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Phase 1 Open-Label Dose Escalation Trial for the Development of a Human Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Challenge Model for Assessment of Tuberculosis Immunity In Vivo

Blazevic, Azra; Edwards, Rachel L; Xia, Mei; Eickhoff, Christopher S; Hamzabegovic, Fahreta; Meza, Krystal A; Ning, Huan; Tennant, Janice; Mosby, Karla J; Ritchie, James C; Girmay, Tigisty; Lai, Lilin; McCullough, Michele; Beck, Allison; Kelley, Colleen; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Kabbani, Sarah; Buchanan, Wendy; Makhene, Mamodikoe K; Voronca, Delia; Cherikh, Sami; Goll, Johannes B; Rouphael, Nadine G; Mulligan, Mark J; Hoft, Daniel F
BACKGROUND:A controlled human infection model for assessing tuberculosis (TB) immunity can accelerate new vaccine development. METHODS:In this phase 1 dose escalation trial, 92 healthy adults received a single intradermal injection of 2 × 106 to 16 × 106 colony-forming units of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). The primary endpoints were safety and BCG shedding as measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, colony-forming unit plating, and MGIT BACTEC culture. RESULTS:Doses up to 8 × 106 were safe, and there was evidence for increased BCG shedding with dose escalation. The MGIT time-to-positivity assay was the most consistent and precise measure of shedding. Power analyses indicated that 10% differences in MGIT time to positivity (area under the curve) could be detected in small cohorts (n = 30). Potential biomarkers of mycobacterial immunity were identified that correlated with shedding. Transcriptomic analysis uncovered dose- and time-dependent effects of BCG challenge and identified a putative transcriptional TB protective signature. Furthermore, we identified immunologic and transcriptomal differences that could represent an immune component underlying the observed higher rate of TB disease incidence in males. CONCLUSIONS:The safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity profiles indicate that this BCG human challenge model is feasible for assessing in vivo TB immunity and could facilitate the vaccine development process. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION/BACKGROUND:NCT01868464 (ClinicalTrials.gov).
PMID: 38019956
ISSN: 1537-6613
CID: 5617432

A Phase 2 Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety, Reactogenicity, and Immunogenicity of Different Prime-Boost Vaccination Schedules of 2013 and 2017 A(H7N9) Inactivated Influenza Virus Vaccines Administered with and without AS03 Adjuvant in Healthy US Adults

Rostad, Christina A; Atmar, Robert L; Walter, Emmanuel B; Frey, Sharon; Meier, Jeffery L; Sherman, Amy C; Lai, Lilin; Tsong, Rachel; Kao, Carol M; Raabe, Vanessa; El Sahly, Hana M; Keitel, Wendy A; Whitaker, Jennifer A; Smith, Michael J; Schmader, Kenneth E; Swamy, Geeta K; Abate, Getahun; Winokur, Patricia; Buchanan, Wendy; Cross, Kaitlyn; Wegel, Ashley; Xu, Yongxian; Yildirim, Inci; Kamidani, Satoshi; Rouphael, Nadine; Roberts, Paul C; Mulligan, Mark J; Anderson, Evan J
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:A surge of human influenza A(H7N9) cases began in 2016 in China due to an antigenically distinct lineage. Data are needed about the safety and immunogenicity of 2013 and 2017 A(H7N9) inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs) and the effects of AS03 adjuvant, prime-boost interval, and priming effects of 2013 and 2017 A(H7N9) IIVs. METHODS:Healthy adults (n=180), ages 19-50 years, were enrolled into this partially-blinded, randomized, multi-center Phase 2 clinical trial. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 vaccination groups evaluating homologous versus heterologous prime-boost strategies with two different boost intervals (21 versus 120 days) and two dosages (3.75 or 15 μg of hemagglutinin) administered with or without AS03 adjuvant. Reactogenicity, safety, and immunogenicity measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and neutralizing antibody titers were assessed. RESULTS:Two doses of A(H7N9) IIV were well tolerated, and no safety issues were identified. Although most participants had injection site and systemic reactogenicity, these symptoms were mostly mild to moderate in severity; injection site reactogenicity was greater in vaccination groups receiving adjuvant. Immune responses were greater after an adjuvanted second dose, and with a longer interval between prime and boost. The highest HAI GMT (95%CI) observed against the 2017 A(H7N9) strain was 133.4 (83.6, 212.6) among participants who received homologous, adjuvanted 3.75 ug+AS03/2017 doses with delayed boost interval. CONCLUSIONS:Administering AS03 adjuvant with the second H7N9 IIV dose and extending the boost interval to 4 months resulted in higher peak antibody responses. These observations can broadly inform strategic approaches for pandemic preparedness. (NCT03589807).
PMID: 38537255
ISSN: 1537-6591
CID: 5644952

