Retinal Findings and Cardiovascular Risk: Prognostic Conditions, Novel Biomarkers, and Emerging Image Analysis Techniques
Many retinal diseases and imaging findings have pathophysiologic underpinnings in the function of the cardiovascular system. Myriad retinal conditions, new imaging biomarkers, and novel image analysis techniques have been investigated for their association with future cardiovascular risk or utility in cardiovascular risk prognostication. An intensive literature search was performed to identify relevant articles indexed in PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar for a targeted narrative review. This review investigates the literature on specific retinal disease states, such as retinal arterial and venous occlusions and cotton wool spots, that portend significantly increased risk of future cardiovascular events, such as stroke or myocardial infarction, and the implications for personalized patient counseling. Furthermore, conditions diagnosed primarily through retinal bioimaging, such as paracentral acute middle maculopathy and the newly discovered entity known as a retinal ischemic perivascular lesion, may be associated with future incident cardiovascular morbidity and are also discussed. As ever-more-sophisticated imaging biomarkers and analysis techniques are developed, the review concludes with a focused analysis of optical coherence tomography and optical coherence tomography angiography biomarkers under investigation for potential value in prognostication and personalized therapy in cardiovascular disease.
Stellate Multiform Amelanotic Choroidopathy (SMACH). Clinical and Multimodal Imaging Features
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To describe the clinical and multimodal imaging features of stellate multiform amelanotic choroidopathy (SMACH; also known as serous maculopathy due to aspecific choroidopathy). METHODS:Retrospective observational case series of eyes presenting with SMACH. Multimodal imaging including fundus photography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), OCT-angiography (OCTA), and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) was analyzed. RESULTS:Eighteen eyes from 18 patients (mean age: 28±19 years) were included. The mean follow-up duration was 9 years. Ophthalmoscopy showed a yellowish-orange, dendriform choroidal lesion. At presentation, subretinal fluid (SRF) was seen in 10/18 cases (56%). Eight patients (44%) showed no evidence of SRF during a mean follow-up of 6 years. Cross-sectional OCT showed hyperreflective fibrous-like changes within the inner choroid with choriocapillaris flow preservation on OCTA. En face OCT showed a hyperreflective choroidal lesion with finger-like projections oriented in a stellate configuration. On ICGA, SMACH showed early and late hypofluorescence. None of the cases showed lesion growth. CONCLUSIONS:SMACH appears to be a unilateral choroidopathy characterized by distinctive multimodal imaging features. As SRF was absent in some cases, while a dendriform pattern was a consistent finding in all eyes, we propose renaming this entity "stellate multiform amelanotic choroidopathy", a name which retains its prior abbreviation "SMACH".
Chorioretinitis sclopetaria and orbital emphysema caused by a high-velocity liquid missile
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To highlight a case of chorioretinitis sclopetaria, with concomitant macular hole formation and orbital emphysema, caused by a commercial-grade pressure washer. PATIENT/METHODS:A 19-year-old male presented to the emergency department with a left eye injury, incurred after being sprayed with a commercial-grade pressure washer. He endorsed ipsilateral blurred vision, pain, and linear floaters. Left eye visual acuity was 20/40. Dilated fundus exam showed inferior vitreous hemorrhage, retinal whitening, and pre-, intra-, and sub-retinal hemorrhages, consistent with chorioretinitis sclopetaria. Optical coherence tomography revealed a full-thickness macular hole. Computed tomography scan of the orbits showed subcutaneous and post-septal orbital emphysema. Two months following injury, vitreous and retinal hemorrhages and macular hole resolved. Five months following injury, visual acuity improved to 20/20. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Chorioretinitis sclopetaria is defined as a full-thickness chorioretinal disruption resulting from a high-velocity projectile passing adjacent to or into the orbit without penetrating the globe. Chorioretinal deformation and ocular comorbidities are influenced by the velocity of the missile and its spatial relationship to the orbit. While this pattern of injury is typically associated with indirect trauma to the globe by a BB or a bullet, this is the first report of chorioretinitis sclopetaria precipitated by a high-velocity liquid missile.
Sudden-onset unilateral painless vision loss
A 75-year-old Caucasian woman presented with sudden-onset multifocal scotomas in her right eye's central vision for 1 day. There were subtle white intraretinal foveal lesions that correlated with patchy inner retinal hyperreflectivity on optical coherence tomography, suggestive of paracentral acute middle maculopathy. Initial cerebrovascular work-up was negative. Review of systems was positive for lethargy and jaw claudication. The sedimentation rate and c-reactive protein were elevated, but platelet count was normal. The patient was started on 60 mg oral prednisone daily and underwent bilateral temporal artery that confirmed the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis.
