Association Between the Use of Psychotropic Medications and the Risk of COVID-19 Infection Among Long-term Inpatients With Serious Mental Illness in a New York State-wide Psychiatric Hospital System
Importance/UNASSIGNED:Individuals with serious mental illness are at increased risk of severe COVID-19 infection. Several psychotropic medications have been identified as potential therapeutic agents to prevent or treat COVID-19 but have not been systematically examined in this population. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To evaluate the associations between the use of psychotropic medications and the risk of COVID-19 infection among adults with serious mental illness receiving long-term inpatient psychiatric treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:This retrospective cohort study assessed adults with serious mental illness hospitalized in a statewide psychiatric hospital system in New York between March 8 and July 1, 2020. The final date of follow-up was December 1, 2020. The study included 1958 consecutive adult inpatients with serious mental illness (affective or nonaffective psychoses) who received testing for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction or antinucleocapsid antibodies and were continuously hospitalized from March 8 until medical discharge or July 1, 2020. Exposures/UNASSIGNED:Psychotropic medications prescribed prior to COVID-19 testing. Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:COVID-19 infection was the primary outcome, defined by a positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction or antibody test result. The secondary outcome was COVID-19-related death among patients with laboratory-confirmed infection. Results/UNASSIGNED:Of the 2087 adult inpatients with serious mental illness continuously hospitalized during the study period, 1958 (93.8%) underwent testing and were included in the study; 1442 (73.6%) were men, and the mean (SD) age was 51.4 (14.3) years. A total of 969 patients (49.5%) had laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection that occurred while they were hospitalized; of those, 38 (3.9%) died. The use of second-generation antipsychotic medications, as a class, was associated with decreased odds of infection (odds ratio [OR], 0.62; 95% CI, 0.45-0.86), whereas the use of mood stabilizers was associated with increased odds of infection (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.03-1.47). In a multivariable model of individual medications, the use of paliperidone was associated with decreased odds of infection (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.41-0.84), and the use of valproic acid was associated with increased odds of infection (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.10-1.76). Clozapine use was associated with reduced odds of mortality in unadjusted analyses (unadjusted OR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.10-0.62; fully adjusted OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.17-1.12). Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:In this cohort study of adults hospitalized with serious mental illness, the use of second-generation antipsychotic medications was associated with decreased risk of COVID-19 infection, whereas the use of valproic acid was associated with increased risk. Further research is needed to assess the mechanisms that underlie these findings.
Emotions, Perceptions and Health Behaviors of Adult Congenital Heart Disease Patients during COVID-19 in New York City
Background: Adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) have increased prevalence of mood and anxiety dis-orders. There are limited data regarding the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health and health behaviors of these patients. Objective: The purpose is to evaluate the perceptions, emotions, and health behaviors of ACHD patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: In this cross-sectional study of ACHD patients, we administered surveys evaluating self-reported emotions, perceptions and health behaviors. Logistic regressions were performed to determine the adjusted odds of displaying each perception, emotion and health behavior based on predictor variables. Results: Ninety-seven patients (mean age 38.3 years, 46.4% female, 85.6% moderate or complex lesion) completed the survey. The majority of patients reported feeling moderately or very sad (63.1%), and 48.4% of patients identified themselves as feeling moderately or very anxious. The majority of patients perceived their risk of COVID-19 as moderate or high. Females were more likely to report feeling sad and anxious (95% CI 1.06"“10.96, p-value 0.039, and 95% CI 1.44"“15.30, p-value = 0.012, respectively), and were associated with higher odds of having a perceived increased risk of COVID-19 (95% CI 1.33"“10.59, p-value 0.012). There was no association between ACHD anatomic or physiologic classification and perceptions, emotions and health behaviors. Conclusions: Females were more likely to report feeling sad, anxious and an increased risk of COVID-19 in comparison to males. These findings indicate the need for mental health support and promotion of health behaviors during the pandemic amongst all ACHD patients, regardless of underlying condition.