Maternal COVID-19 Vaccination and Prevention of Symptomatic Infection in Infants

Cardemil, Cristina V; Cao, Yi; Posavad, Christine M; Badell, Martina L; Bunge, Katherine; Mulligan, Mark J; Parameswaran, Lalitha; Olson-Chen, Courtney; Novak, Richard M; Brady, Rebecca C; DeFranco, Emily; Gerber, Jeffrey S; Pasetti, Marcela; Shriver, Mallory; Coler, Rhea; Berube, Bryan; Suthar, Mehul S; Moreno, Alberto; Gao, Fei; Richardson, Barbra A; Beigi, Richard; Brown, Elizabeth; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Munoz, Flor M; ,
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES/UNASSIGNED:Maternal vaccination may prevent infant coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to quantify protection against infection from maternally derived vaccine-induced antibodies in the first 6 months of an infant's life. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Infants born to mothers vaccinated during pregnancy with 2 or 3 doses of a messenger RNA COVID-19 vaccine (nonboosted or boosted, respectively) had full-length spike (Spike) immunoglobulin G (IgG), pseudovirus 614D, and live virus D614G, and omicron BA.1 and BA.5 neutralizing antibody (nAb) titers measured at delivery. Infant severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was determined by verified maternal-report and laboratory confirmation through prospective follow-up to 6 months of age between December 2021 and July 2022. The risk reduction for infection by dose group and antibody titer level was estimated in separate models. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Infants of boosted mothers (n = 204) had significantly higher Spike IgG, pseudovirus, and live nAb titers at delivery than infants of nonboosted mothers (n = 271), and were 56% less likely to acquire infection in the first 6 months (P = .03). Irrespective of boost, for each 10-fold increase in Spike IgG titer at delivery, the infant's risk of acquiring infection was reduced by 47% (95% confidence interval 8%-70%; P = .02). Similarly, a 10-fold increase in pseudovirus titers against Wuhan Spike, and live virus nAb titers against D614G, and omicron BA.1 and BA.5 at delivery were associated with a 30%, 46%, 56%, and 60% risk reduction, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Higher transplacental binding and nAb titers substantially reduced the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in infants, and a booster dose amplified protection during a period of omicron predominance. Until infants are age-eligible for vaccination, maternal vaccination provides passive protection against symptomatic infection during early infancy.
PMID: 38332733
ISSN: 1098-4275
CID: 5632472

Author Correction: Mortality outcomes with hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine in COVID-19 from an international collaborative meta-analysis of randomized trials