Hemi- and Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Associated with COVID-19 Infection in Young Patients without Known Risk Factors
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Venous thromboembolic complications have been reported in association with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. We raised awareness regarding a potential temporal association between COVID-19 infection and retinal vein occlusion (RVO). DESIGN/METHODS:Multicenter, retrospective, nonconsecutive case series. SUBJECTS/METHODS:Patients presenting with hemi-RVO (HRVO) or central RVO (CRVO) between March 2020 and March 2021, with confirmed COVID-19 infection, were included. The exclusion criteria were as follows: age >50 years, hypertension, diabetes, glaucoma, obesity, underlying hypercoagulable states, and those requiring intubation during hospitalization. METHODS:This was a multicenter, retrospective, nonconsecutive case series including patients presenting with hemi-RVO (HRVO) or central RVO (CRVO) between March 2020 and March 2021, with confirmed COVID-19 infection. The exclusion criteria were as follows: age >50 years, hypertension, diabetes, glaucoma, obesity, underlying hypercoagulable states, and those requiring intubation during hospitalization. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:Ophthalmic findings, including presenting and final visual acuity (VA), imaging findings, and clinical course. RESULTS:Twelve eyes of 12 patients with CRVO (9 of 12) or HRVO (3 of 12) after COVID-19 infection were included. The median age was 32 years (range, 18-50 years). Three patients were hospitalized, but none were intubated. The median time from COVID-19 diagnosis to ophthalmic symptoms was 6.9 weeks. The presenting VA ranged from 20/20 to counting fingers, with over half (7 of 12) having a VA of â‰¥20/40. OCT revealed macular edema in 42% of the eyes; of these, 80% (4 of 5) were treated with anti-VEGF injections. Ninety-two percent (11 of 12) had partial or complete resolution of ocular findings at final follow-up. Four eyes (33%) had retinal thinning, as determined using OCT, by the end of the study interval. The final VA ranged from 20/20 to 20/60, with 11 of the 12 (92%) eyes achieving a VA of â‰¥20/40 at a median final follow-up period of 13 weeks (range, 4-52 weeks). CONCLUSIONS:Although we acknowledge the high seroprevalence of COVID-19 and that a causal relationship cannot be established, we reported this series to raise awareness regarding the potential risk of retinal vascular events due to a heightened thromboinflammatory state associated with COVID-19 infection.
COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy and its association with altered presentation of primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Evaluate factors associated with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine hesitancy and clinical trends in primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RRD) during first year of vaccine availability. DESIGN/METHODS:Single-center, clinical cohort study METHODS: : Consecutive patients from December 14, 2020 to December 12, 2021 presenting vaccinated (Prior-), subsequently vaccinated (Later-), or remaining unvaccinated (Never-Vax). Primary outcome was proportion with macula-off (mac-off) RRD. Secondary outcomes included logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), primary proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), proportion lost to follow-up, and distance traveled. RESULTS:1,047 patients were divided into 391 Prior-, 252 Later-, and 404 Never-Vax cohorts. Significantly greater proportion of Later- and Never-Vax cohorts presented with mac-off RRDs (Prior-Vaxâ€¯=â€¯44.5%; Later-Vaxâ€¯=â€¯54%, P < 0.0001; Never-Vaxâ€¯=â€¯57.9%, P < 0.0001) and primary PVR (Prior-Vaxâ€¯=â€¯4.3%; Later-Vaxâ€¯=â€¯13.6%, P < 0.0001; Never-Vaxâ€¯=â€¯17.1%, P < 0.0001) compared to Prior-Vax cohort. Significantly greater proportion of Never-Vax cohort (7.7%, P < 0.0001) were lost to follow-up compared to Prior- (2.3%) and Later-Vax (2.2%) cohorts. Never-Vax cohort (medianâ€¯=â€¯35 miles) traveled further compared to Prior- (medianâ€¯=â€¯22.3 miles; P < 0.0001) and Later-Vax cohorts (25.45 miles; Pâ€¯=â€¯0.0038). Prior-Vax cohort had significantly better (P < 0.05) initial (medianâ€¯=â€¯0.30 logMAR) and final (0.18 logMAR) BCVA compared to Later- (Initial: 0.54 logMAR; Final: 0.30 logMAR) and Never-vax (Initial: 0.70 logMAR; Final: 0.40 logMAR) cohorts. CONCLUSIONS:COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is associated with worse clinical presentation and outcomes for primary RRD.
