Efficacy of guselkumab, a selective IL-23 inhibitor, in Preventing Arthritis in a Multicentre Psoriasis At-Risk cohort (PAMPA): protocol of a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled multicentre trial
Haberman, Rebecca H; MacFarlane, Katrina A; Catron, Sydney; Samuels, Jonathan; Blank, Rebecca B; Toprover, Michael; Uddin, Zakwan; Hu, Jiyuan; Castillo, Rochelle; Gong, Cinty; Qian, Kun; Piguet, Vincent; Tausk, Francisco; Yeung, Jensen; Neimann, Andrea L; Gulliver, Wayne; Thiele, Ralf G; Merola, Joseph F; Ogdie, Alexis; Rahman, Proton; Chakravarty, Soumya D; Eder, Lihi; Ritchlin, C T; Scher, Jose U
INTRODUCTION:Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a complex, immune-mediated disease associated with skin psoriasis that, if left untreated, can lead to joint destruction. Up to 30% of patients with psoriasis progress to PsA. In most cases, psoriasis precedes synovio-entheseal inflammation by an average of 5-7 years, providing a unique opportunity for early and potentially preventive intervention in a susceptible and identifiable population. Guselkumab is an effective IL-23p19 inhibitor Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved for treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis and PsA. The Preventing Arthritis in a Multicentre Psoriasis At-Risk cohort (PAMPA) study aims to evaluate the efficacy of guselkumab in preventing PsA and decreasing musculoskeletal power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) abnormalities in a population of patients with psoriasis who are at-increased risk for PsA progression. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:The PAMPA study is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, interventional, preventive trial comparing PDUS involvement and conversion to PsA in patients with psoriasis at-increased risk for progression treated with guselkumab compared with non-biological standard of care. The study includes a screening period, a double-blind treatment period (24 weeks) and an open-label follow-up period (72 weeks). At baseline, 200 subjects will be randomised (1:1) to receive either guselkumab 100 mg (arm 1) or placebo switching to guselkumab 100 mg starting at week 24 (arm 2). Arm 3 will follow 150 at-risk psoriasis patients who decline biological therapy and randomisation. Changes from baseline in the PDUS score at week 24 and the difference in proportion of patients transitioning to PsA at 96 weeks will be examined as the coprimary endpoints. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethics approval for this study was granted by the coordinating centre's (NYU School of Medicine) Institutional Review Board (IRB). Each participating site received approval through their own IRBs. The findings will be shared in peer-reviewed articles and scientific conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT05004727.
Lowering and Raising Serum Urate Levels: Off-Label Effects of Commonly Used Medications
Leung, Nicole; Yip, Kevin; Pillinger, Michael H; Toprover, Michael
Drug-induced hyperuricemia and gout present an increasingly prevalent problem in clinical practice. Herein, we review the urate-lowering or urate-raising effects of commonly used agents. We performed a PubMed search using the terms gout, urate, and medication, along with the specific agents/classes described herein. Reports were reviewed until 2022, and original studies were considered if they primarily or secondarily reported the effects of 1 or more drugs on serum urate level. Previous reviews were assessed for references to additional studies that described urate-altering effects of medications. Urate-changing drugs are summarized regarding their magnitude of effect, mechanism of action, and clinical significance. Potentially urate-lowering drugs include angiotensin II receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, high-dose aspirin and salicylates, some nonsalicylate nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, statins, and fenofibrate. Potentially urate-increasing drugs discussed include diuretics, Î²-blockers, insulin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, calcineurin inhibitors, low-dose aspirin, testosterone, and lactate. In patients who have or are at risk for hyperuricemia or gout, an increased awareness of drugs that affect serum urate level may allow for prescribing that effectively treats the indicated problem while minimizing adverse effects on hyperuricemia and gout.
Monosodium urate deposition in the lumbosacral spine of patients with gout compared with non-gout controls: A dual-energy CT study
Toprover, Michael; Mechlin, Michael; Fields, Theodore; Oh, Cheongeun; Becce, Fabio; Pillinger, Michael H
BACKGROUND:Gout is the most common cause of inflammatory arthritis in adults. Gout predominantly affects the peripheral joints, but an increasing number of published cases report gout affecting the spine. We used dual-energy CT (DECT) to assess the prevalence of monosodium urate (MSU) deposition in the spine of gout patients compared to controls, and to investigate whether gout or spinal MSU deposition is associated with low back pain. METHODS:25 controls and 50 gout subjects (non-tophaceous and tophaceous) were enrolled. Demographics, gout history, Aberdeen back pain score, serum urate (sU), ESR and CRP were ascertained. Subjects underwent DECT of the lumbosacral spine, which was analyzed using manufacturer's default post-processing algorithm for MSU deposition as well as a maximally-specific algorithm to exclude potential artifact. FINDINGS/RESULTS:72 subjects were analyzed (25 control, 47 gout). Gout subjects had greater BMI, serum creatinine, sU, CRP, and ESR versus controls. Using the default algorithm, MSU-coded volumes in the lumbosacral spines were significantly higher among the gout subjects vs controls (pÂ =Â 0.018). 34% of gout subjects vs 4% of controls had spinal MSU-coded deposition (pÂ =Â 0.0036). Applying the maximally-specific DECT post-processing algorithm, 18% of gout patients vs 0% of controls continued to demonstrate spinal MSU-coded deposition (pÂ =Â 0.04). Non-tophaceous and tophaceous subjects did not differ in spinal MSU-coded deposition or sU. Gout patients had more back pain than controls. INTERPRETATION/CONCLUSIONS:A significant subpopulation of gout patients have spinal MSU-coded lesions. Default and maximally-specific MSU post-processing algorithms yielded different absolute MSU-coded volumes, but similar patterns of results. Gout patients had more back pain than controls. Spinal MSU deposition in gout patients may have implications for clinical picture and treatment.
