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The Coagulation System and Blood Clot Stability

Chapter by: Nayyar, Nikita; Mannasian, Haig; Yang, Longqiu; Liu, Henry
in: Essentials of Blood Product Management in Anesthesia Practice by Scher, Corey S; Kaye, Alan David; Liu, Henry; Perelman, Seth; Leavitt, Sarah (Eds)
Cham : Springer International Publishing AG, 2021
pp. 29-35
ISBN: 3030592952
CID: 4836842

Does Shared Decision Making Actually Occur in the Emergency Department? Looking at It from the Patients' Perspective

Schoenfeld, Elizabeth M; Probst, Marc A; Quigley, Denise D; St Marie, Peter; Nayyar, Nikita; Sabbagh, Sarah H; Beckford, Tanesha; Kanzaria, Hemal K
OBJECTIVE:We sought to assess the frequency, content, and quality of shared decision making (SDM) in the emergency department (ED), from patients' perspectives. METHODS:Utilizing a cross-sectional, multisite approach, we administered an instrument, consisting of two validated SDM assessment tools-the CollaboRATE and the SDM-Q-9-and one newly developed tool to a sample of ED patients. Our primary outcome was the occurrence of SDM in the clinical encounter, as defined by participants giving "top-box" scores on the CollaboRATE measure, and the ability of patients to identify the topic of their SDM conversation. Secondary outcomes included the content of the SDM conversations, as judged by patients, and whether patients were able to complete each of the two validated scales included in the instrument. RESULTS:After exclusions, 285 participants from two sites completed the composite instrument. Just under half identified as female (47%) or as white (47%). Roughly half gave top-box scores (i.e., indicating optimal SDM) on the CollaboRATE scale (49%). Less than half of the participants were able to indicate a decision they were involved in (44%), although those who did gave high scores for such conversations (73/100 via the SDM-Q-9 tool). The most frequently identified decisions discussed were admission versus discharge (19%), medication options (17%), and options for follow-up care (15%). CONCLUSIONS:Fewer than half of ED patients surveyed reported they were involved in SDM. The most common decision for which SDM was used was around ED disposition (admission vs. discharge). When SDM was employed, patients generally rated the discussion highly.
PMID: 31465130
ISSN: 1553-2712
CID: 4816292

Patient Preferences Regarding Shared Decision Making in the Emergency Department: Findings From a Multisite Survey

Schoenfeld, Elizabeth M; Kanzaria, Hemal K; Quigley, Denise D; Marie, Peter St; Nayyar, Nikita; Sabbagh, Sarah H; Gress, Kyle L; Probst, Marc A
OBJECTIVES:As shared decision making (SDM) has received increased attention as a method to improve the patient-centeredness of emergency department (ED) care, we sought to determine patients' desired level of involvement in medical decisions and their perceptions of potential barriers and facilitators to SDM in the ED. METHODS:We surveyed a cross-sectional sample of adult ED patients at three academic medical centers across the United States. The survey included 32 items regarding patient involvement in medical decisions including a modified Control Preference Scale and questions about barriers and facilitators to SDM in the ED. Items were developed and refined based on prior literature and qualitative interviews with ED patients. Research assistants administered the survey in person. RESULTS:Of 797 patients approached, 661 (83%) agreed to participate. Participants were 52% female, 45% white, and 30% Hispanic. The majority of respondents (85%-92%, depending on decision type) expressed a desire for some degree of involvement in decision making in the ED, while 8% to 15% preferred to leave decision making to their physician alone. Ninety-eight percent wanted to be involved with decisions when "something serious is going on." The majority of patients (94%) indicated that self-efficacy was not a barrier to SDM in the ED. However, most patients (55%) reported a tendency to defer to the physician's decision making during an ED visit, with about half reporting they would wait for a physician to ask them to be involved. CONCLUSION:We found that the majority of ED patients in our large, diverse sample wanted to be involved in medical decisions, especially in the case of a "serious" medical problem, and felt that they had the ability to do so. Nevertheless, many patients were unlikely to actively seek involvement and defaulted to allowing the physician to make decisions during the ED visit. After fully explaining the consequences of a decision, clinicians should make an effort to explicitly ascertain patients' desired level of involvement in decision making.
PMID: 29897639
ISSN: 1553-2712
CID: 4816272

Association of Mindfulness With Residency Preference and Curriculum Selection in Preclinical Osteopathic Medical Students

Nayyar, Nikita; Saggio, Greg; Plummer, Maria; Jung, Min-Kyung; Kappenberg, John
Context/UNASSIGNED:Recent studies suggest the shortage of US primary care physicians will be more than 50,000 by the year 2025. Mindful osteopathic medical students may be more inclined to pursue a career in primary care practice than those demonstrating lower levels of mindfulness. If so, assessing mindfulness before and after admission to medical school may reduce this shortage. Objective/UNASSIGNED:In this cross-sectional survey-based study, the authors assessed whether mindfulness among preclinical osteopathic medical students was associated with (a) their current preference for primary care practice as a residency, and (b) their choice between 2 alternative curricula. Method/UNASSIGNED:Participants were first- and second-year osteopathic medical students enrolled at the New York Institute of Technology College of Osteopathic Medicine (NYITCOM). They completed a 7-factor questionnaire of demographic variables and the online Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) to determine their mindfulness score. They also identified their current preference for a residency. Data were then presented using various descriptive statistics and analyzed using independent t tests, χ2 tests, and multiple logistic regression. Results/UNASSIGNED:Among the 208 respondents, authors found that osteopathic medical students who expressed a preference for primary care practice showed no significant differences in mindfulness compared with those interested in specialist fields, as indicated by mean (SD) mindfulness scores of 3.34 (0.44) vs 3.33 (0.41), respectively (P=.88). However, among demographic variables, female students expressed a preference for primary care practice fields at significantly higher rates than male students (OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 2.2-8.5; P<.001). Also, students who matriculated less than 6 months after completing their undergraduate education were drawn to primary care practice at higher rates than those who delayed enrollment (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.5; P=.016). None of the remaining demographic variables were associated with students' residency preference. Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:Being female and matriculating immediately after undergraduate education was associated with a preference for primary care residency. However, no significant association was found between mindfulness and either residency preference or choice of alternative curricula.
PMID: 30178048
ISSN: 1945-1997
CID: 4816282