Association Between Antipsychotic Use and COVID-19 Mortality Among People With Serious Mental Illness
Association Between Mental Health Disorders and Mortality Among Patients With COVID-19 in 7 Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Importance/UNASSIGNED:Heterogeneous evidence exists for the association between COVID-19 and the clinical outcomes of patients with mental health disorders. It remains unknown whether patients with COVID-19 and mental health disorders are at increased risk of mortality and should thus be targeted as a high-risk population for severe forms of COVID-19. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To determine whether patients with mental health disorders were at increased risk of COVID-19 mortality compared with patients without mental health disorders. Data Sources/UNASSIGNED:For this systematic review and meta-analysis, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched from inception to February 12, 2021. Bibliographies were also searched, and the corresponding authors were directly contacted. The search paradigm was based on the following combination: (mental, major[MeSH terms]) AND (COVID-19 mortality[MeSH terms]). To ensure exhaustivity, the term mental was replaced by psychiatric, schizophrenia, psychotic, bipolar disorder, mood disorders, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, personality disorder, eating disorder, alcohol abuse, alcohol misuse, substance abuse, and substance misuse. Study Selection/UNASSIGNED:Eligible studies were population-based cohort studies of all patients with identified COVID-19 exploring the association between mental health disorders and mortality. Data Extraction and Synthesis/UNASSIGNED:Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guideline was used for abstracting data and assessing data quality and validity. This systematic review is registered with PROSPERO. Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:Pooled crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for the association of mental health disorders with mortality were calculated using a 3-level random-effects (study/country) approach with a hierarchical structure to assess effect size dependency. Results/UNASSIGNED:In total, 16 population-based cohort studies (data from medico-administrative health or electronic/medical records databases) across 7 countries (1 from Denmark, 2 from France, 1 from Israel, 3 from South Korea, 1 from Spain, 1 from the UK, and 7 from the US) and 19 086 patients with mental health disorders were included. The studies covered December 2019 to July 2020, were of good quality, and no publication bias was identified. COVID-19 mortality was associated with an increased risk among patients with mental health disorders compared with patients without mental health disorders according to both pooled crude OR (1.75 [95% CI, 1.40-2.20]; Pâ€‰<â€‰.05) and adjusted OR (1.38 [95% CI, 1.15-1.65]; Pâ€‰<â€‰.05). The patients with severe mental health disorders had the highest ORs for risk of mortality (crude OR: 2.26 [95% CI, 1.18-4.31]; adjusted OR: 1.67 [95% CI, 1.02-2.73]). Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:In this systematic review and meta-analysis of 16 observational studies in 7 countries, mental health disorders were associated with increased COVID-19-related mortality. Thus, patients with mental health disorders should have been targeted as a high-risk population for severe forms of COVID-19, requiring enhanced preventive and disease management strategies. Future studies should more accurately evaluate the risk for patients with each mental health disorder. However, the highest risk seemed to be found in studies including individuals with schizophrenia and/or bipolar disorders.
Association of Psychiatric Disorders With Mortality Among Patients With COVID-19
Importance/UNASSIGNED:To date, the association of psychiatric diagnoses with mortality in patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has not been evaluated. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To assess whether a diagnosis of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, mood disorder, or anxiety disorder is associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:This retrospective cohort study assessed 7348 consecutive adult patients for 45 days following laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 between March 3 and May 31, 2020, in a large academic medical system in New York. The final date of follow-up was July 15, 2020. Patients without available medical records before testing were excluded. Exposures/UNASSIGNED:Patients were categorized based on the following International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnoses before their testing date: (1) schizophrenia spectrum disorders, (2) mood disorders, and (3) anxiety disorders. Patients with these diagnoses were compared with a reference group without psychiatric disorders. Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:Mortality, defined as death or discharge to hospice within 45 days following a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test result. Results/UNASSIGNED:Of the 26â€¯540 patients tested, 7348 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (mean [SD] age, 54 [18.6] years; 3891 [53.0%] women). Of eligible patients with positive test results, 75 patients (1.0%) had a history of a schizophrenia spectrum illness, 564 (7.7%) had a history of a mood disorder, and 360 (4.9%) had a history of an anxiety disorder. After adjusting for demographic and medical risk factors, a premorbid diagnosis of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder was significantly associated with mortality (odds ratio [OR], 2.67; 95% CI, 1.48-4.80). Diagnoses of mood disorders (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.87-1.49) and anxiety disorders (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.65-1.41) were not associated with mortality after adjustment. In comparison with other risk factors, a diagnosis of schizophrenia ranked behind only age in strength of an association with mortality. Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:In this cohort study of adults with SARS-CoV-2-positive test results in a large New York medical system, adults with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder diagnosis were associated with an increased risk for mortality, but those with mood and anxiety disorders were not associated with a risk of mortality. These results suggest that schizophrenia spectrum disorders may be a risk factor for mortality in patients with COVID-19.