Axfors, Cathrine; Schmitt, Andreas M; Janiaud, Perrine; Van't Hooft, Janneke; Abd-Elsalam, Sherief; Abdo, Ehab F; Abella, Benjamin S; Akram, Javed; Amaravadi, Ravi K; Angus, Derek C; Arabi, Yaseen M; Azhar, Shehnoor; Baden, Lindsey R; Baker, Arthur W; Belkhir, Leila; Benfield, Thomas; Berrevoets, Marvin A H; Chen, Cheng-Pin; Chen, Tsung-Chia; Cheng, Shu-Hsing; Cheng, Chien-Yu; Chung, Wei-Sheng; Cohen, Yehuda Z; Cowan, Lisa N; Dalgard, Olav; de Almeida E Val, Fernando F; de Lacerda, Marcus V G; de Melo, Gisely C; Derde, Lennie; Dubee, Vincent; Elfakir, Anissa; Gordon, Anthony C; Hernandez-Cardenas, Carmen M; Hills, Thomas; Hoepelman, Andy I M; Huang, Yi-Wen; Igau, Bruno; Jin, Ronghua; Jurado-Camacho, Felipe; Khan, Khalid S; Kremsner, Peter G; Kreuels, Benno; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Le, Thuy; Lin, Yi-Chun; Lin, Wu-Pu; Lin, Tse-Hung; Lyngbakken, Magnus Nakrem; McArthur, Colin; McVerry, Bryan J; Meza-Meneses, Patricia; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Morpeth, Susan C; Mourad, Ahmad; Mulligan, Mark J; Murthy, Srinivas; Naggie, Susanna; Narayanasamy, Shanti; Nichol, Alistair; Novack, Lewis A; O'Brien, Sean M; Okeke, Nwora Lance; Perez, Léna; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Perrin, Laurent; Remigio-Luna, Arantxa; Rivera-Martinez, Norma E; Rockhold, Frank W; Rodriguez-Llamazares, Sebastian; Rolfe, Robert; Rosa, Rossana; Røsjø, Helge; Sampaio, Vanderson S; Seto, Todd B; Shahzad, Muhammad; Soliman, Shaimaa; Stout, Jason E; Thirion-Romero, Ireri; Troxel, Andrea B; Tseng, Ting-Yu; Turner, Nicholas A; Ulrich, Robert J; Walsh, Stephen R; Webb, Steve A; Weehuizen, Jesper M; Velinova, Maria; Wong, Hon-Lai; Wrenn, Rebekah; Zampieri, Fernando G; Zhong, Wu; Moher, David; Goodman, Steven N; Ioannidis, John P A; Hemkens, Lars G
PMID: 38316844
ISSN: 2041-1723
CID: 5632832

mRNA COVID-19 vaccine elicits potent adaptive immune response without the acute inflammation of SARS-CoV-2 infection

Ivanova, Ellie N.; Shwetar, Jasmine; Devlin, Joseph C.; Buus, Terkild B.; Gray-Gaillard, Sophie; Koide, Akiko; Cornelius, Amber; Samanovic, Marie I.; Herrera, Alberto; Mimitou, Eleni P.; Zhang, Chenzhen; Karmacharya, Trishala; Desvignes, Ludovic; Ødum, Niels; Smibert, Peter; Ulrich, Robert J.; Mulligan, Mark J.; Koide, Shohei; Ruggles, Kelly V.; Herati, Ramin S.; Koralov, Sergei B.
SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination elicit potent immune responses. Our study presents a comprehensive multimodal single-cell analysis of blood from COVID-19 patients and healthy volunteers receiving the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and booster. We profiled immune responses via transcriptional analysis and lymphocyte repertoire reconstruction. COVID-19 patients displayed an enhanced interferon signature and cytotoxic gene upregulation, absent in vaccine recipients. B and T cell repertoire analysis revealed clonal expansion among effector cells in COVID-19 patients and memory cells in vaccine recipients. Furthermore, while clonal αβ T cell responses were observed in both COVID-19 patients and vaccine recipients, expansion of clonal γδ T cells was found only in infected individuals. Our dataset enables side-by-side comparison of immune responses to infection versus vaccination, including clonal B and T cell responses. Our comparative analysis shows that vaccination induces a robust, durable clonal B and T cell responses, without the severe inflammation associated with infection.
SCOPUS:85179086246
ISSN: 2589-0042
CID: 5620862

Antibody Titers against Mpox Virus after Vaccination [Letter]

Kottkamp, Angelica C; Samanovic, Marie I; Duerr, Ralf; Oom, Aaron L; Belli, Hayley M; Zucker, Jane R; Rosen, Jennifer B; Mulligan, Mark J; ,
PMID: 38091537
ISSN: 1533-4406
CID: 5589312

