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Mood and Anxiety Disorders and Suicidality in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Focal Epilepsy: An Analysis of a Complex Comorbidity

Kanner, Andres M; Saporta, Anita S; Kim, Dong H; Barry, John J; Altalib, Hamada; Omotola, Hope; Jette, Nathalie; O'Brien, Terence J; Nadkarni, Siddhartha; Winawer, Melodie R; Sperling, Michael; French, Jacqueline A; Abou-Khalil, Bassel; Alldredge, Brian; Bebin, Martina; Cascino, Gregory D; Cole, Andrew J; Cook, Mark J; Detyniecki, Kamil; Devinsky, Orrin; Dlugos, Dennis; Faught, Edward; Ficker, David; Fields, Madeline; Gidal, Barry; Gelfand, Michael; Glynn, Simon; Halford, Jonathan J; Haut, Sheryl; Hegde, Manu; Holmes, Manisha G; Kalviainen, Reetta; Kang, Joon; Klein, Pavel; Knowlton, Robert C; Krishnamurthy, Kaarkuzhali; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Kwan, Patrick; Lowenstein, Daniel H; Marcuse, Lara; Meador, Kimford J; Mintzer, Scott; Pardoe, Heath R; Park, Kristen; Penovich, Patricia; Singh, Rani K; Somerville, Ernest; Szabo, Charles A; Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Lin Thio, K Liu; Trinka, Eugen; Burneo, Jorge G
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Mood, anxiety disorders, and suicidality are more frequent in people with epilepsy than in the general population. Yet, their prevalence and the types of mood and anxiety disorders associated with suicidality at the time of the epilepsy diagnosis are not established. We sought to answer these questions in patients with newly diagnosed focal epilepsy and to assess their association with suicidal ideation and attempts. METHODS:statistics, and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS:A total of 151 (43.5%) patients had a psychiatric diagnosis; 134 (38.6%) met the criteria for a mood and/or anxiety disorder, and 75 (21.6%) reported suicidal ideation with or without attempts. Mood (23.6%) and anxiety (27.4%) disorders had comparable prevalence rates, whereas both disorders occurred together in 43 patients (12.4%). Major depressive disorders (MDDs) had a slightly higher prevalence than bipolar disorders (BPDs) (9.5% vs 6.9%, respectively). Explanatory variables of suicidality included MDD, BPD, panic disorders, and agoraphobia, with BPD and panic disorders being the strongest variables, particularly for active suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:In patients with newly diagnosed focal epilepsy, the prevalence of mood, anxiety disorders, and suicidality is higher than in the general population and comparable to those of patients with established epilepsy. Their recognition at the time of the initial epilepsy evaluation is of the essence.
PMID: 36539302
ISSN: 1526-632x
CID: 5447782

Religious conversion in an older male with longstanding epilepsy [Case Report]

Barr, William B; Liu, Anli; Laduke, Casey; Nadkarni, Siddhartha; Devinsky, Orrin
Religious experiences in epilepsy patients have provoked much interest with suggestions that hyperreligiosity is associated with temporal lobe seizures. Extreme varieties of religious behavior may be more frequent in epilepsy patients during ictal activity or during post-ictal psychotic episodes. We report a 75 year-old man with epilepsy who developed a progressive decline in cognition and behavior following a religious conversion 15 years earlier. He subsequently developed religious delusions of increasing severity and symptoms of Capgras syndrome. Brain imaging revealed bilateral posterior cortical atrophy, chronic right parieto-occipital encephalomalacia, and right mesial temporal sclerosis. Electroencephalograms and neuropsychological testing revealed initial right temporal lobe abnormalities followed by progressive frontal and bilateral dysfunction. The case highlights how a history of seizures, superimposed on sensory deprivation and a progressive impairment of right posterior and bilateral anterior brain function, may have contributed to religious conversion, which was followed by dementia and delusions involving religious content.
PMID: 35528136
ISSN: 2589-9864
CID: 5214052

Association Between Migraine Comorbidity and Psychiatric Symptoms Among People With Newly Diagnosed Focal Epilepsy

Begasse De Dhaem, Olivia; Aldana, Sandra India; Kanner, Andres Miguel; Sperling, Michael; French, Jacqueline; Nadkarni, Siddhartha S; Hope, Omotola A; O'Brien, Terry; Morrison, Chris; Winawer, Melodie; Minen, Mia T
OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:Little is known about psychiatric symptoms among patients with migraine and newly diagnosed focal epilepsy. The investigators compared symptoms of depression, anxiety, and suicidality among people with newly diagnosed focal epilepsy with migraine versus without migraine. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:The Human Epilepsy Project is a prospective multicenter study of patients with newly diagnosed focal epilepsy. Depression (measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), anxiety (measured with the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale), and suicidality scores (measured with the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale [C-SSRS]) were compared between participants with versus without migraine. Data analysis was performed with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for normality assessment, the Mann-Whitney U test, chi-square test, and linear regression. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Of 349 patients with new-onset focal epilepsy, 74 (21.2%) had migraine. There were no differences between the patients without migraine versus those with migraine in terms of age, race, and level of education. There were more women in the group with migraine than in the group without migraine (75.7% vs. 55.6%, p=0.0018). The patients with epilepsy and comorbid migraine had more depressive symptoms than the patients with epilepsy without migraine (35.2% vs. 22.7%, p=0.031). Patients with epilepsy with comorbid migraine had more anxiety symptoms than patients with epilepsy without migraine, but this relation was mediated by age in logistic regression, with younger age being associated with anxiety. Comorbid migraine was not associated with C-SSRS ideation or behavior. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Among a sample of patients with newly diagnosed focal epilepsy, 21.2% had migraine. Migraine comorbidity was associated with higher incidence of depressive symptoms. Future studies should be performed to better assess these relationships and possible treatment implications.
PMID: 34961330
ISSN: 1545-7222
CID: 5108082

Reliable Digit Span: Does it Adequately Measure Suboptimal Effort in an Adult Epilepsy Population?