Trends in the Clinical Presentation of Primary Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachments During the First Year of the COVID-19 Pandemic
PURPOSE:To evaluate the effect of 1 full year of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on clinical presentation of acute, primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). DESIGN:Single-center, retrospective observational cohort study. METHODS:Patients were divided into 2 cohorts: consecutive patients treated for primary RRD during the COVID-19 pandemic (March 9, 2020, to March 7, 2021; pandemic cohort) and patients treated during the corresponding time in previous year (March 11, 2019, to March 8, 2020; control cohort). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Proportion of patients presenting with macula-involving (mac-off) or macula-sparring (mac-on) RRD. RESULTS:A total of 952 patients in the pandemic cohort and 872 patients in the control cohort were included. Demographic factors were similar. Compared with the control cohort, a significantly greater number of pandemic cohort patients presented with mac-off RRDs ([60.92%] pandemic, [48.17%] control, PÂ =Â .0001) and primary proliferative vitreoretinopathy ([15.53%] pandemic, [6.9%] control, PÂ =Â .0001). Pandemic cohort patients (10.81%) had significantly higher rates of lost to follow-up compared with the control cohort (4.43%; PÂ =Â .0001). Patients new to our clinic demonstrated a significant increase in mac-off RRDs in the pandemic cohort (65.35%) compared with the control cohort (50.40%; PÂ =Â .0001). Pandemic cohort patients showed worse median final best-corrected visual acuity (0.30 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) compared with the control cohort (0.18 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution; PÂ =Â .0001). CONCLUSIONS:Patients with primary RRD during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic were more likely to have mac-off disease, present with primary proliferative vitreoretinopathy, be lost to follow-up, and have worse final best-corrected visual acuity outcomes.
EXTERNAL DRAINAGE OF SUBRETINAL FLUID DURING RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT REPAIR
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To describe the safety and efficacy of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) repair with external drainage of subretinal fluid using a 28-gauge External Drainage and Depression device (Vortex Surgical, Chesterfield, MO). METHODS:Retrospective review of patients who underwent primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair with scleral buckle, pars plana vitrectomy, or scleral buckle/pars plana vitrectomy using the drainage device from August 2018 through March 2020, performed by four surgeons at two vitreoretinal practices. RESULTS:Eighty-three eyes of 83 patients were included. At presentation, 28% had proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Surgery included 65% scleral buckle/pars plana vitrectomy, 33% pars plana vitrectomy, and 2% scleral buckle. There were no cases of retinal incarceration and two subretinal hemorrhages at the drainage site (both < 2 DD), 2 cases of recurrent RD with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (1 had proliferative vitreoretinopathy at presentation), and 6 (10%) new epiretinal membranes (3 were mild). There were no other complications. Mean follow-up was 274 days. Single operation success rate for those with â‰¥ 6-month follow-up was 97% (57/59). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:External drainage of subretinal fluid during rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair demonstrated a favorable safety profile with a high single operation success rate. Further study of the role of external drainage in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair is warranted.
Short term visual and structural outcomes of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment delay during the first COVID-19 wave: A pilot study
Regularly scheduled intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections are essential to maintaining and/or improving many ocular conditions including: neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), diabetic retinopathy, and retinal vein occlusions with macular edema (RVO). This study aims to assess the effect of unintended delays in anti-VEGF treatment during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. This retrospective case series identified patients receiving regularly scheduled anti-VEGF intravitreal injections based on current procedural terminology (CPT) code at two practices in Minnesota. Diagnoses were limited to nAMD, diabetic macular edema (DME), proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and RVO. Patients were divided into two groups based on whether they maintained or delayed their follow-up visit by more than two weeks beyond the recommended treatment interval during the COVID-19 lockdown. The 'COVID-19 lockdown' was defined as the period after March, 28th, 2020, when a lockdown was declared in Minnesota. We then compared the visual acuity and structural changes to the retina using ocular coherence tomography (OCT) to assess whether delayed treatment resulted in worse visual outcomes. A total of 167 eyes from 117 patients met criteria for inclusion in this study. In the delayed group, the average BCVA at the pre- and post-lockdown visits were 0.614 and 0.715 (logMAR) respectively (p = 0.007). Central subfield thickness (CST) increased from 341 to 447 in the DME delayed group (p = 0.03) while the CST increased from 301 to 314 (p = 0.4) in the nAMD delayed group. The results of this pilot study suggests that treatment delays may have a negative impact on the visual and anatomic outcomes of patients with nAMD and DME. Future studies with larger sample sizes are required for further investigation.
Idiopathic Orbital Inflammation Refractory to Rituximab but Sensitive to Methotrexate [Meeting Abstract]