Natural infection by Zika virus but not DNA vaccination consistently elicits antibodies that compete with two potently neutralising monoclonal antibodies targeting distinct epitopes

Smith, Teresa C; Espinoza, Daniel O; Zhu, Yerun; Cardona-Ospina, Jaime A; Bowman, Natalie M; Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Rouphael, Nadine; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Bucardo, Filemon; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Premkumar, Lakshmanane; Mulligan, Mark J; de Silva, Aravinda M; Collins, Matthew H
BACKGROUND:Autochthonous transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) has been reported in 87 countries since 2015. Although most infections are mild, there is risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Vaccines are urgently needed to prevent Zika, but sufficient understanding of humoral responses and tools to assess ZIKV-specific immunity are lacking. METHODS:We developed a blockade-of-binding (BOB) ELISA using A9E and G9E, two strongly neutralising ZIKV-specific monoclonal antibodies, which do not react with dengue virus. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis assessed A9E and G9E BOB serodiagnostic performance. BOB was then applied to samples from a surveillance cohort in Risaralda, Colombia, and phase 1 ZIKV vaccine trial samples, comparing results against traditional serologic tests. FINDINGS/RESULTS:In the validation sample set (n = 120), A9E BOB has a sensitivity of 93.5% (95% CI: 79.3, 98.9) and specificity 97.8 (95% CI: 92.2, 99.6). G9E BOB had a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 89.0, 100.0) and specificity 100% (95% CI: 95.9, 100). Serum from natural infections consistently tested positive in these assays for up to one year, and reactivity tracks well with ZIKV infection status among sera from endemic areas with complicated flavivirus exposures. Interestingly, a leading ZIKV vaccine candidate elicited minimal BOB reactivity despite generating neutralising antibody responses. INTERPRETATION/CONCLUSIONS:In conclusion, A9E and G9E BOB assays are sensitive and specific assays for detecting antibodies elicited by recent or remote ZIKV infections. Given the additional ability of these BOB assays to detect immune responses that target different epitopes, further development of these assays is well justified for applications including flavivirus surveillance, translational vaccinology research and as potential serologic correlates of protective immunity against Zika. FUNDING/BACKGROUND:R21 AI129532 (PI: S. Becker-Dreps), CDCBAA 2017-N-18041 (PI: A. M. de Silva), Thrasher Fund (PI: M. H. Collins), K22 AI137306 (PI: M. H. Collins).
PMCID:10694573
PMID: 37983984
ISSN: 2352-3964
CID: 5608332

Generation of quality-controlled SARS-CoV-2 variant stocks

de Vries, Maren; Ciabattoni, Grace O; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Bruno A; Crosse, Keaton M; Papandrea, Dominick; Samanovic, Marie I; Dimartino, Dacia; Marier, Christian; Mulligan, Mark J; Heguy, Adriana; Desvignes, Ludovic; Duerr, Ralf; Dittmann, Meike
One of the main challenges in the fight against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) stems from the ongoing evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into multiple variants. To address this hurdle, research groups around the world have independently developed protocols to isolate these variants from clinical samples. These isolates are then used in translational and basic research-for example, in vaccine development, drug screening or characterizing SARS-CoV-2 biology and pathogenesis. However, over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have learned that the introduction of artefacts during both in vitro isolation and subsequent propagation to virus stocks can lessen the validity and reproducibility of data. We propose a rigorous pipeline for the generation of high-quality SARS-CoV-2 variant clonal isolates that minimizes the acquisition of mutations and introduces stringent controls to detect them. Overall, the process includes eight stages: (i) cell maintenance, (ii) isolation of SARS-CoV-2 from clinical specimens, (iii) determination of infectious virus titers by plaque assay, (iv) clonal isolation by plaque purification, (v) whole-virus-genome deep-sequencing, (vi and vii) amplification of selected virus clones to master and working stocks and (viii) sucrose purification. This comprehensive protocol will enable researchers to generate reliable SARS-CoV-2 variant inoculates for in vitro and in vivo experimentation and will facilitate comparisons and collaborative work. Quality-controlled working stocks for most applications can be generated from acquired biorepository virus within 1 month. An additional 5-8 d are required when virus is isolated from clinical swab material, and another 6-7 d is needed for sucrose-purifying the stocks.
PMID: 37833423
ISSN: 1750-2799
CID: 5604402

