Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Endovascular Infection in a Neonate: Prolonged, Safe, and Effective Use of Daptomycin and Enoxaparin [Case Report]
We report on a former 28-week gestation neonate with persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) endocarditis, with a heterozygous Factor V Leiden mutation. The neonate became clinically ill after 1 week of life, with positive blood cultures for MRSA. Echocardiography revealed large thrombi in the inferior vena cava and right atrium. Bacteremia persisted despite removal of umbilical arterial and venous catheters and empiric administration of therapeutic doses of vancomycin (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] 2 mg/L) and ceftazidime. To narrow therapy, ceftazidime was discontinued, while gentamicin and rifampin were added. Cultures remained positive and, therefore, linezolid was added, and subsequent blood cultures became negative. Since prolonged linezolid use of 2 weeks or longer carries potential adverse effects, antibiotics were changed to daptomycin, which is bactericidal and recommended for treatment of invasive MRSA infections when vancomycin MICs are â‰¥2 mg/L to minimize vancomycin treatment failure. Enoxaparin was initiated, with anti-Xa assay monitoring. A workup for thrombophilia revealed heterozygous Factor V Leiden mutation. Serial echocardiograms demonstrated decreasing size of the thrombi, which were no longer visualized at 2 months of age. Creatinine kinase remained normal. The infant had no seizures on daptomycin. The management of persistent MRSA bacteremia in neonates associated with a large thrombus poses a unique challenge due to the long duration of treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first case of prolonged and safe daptomycin and enoxaparin use in a preterm neonate. Daptomycin may be considered in cases of clinical failure with vancomycin when a lengthy treatment course is contemplated.
A Quality Improvement Intervention to Decrease Hypothermia in the Delivery Room Using a Checklist
Introduction/UNASSIGNED:Premature babies are at increased risk of hypothermia, core body temperature <97Â°F. Delivery room environment may contribute and lead to complications. The objective was to reduce hypothermia in babies <32 weeks of gestation in the delivery room to <40% using a checklist and sustain it for 6 months. Methods/UNASSIGNED:We created a delivery room checklist in 2012. Chart review established a baseline rate of hypothermia (<97Â°F). The team analyzed the checklist's effect on hypothermia from 2012 to 2018 and utilized numerous interventions to maintain compliance. Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test analyzed hypothermia and hyperthermia as a balancing measure. All calculations performed in SAS 9.3. Results/UNASSIGNED:The checklist reduced hypothermia from a baseline of 50% in 2011 (n = 104) to 33% in 2012 (n = 106). In 2013, the proportion of hypothermia slightly increased to 36% (n = 81). The year 2014 brought larger drift, and proportion of hypothermia increased to 44% (n = 117). In 2015, we reinforced the use of the checklist and proportion of hypothermia improved to 36% (n = 99). Further interventions through 2018 decreased hypothermia further to 14% to achieve statistical significance. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:A checklist is a simple tool that may yield beneficial changes in practice and helped to decrease the proportion of neonatal hypothermia.
Should gentamicin trough levels be routinely obtained in term neonates?
OBJECTIVE:Gentamicin is a common antibiotic used to treat sepsis in neonates. We hypothesize that obtaining routine gentamicin trough levels may not be necessary in low-risk, term infants. STUDY DESIGN:We performed a retrospective cohort study of term infants (n=346) treated with gentamicin in a single level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The results of gentamicin trough levels and the correlation with risk factors and potential side effects were recorded. In addition, we conducted a survey of 75 academic NICUs across the United States regarding their gentamicin monitoring practice. RESULTS:Routine trough levels did not predict potential gentamicin toxicity in neonates with low risk factors. Regression analysis demonstrated a positive correlation between gentamicin trough levels and serum creatinine. The survey of the NICUs in the United States demonstrated significant inconsistency in gentamicin monitoring practice. CONCLUSION:Obtaining gentamicin trough levels guided by risk factors is more appropriate than obtaining routine trough levels in low-risk term neonates.
