Hedgehog and PDGF Signaling Intersect During Postnatal Lung Development
Normal lung development critically depends on Hedgehog (HH) and Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling, which coordinate mesenchymal differentiation and proliferation. PDGF signaling is required for postnatal alveolar septum formation by myofibroblasts. Recently, we demonstrated a requirement for HH in postnatal lung development involving alveolar myofibroblast differentiation. Given shared features of HH and PDGF signaling and their impact/convergence on this key cell type, we sought to clarify their relationship during murine postnatal lung development. Timed experiments revealed that HH inhibition phenocopies the key lung myofibroblast phenotypes of Pdgfa and Pdgfra knockouts during secondary alveolar septation. Utilizing a dual signaling reporter, Gli1IZ;PdgfraEGFP
A novel Vascular Leak Index identifies sepsis patients with a higher risk for in-hospital death and fluid accumulation
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Sepsis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and is characterized by vascular leak. Treatment for sepsis, specifically intravenous fluids, may worsen deterioration in the context of vascular leak. We therefore sought to quantify vascular leak in sepsis patients to guide fluid resuscitation. METHODS:We performed a retrospective cohort study of sepsis patients in four ICU databases in North America, Europe, and Asia. We developed an intuitive vascular leak index (VLI) and explored the relationship between VLI and in-hospital death and fluid balance using generalized additive models (GAM). RESULTS:Using a GAM, we found that increased VLI is associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death. Patients with a VLI in the highest quartile (Q4), across the four datasets, had a 1.61-2.31 times increased odds of dying in the hospital compared to patients with a VLI in the lowest quartile (Q1). VLI Q2 and Q3 were also associated with increased odds of dying. The relationship between VLI, treated as a continuous variable, and in-hospital death and fluid balance was statistically significant in the three datasets with large sample sizes. Specifically, we observed that as VLI increased, there was increase in the risk for in-hospital death and 36-84Â h fluid balance. CONCLUSIONS:Our VLI identifies groups of patients who may be at higher risk for in-hospital death or for fluid accumulation. This relationship persisted in models developed to control for severity of illness and chronic comorbidities.
COVID-19 and Respiratory System Disorders: Current Knowledge, Future Clinical, and Translational Research Questions
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 emerged as a serious human pathogen in late 2019, causing the disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The most common clinical presentation of severe COVID-19 is acute respiratory failure consistent with the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Airway, lung parenchymal, pulmonary vascular, and respiratory neuromuscular disorders all feature in COVID-19. This article reviews what is known about the effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection on different parts of the respiratory system, clues to understanding the underlying biology of respiratory disease, and highlights current and future translation and clinical research questions.
Advances in Targeted Therapy for Progressive Fibrosing Interstitial Lung Disease
Progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease (PF-ILD) has been redefined as a new clinical syndrome that shares similar genetics, pathophysiology, and natural history to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). IPF is the most common form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, which is progressive in nature and is associated with significant mortality. Therapies targeting an inflammatory and/or immune response have not been consistently effective or well tolerated in patients with IPF. The two antifibrotic drugs approved for IPF treatment, nintedanib and pirfenidone, have been shown to reduce lung function decline in PF-ILD. Novel uses of antifibrotic therapy are emerging due to a paucity of evidence-based treatments for multiple ILD subtypes. In this review, we describe the current body of knowledge on antifibrotic therapy and immunomodulators in PF-ILD, drawing from experience in IPF where appropriate.
The Hedgehog target Gli1 is not required for bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis
Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling, a developmental pathway promoting lung mesenchymal expansion and differentiation during embryogenesis, has been increasingly recognized as a profibrotic factor in mature lung, where it might contribute to the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. Pathway inhibition at the level of the downstream Gli transcription factors Gli1 and Gli2 (by GANT61) ameliorates lung fibrosis in the bleomycin model, whereas inhibition proximally at the level of HH ligand (by anti Hh antibody 5E1) or Smo (by GDC-0449) of the canonical pathway does not, implicating Gli1 and/or Gli2 as a key target. The fact that both the Gli1-labelled cell lineage and Gli1 expressing cells expand during fibrosis formation and contribute significantly to the pool of myofibroblasts in the fibrosis scars suggests a fibrogenic role for Gli1. Therefore to further dissect the roles of Gli1 and Gli2 in lung fibrosis we evaluated Gli1 KO and control mice in the bleomycin model. Monitoring of Gli1+/+ (nâ€‰=â€‰12), Gli1lZ/+ (nâ€‰=â€‰37) and Gli1lZ/lZ (nâ€‰=â€‰18) mice did not reveal differences in weight loss or survival. Lung evaluation at the 21-day endpoint did not show differences in lung fibrosis formation (as judged by morphology and trichrome staining), Ashcroft score, lung collagen content, lung weight, BAL protein content or BAL cell differential count. Our data suggest that Gli1 is not required for bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis.
Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Induced Lung Injury Masking Accelerated Repopulation of Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer [Meeting Abstract]
Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Regulates Myofibroblast Function During Alveolar Septum Formation in Murine Postnatal Lung
Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling regulates mesenchymal proliferation and differentiation during embryonic lung development. In the adult lung, Shh signaling maintains mesenchymal quiescence and is dysregulated in diseases such as IPF and COPD. Our previous data implicated a role for Shh in postnatal lung development. Here we report a detailed analysis of Shh signaling during murine postnatal lung development. We show that Shh pathway expression and activity during alveolarization (P0-P14) are distinct from those during maturation (P14-P24). This biphasic pattern is paralleled by the transient presence of Gli1+;alpha-smooth muscle actin (aSMA)+ myofibroblasts in the growing alveolar septal tips. Carefully-timed inhibition of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling during alveolarization defined mechanisms by which Shh influences the mesenchymal compartment. First, interruption of Hh signaling at earlier time points results in increased lung compliance and wall structure defects of increasing severity, ranging from moderately enlarged alveolar airspaces to markedly enlarged airspaces and fewer secondary septa. Second, Shh signaling is required for myofibroblast differentiation: Hh inhibition during early alveolarization almost completely eliminates Gli1+;aSMA+ cells at the septal tips, and Gli1-lineage tracing revealed that Gli1+ cells do not undergo apoptosis after Hh inhibition, but remain in the alveolar septa and are unable to express aSMA. Third, Shh signaling is vital to mesenchymal proliferation during alveolarization, as Hh inhibition decreased proliferation of Gli1+ cells and their progeny. Our study establishes Shh as a new alveolarization promoting factor that might be affected in perinatal lung diseases that are associated with impaired alveolarization.
Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Regulates Alveolarization During Postnatal Lung Development [Meeting Abstract]
Identification of autoantibodies to ECH1 and HNRNPA2B1 as potential biomarkers in the early detection of lung cancer
Identification of biomarkers for early detection of lung cancer (LC) is important, in turn leading to more effective treatment and reduction of mortality. Serological proteome analysis (SERPA) was used to identify proteins around 34 kD as ECH1 and HNRNPA2B1, which had been recognized by serum autoantibody from 25 LC patients. In the validation study, including 90 sera from LC patients and 89 sera from normal individuals, autoantibody to ECH1 achieved an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.799 with sensitivity of 62.2% and specificity of 95.5% in discriminating LC from normal individuals, and showed negative correlation with tumor size (rs = -0.256, p = 0.023). Autoantibody to HNRNPA2B1 performed an AUC of 0.874 with sensitivity of 72.2% and specificity of 95.5%, and showed negative correlation with lymph node metastasis (rs = -0.279, p = 0.012). By using longitudinal preclinical samples, autoantibody to ECH1 showed an AUC of 0.763 with sensitivity of 60.0% and specificity of 89.3% in distinguishing early stage LC from matched normal controls, and elevated autoantibody levels could be detected greater than 2 y before LC diagnosis. ECH1 and HNRNPA2B1 are autoantigens that elicit autoimmune responses in LC and their autoantibody can be the potential biomarkers for the early detection of LC.
Autoantibodies against tumor-associated antigens in the early detection of lung cancer
OBJECTIVES: Autoantibodies against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) identified in patients with advanced lung cancer may be detected in subjects with early lung cancer or even predate the diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to address the temporal relationship between lung cancer development and serum autoantibody response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two cohorts of patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer were included. The first cohort included 90 sera from patients with lung cancer (Stages I-III) and 89 normal control sera. In the second cohort, 93 serial serum samples from 25 patients with CT-scan screen-detected stage I lung cancer were collected before the diagnosis of lung cancer (average 32 months) and 56 controls were matched on age, gender, and smoking. Autoantibody levels were measured by immunoassay. RESULTS: Measurement of autoantibodies against seven TAAs (14-3-3zeta, c-Myc, MDM2, NPM1, p16, p53 and cyclin B1) individually could discriminate lung cancer patients from normal individuals in the first cohort and the area under curve (AUC) was 0.863 based on a panel of seven autoantibodies, with sensitivity of 68.9% and specificity of 79.5%. Autoantibodies in serial pre-diagnostic serum samples against the same panel of seven TAAs were detected prior to lung cancer diagnosis with sensitivity of 76.0% and specificity of 73.2% (AUC) (95%CI): 0.885 (0.797-0.973)). Elevated autoantibody levels could be detected greater than four years prior to lung cancer diagnosis. CONCLUSION: A panel of seven TAAs may enhance the early detection of lung cancer, consistent with a humoral immune response to TAAs that can be detected months to years prior to the diagnosis.