Selective adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron under booster vaccine pressure: a multicentre observational study

Duerr, Ralf; Dimartino, Dacia; Marier, Christian; Zappile, Paul; Wang, Guiqing; François, Fritz; Ortigoza, Mila B; Iturrate, Eduardo; Samanovic, Marie I; Mulligan, Mark J; Heguy, Adriana
BACKGROUND:High rates of vaccination and natural infection drive immunity and redirect selective viral adaptation. Updated boosters are installed to cope with drifted viruses, yet data on adaptive evolution under increasing immune pressure in a real-world situation are lacking. METHODS:Cross-sectional study to characterise SARS-CoV-2 mutational dynamics and selective adaptation over >1 year in relation to vaccine status, viral phylogenetics, and associated clinical and demographic variables. FINDINGS/RESULTS:The study of >5400 SARS-CoV-2 infections between July 2021 and August 2022 in metropolitan New York portrayed the evolutionary transition from Delta to Omicron BA.1-BA.5 variants. Booster vaccinations were implemented during the Delta wave, yet booster breakthrough infections and SARS-CoV-2 re-infections were almost exclusive to Omicron. In adjusted logistic regression analyses, BA.1, BA.2, and BA.5 had a significant growth advantage over co-occurring lineages in the boosted population, unlike BA.2.12.1 or BA.4. Selection pressure by booster shots translated into diffuse adaptive evolution in Delta spike, contrasting with strong, receptor-binding motif-focused adaptive evolution in BA.2-BA.5 spike (Fisher Exact tests; non-synonymous/synonymous mutation rates per site). Convergent evolution has become common in Omicron, engaging spike positions crucial for immune escape, receptor binding, or cleavage. INTERPRETATION/CONCLUSIONS:Booster shots are required to cope with gaps in immunity. Their discriminative immune pressure contributes to their effectiveness but also requires monitoring of selective viral adaptation processes. Omicron BA.2 and BA.5 had a selective advantage under booster vaccination pressure, contributing to the evolution of BA.2 and BA.5 sublineages and recombinant forms that predominate in 2023. FUNDING/BACKGROUND:The study was supported by NYU institutional funds and partly by the Cancer Center Support Grant P30CA016087 at the Laura and Isaac Perlmutter Cancer Center.
PMCID:10623172
PMID: 37866115
ISSN: 2352-3964
CID: 5609742

Multimodal single-cell datasets characterize antigen-specific CD8+ T cells across SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and infection

Zhang, Bingjie; Upadhyay, Rabi; Hao, Yuhan; Samanovic, Marie I; Herati, Ramin S; Blair, John D; Axelrad, Jordan; Mulligan, Mark J; Littman, Dan R; Satija, Rahul
The immune response to SARS-CoV-2 antigen after infection or vaccination is defined by the durable production of antibodies and T cells. Population-based monitoring typically focuses on antibody titer, but there is a need for improved characterization and quantification of T cell responses. Here, we used multimodal sequencing technologies to perform a longitudinal analysis of circulating human leukocytes collected before and after immunization with the mRNA vaccine BNT162b2. Our data indicated distinct subpopulations of CD8+ T cells, which reliably appeared 28 days after prime vaccination. Using a suite of cross-modality integration tools, we defined their transcriptome, accessible chromatin landscape and immunophenotype, and we identified unique biomarkers within each modality. We further showed that this vaccine-induced population was SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific and capable of rapid clonal expansion. Moreover, we identified these CD8+ T cell populations in scRNA-seq datasets from COVID-19 patients and found that their relative frequency and differentiation outcomes were predictive of subsequent clinical outcomes.
PMID: 37735591
ISSN: 1529-2916
CID: 5606242