A quality improvement initiative to reduce hypothermia in a Baby-Friendly nursery - our story of algorithms, K-cards, and Key cards
BACKGROUND:Baby-Friendly hospitals encourage rooming-in newborns with mothers. In our institution, we noticed increased incidence of hypothermia following Baby-Friendly designation. We aimed to reduce the incidence of hypothermia in the mother-baby-unit to <15% and to decrease the rate of isolated hypothermia admissions to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) by 20% over two years. METHODS:After a retrospective review of newborns â‰¥35 weeks gestation in the mother-baby-unit with hypothermia, we implemented multiple interventions such as nursing education, hypothermia algorithm, Kamishibai cards, and Key cards. RESULTS:Hypothermia incidence in the mother-baby-unit decreased from 20.9 to 14.5% (pâ€‰<â€‰0.001) and infants requiring NICU admission decreased by 71% (pâ€‰<â€‰0.001) following all interventions. Apart from nursing education, all interventions led to significant reductions in both outcomes from baseline. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Instituting a hypothermia algorithm and utilizing K-cards and Key cards reduces the incidence of hypothermia in the mother-baby-unit and NICU admissions for isolated hypothermia.
Is Lactoferrin Supplementation Beneficial for All Preterm Infants?
OBJECTIVE:â€ƒHuman milk (HM) has antibacterial properties due to the presence of immune-modulators, including lactoferrin (LF). This study will determine effect(s) of HM maturation, fortification, and storage conditions on LF levels and its antibacterial properties. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:. RESULTS:â€ƒThe highest level of LF in preterm HM was observed in the first week of lactation. However, storage of preterm HM at 4Â°C decreased LF levels significantly. Both LF levels and antibacterial activity in preterm HM was lower compared with term HM, but significantly higher than donor HM even after HM-based fortification. LF supplementation of donor HM improved its antibacterial activity. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:â€ƒPreterm infants fed donor HM, formula, or stored HM at 4Â°C may benefits from LF supplementation to improve HM antibacterial properties. KEY POINTS/CONCLUSIONS:Â· Milk LF levels vary with storage and maturity.. Â· Donor milk is deficient in LF even after adding HM-based fortification.. Â· Donor HM and formula fed infants may benefit from LF..
Pneumothorax in Neonates Born to COVID-19-Positive Mothers: Fact or Fortuity? [Case Report]
Neonates born to mothers with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been largely asymptomatic based on initial reports. All neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 have tested negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in our institution (published data as of April 12, 2020). As novel presentations of COVID-19, such as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children are being increasingly reported, we raise the possibility of increased incidence of pneumothorax in neonates born to SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers. Two recently described neonates with COVID-19 infection were noted to have pneumothoraces. We describe two SARS-CoV-2-negative neonates born to COVID-19-positive mothers at 38 and 33 weeks, respectively, admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit for respiratory distress and subsequently developed pneumothoraces. As diverse clinical presentations in various age groups are being described, it becomes difficult to differentiate the increased incidence of complications related to an underlying illness, from COVID-19-related illness. It remains to be seen if neonates with in utero exposure to SARS-CoV-2 have an elevated inflammatory response with pneumonitis and exaggerated lung disease, similar to adult COVID-19 patients, due to in utero exposure.
A Quality Improvement Initiative to Improve Perioperative Hypothermia Rates in the NICU Utilizing Checklists
Premature infants are at high risk for heat loss. Infants undergoing surgical procedures outside of the neonatal intensive care unit have an increased risk of hypothermia. Hypothermia can lead to delayed recovery, hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, sepsis, and emotional stress for the parents. We aimed to reduce the incidence of hypothermia for infants undergoing surgical procedures from a baseline of 44.4% to less than 25% over 3 years (2016-2018) with the utilization of a checklist and education.
Case 1: Secondary Structural Cause of Tachypnea Following Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Repair in a Term Neonate [Case Report]