A Multisectoral Emergency Response Approach to a Cholera Outbreak in Zambia: October 2017-February 2018
Purpose of Review/UNASSIGNED:This review describes the basic epidemiologic, clinical, and microbiologic aspects of cholera, highlights new developments within these areas, and presents strategies for applying currently available tools and knowledge more effectively. Recent Findings/UNASSIGNED:From 1990 to 2016, the reported global burden of cholera fluctuated between 74,000 and 595,000 cases per year; however, modeling estimates suggest the real burden is between 1.3 and 4.0 million cases and 95,000 deaths yearly. In 2018, the World Health Assembly endorsed a new initiative to reduce cholera deaths by 90% and eliminate local cholera transmission in 20 countries by 2030. New tools, including localized GIS mapping, climate modeling, whole genome sequencing, oral vaccines, rapid diagnostic tests, and new applications of water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions, could support this goal. Challenges include a high proportion of fragile states among cholera-endemic countries, urbanization, climate change, and the need for cholera treatment guidelines for pregnant women and malnourished children. Summary/UNASSIGNED:Reducing cholera morbidity and mortality depends on real-time surveillance, outbreak detection and response; timely access to appropriate case management and cholera vaccines; and provision of safe water, sanitation, and hygiene.
Systems, supplies, and staff: a mixed-methods study of health care workers' experiences and health facility preparedness during a large national cholera outbreak, Kenya 2015
BACKGROUND:From December 2014 to September 2016, a cholera outbreak in Kenya, the largest since 2010, caused 16,840 reported cases and 256 deaths. The outbreak affected 30 of Kenya's 47 counties and occurred shortly after the decentralization of many healthcare services to the county level. This mixed-methods study, conducted June-July 2015, assessed cholera preparedness in Homa Bay, Nairobi, and Mombasa counties and explored clinic- and community-based health care workers' (HCW) experiences during outbreak response. METHODS:Counties were selected based on cumulative cholera burden and geographic characteristics. We conducted 44 health facility cholera preparedness checklists (according to national guidelines) and 8 focus group discussions (FGDs). Frequencies from preparedness checklists were generated. To determine key themes from FGDs, inductive and deductive codes were applied; MAX software for qualitative data analysis (MAXQDA) was used to identify patterns. RESULTS:Some facilities lacked key materials for treating cholera patients, diagnosing cases, and maintaining infection control. Overall, 82% (36/44) of health facilities had oral rehydration salts, 65% (28/43) had IV fluids, 27% (12/44) had rectal swabs, 11% (5/44) had Cary-Blair transport media, and 86% (38/44) had gloves. A considerable number of facilities lacked disease reporting forms (34%, 14/41) and cholera treatment guidelines (37%, 16/43). In FDGs, HCWs described confusion regarding roles and reporting during the outbreak, which highlighted issues in coordination and management structures within the health system. Similar to checklist findings, FGD participants described supply challenges affecting laboratory preparedness and infection prevention and control. Perceived successes included community engagement, health education, strong collaboration between clinic and community HCWs, and HCWs' personal passion to help others. CONCLUSIONS:The confusion over roles, reporting, and management found in this evaluation highlights a need to adapt, implement, and communicate health strategies at the county level, in order to inform and train HCWs during health system transformations. International, national, and county stakeholders could strengthen preparedness and response for cholera and other public health emergencies in Kenya, and thereby strengthen global health security, through further investment in the existing Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response structure and national cholera prevention and control plan, and the adoption of county-specific cholera control plans.