Maiman, Moshe; Del Bene, Victor A; MacAllister, William S; Sheldon, Sloane; Farrell, Eileen; Arce Rentería, Miguel; Slugh, Mitchell; Nadkarni, Siddhartha S; Barr, William B
Objective/UNASSIGNED:Assessment of performance validity is a necessary component of any neuropsychological evaluation. Prior research has shown that cutoff scores of ≤6 or ≤7 on Reliable Digit Span (RDS) can detect suboptimal effort across numerous adult clinical populations; however, these scores have not been validated for that purpose in an adult epilepsy population. This investigation aims to determine whether these previously established RDS cutoff scores could detect suboptimal effort in adults with epilepsy. Method/UNASSIGNED:Sixty-three clinically referred adults with a diagnosis of epilepsy or suspected seizures were administered the Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III or WAIS-IV). Most participants (98%) passed Trial 2 of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), achieving a score of ≥45. Results/UNASSIGNED:Previously established cutoff scores of ≤6 and ≤7 on RDS yielded a specificity rate of 85% and 77% respectively. Findings also revealed that RDS scores were positively related to attention and intellectual functioning. Given the less than ideal specificity rate associated with each of these cutoff scores, together with their strong association to cognitive factors, secondary analyses were conducted to identify more optimal cutoff scores. Preliminary results suggest that an RDS cutoff score of ≤4 may be more appropriate in a clinically referred adult epilepsy population with a low average IQ or lower. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Preliminary findings indicate that cutoff scores of ≤6 and ≤7 on RDS are not appropriate in adults with epilepsy, especially in individuals with low average IQ or below.
PMID: 29659666
ISSN: 1873-5843
CID: 3042972

Posttraumatic epilepsy

Chapter by: Luciano, Daniel J; Nadkarni, Siddhartha
in: Textbook of traumatic brain injury by Silver, Jonathan M; McAllister, Thomas W; Arciniegas, David B (Eds)
Washington, DC : American Psychiatric Association Publishing, [2019]
pp. 563-577
ISBN: 1615371125
CID: 4452822

When the Body Attacks the Brain

Chapter by: Nordquist, Jordan L; Tirmizi, Owais; Nadkarni, Siddhartha S; Hauptman, Aaron J
in: Pediatric neuropsychiatry : a case-based approach by Hauptman, Aaron Jr; Salpekar, Jay A [Eds]
Cham, Switzerland : Springer, [2019]
pp. 213-226
ISBN: 9783319949970
CID: 5301202

Increased odds and predictive rates of MMPI-2-RF scale elevations in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures and observed sex differences

Del Bene, Victor A; Arce Renteria, Miguel; Maiman, Moshe; Slugh, Mitch; Gazzola, Deana M; Nadkarni, Siddhartha S; Barr, William B
OBJECTIVE: The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) is a self-report instrument, previously shown to differentiate patients with epileptic seizures (ES) and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). At present, the odds of MMPI-2-RF scale elevations in PNES patients, as well as the diagnostic predictive value of such scale elevations, remain largely unexplored. This can be of clinical utility, particularly when a diagnosis is uncertain. METHOD: After looking at mean group differences, we applied contingency table derived odds ratios to a sample of ES (n=92) and PNES (n=77) patients from a video EEG (vEEG) monitoring unit. We also looked at the positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV), as well as the false discovery rate (FDR) and false omission rate (FOR) for scales found to have increased odds of elevation in PNES patients. This was completed for the overall sample, as well as the sample stratified by sex. RESULTS: The odds of elevations related to somatic concerns, negative mood, and suicidal ideation in the PNES sample ranged from 2 to 5 times more likely. Female PNES patients had 3-6 times greater odds of such scale elevations, while male PNES patients had odds of 5-15 times more likely. PPV rates ranged from 53.66% to 84.62%, while NPV rates ranged from 47.52% to 90.91%. FDR across scales ranged from 15.38% to 50%, while the FOR ranged from 9.09% to 52.47%. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with prior research, PNES patients have greater odds of MMPI-2-RF scale elevations, particularly related to somatic concerns and mood disturbance. Female PNES patients endorsed greater emotional distress, including endorsement of suicide related items. Elevations of these scales could aid in differentiating PNES from ES patients, although caution is warranted due to the possibility of both false positives and the incorrect omissions of PNES cases.
PMID: 28575766
ISSN: 1525-5069
CID: 2591892

Movements, focal, clonic

Chapter by: Luciano, Daniel J; Nadkarni, Siddhartha
in: Neurologic differential diagnosis: A case- based approach by Ettinger, Alan B; Weisbrot, Deborah M [Eds]
New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 2014
pp. 250-252
ISBN: 978-1-107-01455-8
CID: 1754282

Movements, complex motor activity

Chapter by: Nadkarni, Siddhartha; Luciano, Daniel J
in: Neurologic differential diagnosis: A case- based approach by Ettinger, Alan B; Weisbrot, Deborah M [Eds]
New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 2014
pp. 253-257
ISBN: 978-1-107-01455-8
CID: 1754272

Movements, tonic-clonic type

Chapter by: Luciano, Daniel J; Nadkarni, Siddhartha
in: Neurologic differential diagnosis: A case- based approach by Ettinger, Alan B; Weisbrot, Deborah M [Eds]
New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 2014
pp. 262-265
ISBN: 978-1-107-01455-8
CID: 1754262