Spinal Urate Deposition in a Patient With Gout and Nonspecific Low Back Pain: Response to Initiation of Gout Therapy
Sullivan, Jeremy I; Pillinger, Michael H; Toprover, Michael
Chondrocalcinosis: Advances in Diagnostic Imaging
Sullivan, Jeremy; Pillinger, Michael H; Toprover, Michael
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) arises from calcium pyrophosphate deposition throughout the body, leading to different clinical syndromes that may be diagnosed using various imaging modalities. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent updates in the imaging of CPPD. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:Conventional radiography remains the initial test when imaging CPPD; but musculoskeletal ultrasound and conventional computed tomography (CT) may also assist in diagnosing and characterizing CPP deposits, with increased sensitivity. Dual-energy CT is also being used to differentiate CPP crystals from other crystal deposition diseases. CPP discitis has been diagnosed with MRI, but MRI has lower sensitivity and specificity than the aforementioned imaging studies in CPPD diagnosis. Assorted imaging modalities are increasingly used to diagnose CPPD involving atypical joints, avoiding invasive procedures. Each modality has its advantages and disadvantages. Future imaging may be able to provide more utility than what is currently available.
Assessing the extent of lumbosacral spinal urate deposition in patients with tophaceous and nontophaceous gout compared with non-gout controls using dual-energy ct (DECT) [Meeting Abstract]
Toprover, M; Mechlin, M; Slobodnick, A; Pike, V; Oh, C; Davis, C; Fields, T; Becce, F; Pillinger, M
Background/Purpose: Axial gout involvement was first reported in 1950 (1). Over 100 cases have subsequently been published. Reported cases have presented as acute back pain, cord compression, and/or neurologic symptoms, with diagnosis made by invasive procedure (surgical excision or biopsy). However, the true extent of MSU deposition in the spine of gout patients, including asymptomatic patients or those with non-specific symptoms, is unknown and likely higher. We used DECT to determine the extent of MSU deposition in the lumbosacral spines of patients with gout, with and without tophi, compared to controls without gout.
Method(s): We recruited controls, nontophaceous, and tophaceous gout patients, age 45-80. Individuals with CPPD disease, RA, spondyloarthropathy, active spinal malignancy, or on urate lowering treatment (ULT) >= 6 months were excluded. Gout subjects met 2015 ACR gout classification criteria, with entry serum urate (sU) of >6.8 mg/dL ( >6.0 mg/dL if on ULT for < 6 months). Demographics, gout history, Aberdeen back pain scale, sU, ESR, and CRP were collected. Subjects underwent DECT of the lumbosacral spine (LS) to assess for MSU deposition.
Result(s): 75 subjects were enrolled, and 72 completed the study (1 nontophaceous gout patient lost to follow-up prior to DECT, 2 tophaceous excluded after sU at time of DECT found to be < 6.0mg/dL). All groups were similar in age in years (controls 61.8+/-3.8, nontophaceous 64.0+/-6.1, tophaceous 60.4+/-11.0, p=0.81) but differed in BMI (controls 28.3+/-6.5 kg/m2, nontophaceous 34.1+/-7.2 kg/m2, tophaceous 29.5+/-4.5 kg/m2, p=0.03) and creatinine (controls 1.0+/-0.2 mg/dL, nontophaceous 1.4+/-0.7 mg/dL, tophaceous 1.4+/-0.6 mg/dL, p< 0.05). Mean sU and ESR were higher in gout subjects (sU-controls 5.3+/-1 mg/dL, nontophaceous 8.5+/-1.7 mg/dL, tophaceous 8.5+/-1.6 mg/dL, p< 0.05; ESR-controls 13.7+/-13.8 mm/h, nontophaceous 26.5+/-19.4 mm/h, tophaceous 25.1+/-15.7 mm/h, p< 0.05). Using standard DECT settings for MSU visualization, gout patients had larger MSU volumes than controls (controls 2.2+/-1.2 cm3, all gout 5.23+/-6.9 cm3; p =0.03). Tophaceous patients had numerically greater MSU deposition compared with nontophaceous (6.0+/-8.9 cm3, vs 4.4+/-4.3 cm3, ns). Reanalysis of a subset of scans using highly specific settings to eliminate artifact reduced the number of subjects with MSU signal but confirmed greater prevalence of deposition among gout patients (n=29; controls with deposition 0/9, nontophaceous with deposition 1/11, tophaceous with deposition 2/9). Back pain was also more common among gout patients. No subject had frank tophi on spinal DECT.