Notes from the Field: Outbreak of Vibrio cholerae Associated with Attending a Funeral - Chegutu District, Zimbabwe, 2018
Cholera Epidemic - Lusaka, Zambia, October 2017-May 2018
On October 6, 2017, an outbreak of cholera was declared in Zambia after laboratory confirmation of Vibrio cholerae O1, biotype El Tor, serotype Ogawa, from stool specimens from two patients with acute watery diarrhea. The two patients had gone to a clinic in Lusaka, the capital city, on October 4. Cholera cases increased rapidly, from several hundred cases in early December 2017 to approximately 2,000 by early January 2018 (Figure). In collaboration with partners, the Zambia Ministry of Health (MoH) launched a multifaceted public health response that included increased chlorination of the Lusaka municipal water supply, provision of emergency water supplies, water quality monitoring and testing, enhanced surveillance, epidemiologic investigations, a cholera vaccination campaign, aggressive case management and health care worker training, and laboratory testing of clinical samples. In late December 2017, a number of water-related preventive actions were initiated, including increasing chlorine levels throughout the city's water distribution system and placing emergency tanks of chlorinated water in the most affected neighborhoods; cholera cases declined sharply in January 2018. During January 10-February 14, 2018, approximately 2 million doses of oral cholera vaccine were administered to Lusaka residents aged â‰¥1 year. However, in mid-March, heavy flooding and widespread water shortages occurred, leading to a resurgence of cholera. As of May 12, 2018, the outbreak had affected seven of the 10 provinces in Zambia, with 5,905 suspected cases and a case fatality rate (CFR) of 1.9%. Among the suspected cases, 5,414 (91.7%), including 98 deaths (CFR = 1.8%), occurred in Lusaka residents.
CDC Safety Training Course for Ebola Virus Disease Healthcare Workers
Response to sudden epidemic infectious disease emergencies can demand intensive and specialized training, as demonstrated in 2014 when Ebola virus disease (EVD) rapidly spread throughout West Africa. The medical community quickly became overwhelmed because of limited staff, supplies, and Ebola treatment units (ETUs). Because a mechanism to rapidly increase trained healthcare workers was needed, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed and implemented an introductory EVD safety training course to prepare US healthcare workers to work in West Africa ETUs. The goal was to teach principles and practices of safely providing patient care and was delivered through lectures, small-group breakout sessions, and practical exercises. During September 2014-March 2015, a total of 570 participants were trained during 16 course sessions. This course quickly increased the number of clinicians who could provide care in West Africa ETUs, showing the feasibility of rapidly developing and implementing training in response to a public health emergency.
Cholera Mortality during Urban Epidemic, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, August 16, 2015-January 16, 20161 [Historical Article]
In 2015, a cholera epidemic occurred in Tanzania; most cases and deaths occurred in Dar es Salaam early in the outbreak. We evaluated cholera mortality through passive surveillance, burial permits, and interviews conducted with decedents' caretakers. Active case finding identified 101 suspected cholera deaths. Routine surveillance had captured only 48 (48%) of all cholera deaths, and burial permit assessments captured the remainder. We interviewed caregivers of 56 decedents to assess cholera management behaviors. Of 51 decedents receiving home care, 5 (10%) used oral rehydration solution after becoming ill. Caregivers reported that 51 (93%) of 55 decedents with known time of death sought care before death; 16 (29%) of 55 delayed seeking care for >6 h. Of the 33 (59%) community decedents, 20 (61%) were said to have been discharged from a health facility before death. Appropriate and early management of cholera cases can reduce the number of cholera deaths.
Treating cholera in severely malnourished children in the Horn of Africa and Yemen [Letter]
Notes from the Field: Ongoing Cholera Epidemic - Tanzania, 2015-2016
Notes from the Field: Ongoing Cholera Outbreak - Kenya, 2014-2016 [Case Report]
On January 6, 2015, a man aged 40 years was admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, with acute watery diarrhea. The patient was found to be infected with toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Inaba. A subsequent review of surveillance reports identified four patients in Nairobi County during the preceding month who met either of the Kenya Ministry of Health suspected cholera case definitions: 1) severe dehydration or death from acute watery diarrhea (more than four episodes in 12 hours) in a patient aged â‰¥5 years, or 2) acute watery diarrhea in a patient aged â‰¥2 years in an area where there was an outbreak of cholera. An outbreak investigation was immediately initiated. A confirmed cholera case was defined as isolation of V. cholerae O1 or O139 from the stool of a patient with suspected cholera or a suspected cholera case that was epidemiologically linked to a confirmed case. By January 15, 2016, a total of 11,033 suspected or confirmed cases had been reported from 22 of Kenya's 47 counties (Table). The outbreak is ongoing.