Neuropsychiatric Complications after Stroke
Neuropsychiatric disturbances represent a common and uniquely challenging consequence of stroke. These disorders arise at the intersection of lesion-related brain dysfunction and psychological distress related to the event and its aftermath, making it difficult to identify what symptom is a direct physiological consequence of the stroke. Depression, anxiety, fatigue, apathy, emotionalism, and anger are the most common of these syndromes, and posttraumatic stress disorder related to the stroke event has become increasingly recognized as a relevant entity. Mania, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and psychosis are less commonly encountered but potentially highly debilitating conditions that may be underrecognized. Early identification and treatment may mitigate functional impairment and improve quality of life. Evidence-based guidelines from the general population are often relied upon to guide treatment. Further research is needed to understand and tailor treatment of these disorders in the poststroke population.
Clozapine, Diabetes Mellitus, Cardiovascular Risk and Mortality: Results of a 21-Year Naturalistic Study in Patients with Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder
The goal of this 21-year naturalistic study of clozapine-treated patients was to examine the cardiovascular risk factors following clozapine initiation and resultant mortality estimates from cardiovascular disease. Data were collected from January 1992 to February 2012 medical records from clozapine-treated patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Demographics, clozapine dosage and laboratory results were extracted at 12-month intervals. At clozapine initiation, the mean age of the 96 patients was 36.4 yearsÂ±7.6 years; n=27 (28%) were women. The mean duration of clozapine use was 13 years. The Kaplan-Meier estimate for 21-year cardiovascular events was 29%, while the Kaplan-Meier estimate for 21-year mortality from cardiovascular disease was 10%. The mean cardiovascular risk increased during the first ten years (p<.01), while a slight decrease occurred beyond ten years (p<.01). Patients involved in cardiometabolic research showed a greater decrease in cardiovascular risk factors over 21 years (p=.05). The Kaplan-Meier estimate for 21-year all-cause mortality was 22%. Forty-one patients were diagnosed with diabetes (42.7%), compared to a nationwide prevalence of 13.7% in a similar age group. These results support the hypothesis that clozapine-treated patients are at risk for cardiovascular events and death secondary to an increased risk of medical disorders. Interventions that target weight loss, smoking cessation, and lipid profile improvement may alleviate the increased risk of cardiovascular mortality.
Catatonic Features after Brain Injury: A Review of the Literature and Proposed Approach to Diagnosis and Treatment in the Neurorehabilitation Setting [Meeting Abstract]
Schizophrenia and the gut-brain axis
Several risk factors for the development of schizophrenia can be linked through a common pathway in the intestinal tract. It is now increasingly recognized that bidirectional communication exists between the brain and the gut that uses neural, hormonal, and immunological routes. An increased incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) barrier dysfunction, food antigen sensitivity, inflammation, and the metabolic syndrome is seen in schizophrenia. These findings may be influenced by the composition of the gut microbiota. A significant subgroup of patients may benefit from the initiation of a gluten and casein-free diet. Antimicrobials and probiotics have therapeutic potential for reducing the metabolic dysfunction and immune dysregulation seen in patients with schizophrenia.
Fat-mass and obesity-associated gene polymorphisms and weight gain after risperidone treatment in first episode schizophrenia
BACKGROUND:Obesity induced by antipsychotics severely increases the risk of many diseases and significantly reduces quality of life. Genome Wide Association Studies has identified fat-mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene associated with obesity. The relationship between the FTO gene and drug-induced obesity is unclear. METHOD/METHODS:Two hundred and fifty drug naÃ¯ve, Chinese Han patients with first-episode schizophrenia were enrolled in the study, and genotyped for four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs9939609, rs8050136, rs1421085 and rs9930506) by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and direct sequencing. Body weight and body mass index (BMI) were measured at baseline and six months after risperidone treatment. RESULTS:At baseline, body weight and BMI of TT homozygotes were lower than those of A allele carriers in rs9939609; body weight of AA homozygotes was higher than those of G allele carriers in rs9930506 (p's < 0.05). After 6 months of risperidone treatment, body weight and BMI of TT homozygotes were lower than those of A allele carriers in rs9939609 (p's <0.01); body weight and BMI of CC homozygotes were lower than those of A allele carriers in rs8050136 (p's < 0.05); body weight of AA homozygotes was higher than those of G allele carriers in rs9930506 (p's < 0.05). After controlling for age, gender, age of illness onset, disease duration, weight at baseline and education, weight gain of TT homozygotes at 6 months remained to be lower than those of A allele carriers in rs9939609 (p < 0.01); weight gain of CC homozygotes at 6 months was lower than those of A allele carriers in rs8050136 (p = 0.01). Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that, among 4 SNPs, rs9939609 was the strongest predictor of weight gain after 6 months of risperidone treatment (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:The FTO gene polymorphisms, especially rs9939609, seem to be related to weight gain after risperidone treatment in Chinese Han patients with first episode schizophrenia.