Conclusion(s): Gout patients have significantly greater intercritical inflammation and LS MSU deposition than controls, and trend toward greater deposition among patients with tophi. Preliminary results using the most stringent DECT threshold settings suggests MSU differences are not artifact. The complete data set is currently undergoing evaluation and the full results will be presented
Increased prevalence of lumbar spine monosodium urate deposition among gout patients on dual-energy CT [Meeting Abstract]
Toprover, M; Mechlin, M; Slobodnick, A; Pike, V C; Oh, C; Davis, C; Fields, T; Becce, F; Pillinger, M H
Background: Gout affecting the spine is reported as a rare event presenting with neuropathy, spinal compression and acute back pain (1). Cases are often diagnosed by tissue confirmation of monosodium urate (MSU) deposition. The frequency of gout involving the spine asymptomatically or with milder, non-specific symptoms is likely higher than reported.
Objective(s): Using dual-energy CT (DECT), we are determining prevalence/ extent of MSU deposition in the lumbosacral spines of patients with gout and tophaceous gout, compared to non-gout controls.
Method(s): We are recruiting 25 controls, 25 non-tophaceous and 25 tophaceous gout patients, 45-80 years old. Exclusion criteria include CPPD disease, RA, spondyloarthropathy or spinal malignancy. All gout subjects meet ACR gout classification criteria with entry serum urate (sU) of >6.8 mg/dL, or sU >6.0 mg/dL on ULT for <6 months. Demographics, gout history, Aberdeen back pain scale, sU, ESR, and CRP are collected. DECT of the lumbosacral spine is used to assess MSU deposition and osteoarthritic changes.
Result(s): 63 subjects are enrolled and analyzed to date (25 control, 23 non-tophaceous and 15 tophaceous gout). Control, non-tophaceous gout, and tophaceous gout subjects have similar mean age in years (controls 61.8+/-3.8, non-tophaceous 64.0+/-6.2, tophaceous 63.5+/-9.2, p=0.45), but differ in BMI (controls 28.3+/-6.5 kg/ m2, non-tophaceous 32.1+/-6.7 kg/m2, tophaceous 29.1+/-4.3 kg/m2, p=0.01) and creatinine (controls 1.0+/-0.2 mg/dL, non-tophaceous 1.4+/-0.6 mg/dL, tophaceous 1.7+/-0.9 mg/dL, p=0.048). Mean sU and ESR are higher in gout subjects (sU-controls 5.3+/-1 mg/dL, non-tophaceous 8.3+/-1.4 mg/dL, tophaceous 8.4+/-2.0 mg/ dL, p<0.05; ESR-controls 13.7+/-13.8 mm/h, non-tophaceous 25.2+/-18.7 mm/h, tophaceous 22.5+/-15.1 mm/h, p<0.05). Using default threshold settings for MSU visualization, greater MSU deposition is observed in the spine of gout patients (controls 2.2+/-1.2 cm3, non-tophaceous 4.5+/-4.3 cm3, tophaceous 8.5+/-12.5 cm3, p<0.05; Table 1). Reanalysis of several scans using narrower threshold settings to limit possible artifact confirms increased MSU signal among gout patients. Although many subjects in each group do not have excessive MSU deposition, deposition is more common in both gout groups. No subject demonstrated a frank spinal tophus.
Conclusion(s): Based on preliminary results, gout patients have higher inflammatory markers and greater spinal MSU deposition than controls. Preliminary analyes with more stringent DECT threshold settings suggests these differences are not artifact, but analysis is ongoing. These data suggest that MSU deposition in the spine occurs in a subset of gout patients
Adherence to gout guidelines: where do we stand?
Ho, Gary H; Pillinger, Michael H; Toprover, Michael
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:Although gout is a common, well-recognized, and extensively researched rheumatologic disease, it continues to be underappreciated and undertreated. Although the prevalence of gout has been rising over the past several decades, adherence to urate lowering therapy continues to be suboptimal. Recent studies have underscored the potential success of guideline-directed therapy. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:Adherence to gout treatment continues to be suboptimal according to multinational metaanalyses. Moreover, studies measuring adherence are prone to overestimation and each methodologic approach has intrinsic limitations. Adherence may be analyzed from the perspective of patient adherence to taking a medication, or provider adherence to treatment guidelines. In addition to considering traditional risk factors, adherence should be viewed through the lens of healthcare disparities. The RAmP-Up trail and Nottingham Gout Treatment trial demonstrate the success of protocolized gout treatment using existing guidelines for reference. SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS:Standardized gout treatment protocols should be established for all primary care and specialty practices. Two successful methods of improving adherence include using nonphysician providers to coordinate urate lowering therapy titration and monitoring serum urate. Having more frequent outpatient visits to focus on direct patient care and education has also been successful.
Remission in Gout: The Key to Patient Satisfaction? [Editorial]
Toprover, Michael; Pillinger, Michael H
Pillinger, Michael H; Toprover, Michael