, 48.5% were male, and 0.8% were transgender. Non-opioid analgesics was the most commonly reported agent class, followed by opioid and antidepressant classes. Acetaminophen was once again the most common agent reported. There were 91 fatalities, comprising 1.3% of all Registry cases. Major trends in demographics and exposure characteristics remained similar to past years' reports. Sub-analyses were conducted to describe exposures in cases of self-harm, gender differences in substance use disorder, and trends in addiction medicine and pain management consultations.
Delayed peaks of acetaminophen in overdose patients with concomitant abdominal trauma
Objective: To present two cases of delayed acetaminophen absorption in abdominal trauma patients with concomitant acetaminophen overdose.Cases: Case 1. A 25-year-old female arrived to the emergency department with multiple stab wounds. She had ingested an unknown amount of acetaminophen and was then stabbed by her boyfriend in a suicide pact. Initial acetaminophen concentration was 211.7â€‰mcg/mL and the patient was started on N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) therapy. She was found to have injuries and was taken for operative repair. Acetaminophen concentrations were down trending and nearly undetectable until 58â€‰h post-presentation when concentrations began to rise again.Case 2: A 41-year-old female ingested approximately 500 tablets of acetaminophen prior to jumping from a four-story building in a suicide attempt. She was found to have multiple traumatic injuries as well as an initial acetaminophen concentration of 225â€‰mcg/mL and was started on NAC therapy. The patient underwent multiple interventions to treat her traumatic injuries. Despite receiving no acetaminophen while inpatient, the patient's acetaminophen concentrations peaked a second time on her third hospital day.Conclusions: In this case series, two patients with abdominal trauma and coexistent massive acetaminophen ingestions were described. Both cases demonstrated a delayed rise in serum acetaminophen concentrations and required extended NAC therapy.
in pediatric patients
Marine envenomations can cause a diverse array of clinical syndromes. Systemic and life-threatening reactions, as well as delayed presentations, can occur. The pediatric population is at higher risk for serious reactions to envenomations because their greater body surface area and smaller body mass can lead to a higher relative venom load. Although the majority of the literature on marine envenomations is of low quality, the available literature does suggest that management varies depending on the geographic location. This issue reviews both common and life-threatening presentations of marine envenomations, highlights key aspects of the history and physical examination that will help narrow the differential, and offers recommendations for management based on the envenomating creature and geographic location.
Periorbital Edema Mimicking an Allergic Reaction After Black Widow Envenomation [Letter]
Moving Towards Gender Equality in Medical Toxicology [Editorial]
The Toxicology Investigators Consortium Case Registry-the 2018 Annual Report
The Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC) Registry was established by the American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT) in 2010. The Registry collects data from participating sites with the agreement that all bedside medical toxicology consultation will be entered. The objective of this ninth annual report is to summarize the Registry's 2018 data and activity with its additional 7043 cases. Cases were identified for inclusion in this report by a query of the ToxIC database for any case entered from 1 January to 31 December 2018. Detailed data was collected from these cases and aggregated to provide information which included demographics, reason for medical toxicology evaluation, agent and agent class, clinical signs and symptoms, treatments and antidotes administered, mortality, and whether life support was withdrawn. A total of 51.5% of cases were female, 48% were male, and 0.6% transgender. Non-opioid analgesics were the most commonly reported agent class, followed by antidepressants and opioids. Acetaminophen was once again the most common agent reported. There were 106 fatalities, comprising 1.5% of all registry cases. Major trends in demographics and exposure characteristics remained similar to past years' reports. Sub-analyses were conducted to describe exposures in elderly patients, addiction consultation practices, and risk factors for bupropion-induced seizures. The launch of the ToxIC Qualified Clinical Data Registry (TQCDR) is also described.
New York : McGraw-Hill Education, 
The Virtual Toxicology Journal Club: the Dissemination and Discussion of Noteworthy Manuscripts Using Twitter
BACKGROUND:Twitter-based chat groups (tweetchats) structured as virtual journal clubs have been demonstrated to provide value to learners. In order to promote topics in medical toxicology, we developed the #firesidetox tweetchat as a virtual journal club to discuss and disseminate topics in medical toxicology. METHODS:A group of medical toxicologists from the American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT) Public Affairs Committee and editorial board of the Journal of Medical Toxicology (JMT) developed a quarterly one hourÂ tweetchat featuring JMT manuscripts. We gathered basic twittergraphics and used a healthcare hashtag aggregator to measure the number of impressions, participants, and tweets per tweetchat session. A qualitative analysis of important themes from #firesidetox was also completed. RESULTS:During five tweetchats over 12Â months, we attracted a mean of 23 participants generating a mean of 150 tweets per #firesidetox tweetchat. Tweets generated a mean of 329,200 impressions (unique user views): these impressions grew by 300% from the first through fifth #firesidetox. The majority of participants self-identified as medical toxicologists or physician learners. Although most were from the USA, participants also came from Australia, Poland, and Qatar. Most tweets centered on medical education and 7.9% tweets were learner-driven or questions asking for a medical toxicologist expert opinion. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The #firesidetox attracted a diverse group of toxicologists, learners, and members of the public in a virtual journal club setting. The increasing number of impressions, participants, and tweets during #firesidetox demonstrates the tweetchat model to discuss pertinent toxicology topics is feasible and well received among its participants.
Assessing the effect of a medical toxicologist in the care of rattlesnake envenomated patients
Rattlesnake envenomation is an important problem in the United States, and the management of these envenomations can be complex. Despite these complexities, however, the majority of such cases are managed without the involvement of a medical toxicologist. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of a medical toxicology service on the length of stay of such patients.
Comparison of Antivenom Dosing Strategies for Rattlesnake Envenomation
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:This study compares maintenance with clinical- and laboratory-triggered (as-needed [PRN]) antivenom dosing strategies with regard to patient-centered outcomes after rattlesnake envenomation. DESIGN/METHODS:This is a retrospective cohort study of adult rattlesnake envenomations treated at a regional toxicology center. Data on demographics, envenomation details, antivenom administration, length of stay, and laboratory and clinical outcomes were compared between the PRN and maintenance groups. Primary outcomes were hospital length of stay and total antivenom used, with a hypothesis of no difference between the two dosing strategies. SETTING/METHODS:A single regional toxicology center PATIENTS:: Three-hundred ten adult patients envenomated by rattlesnakes between 2007 and 2014 were included. Patients were excluded if no antivenom was administered or for receiving an antivenom other than Crofab (BTG International, West Conshohocken, PA). INTERVENTIONS/METHODS:This is a retrospective study of rattlesnake envenomations treated with and without maintenance antivenom dosing. MAIN RESULTS/RESULTS:One-hundred forty-eight in the maintenance group and 162 in the PRN group were included. There was no difference in demographics or baseline envenomation severity or hemotoxicity (32.7% vs 40.5%; respectively; p = 0.158) between the two groups. Comparing the PRN with the maintenance group, less antivenom was used (8 [interquartile range, 6-12] vs 16 [interquartile range, 12-18] vials, respectively; p < 0.001), and hospital length of stay was shorter (27 hr [interquartile range, 20-44 hr] vs 34 hr [interquartile range, 24-43 hr], respectively; p = 0.014). There were no differences in follow-up outcomes of readmission, retreatment, or bleeding and surgical complications. CONCLUSIONS:Hospital length of stay was shorter, and less antivenom was used in patients receiving a PRN antivenom dosing strategy after rattlesnake envenomation.