Minimally Invasive Techniques for the Management of Thyroid Nodules
Image-guided interventional techniques have emerged as promising treatments for thyroid disease. Percutaneous ethanol ablation, radiofrequency ablation, laser ablation, high intensity focused ultrasound, and microwave ablation have shown efficacy in treating benign thyroid disease. There is increasing evidence that these techniques may effectively treat papillary thyroid microcarcinomas, recurrent and metastatic disease, follicular neoplasms, and parathyroid lesions. They are performed in an outpatient setting, well-tolerated, with negligible risk for thyroid hormone supplementation, making them a popular alternative to surgical resection. In this comprehensive review, we discuss the devices, techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of each intervention, and summarize the published outcomes.