Survival After Invasive or Conservative Management of Stable Coronary Disease
Associations of a polygenic risk score with coronary artery disease phenotypes in the Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain (PROMISE) trial [Letter]
A polygenic risk score (PGS) is associated with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) independent of traditional risk factors. Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) can characterize coronary plaques, including features of highrisk CAD. However, it is unknown if a PGS is associated with obstructive CAD and high-risk CAD phenotypes in patients with symptoms suggestive of CAD.
Association of Medication Adherence With Health Outcomes in the ISCHEMIAÂ Trial
BACKGROUND:The ISCHEMIA (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness With Medical and Invasive Approaches) trial randomized participants with chronic coronary disease (CCD) to guideline-directed medical therapy with or without angiography and revascularization. The study examined the association of nonadherence with health status outcomes. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The study sought to compare 12-month health status outcomes of adherent and nonadherent participants with CCD with an a priori hypothesis that nonadherent patients would have better health status if randomized to invasive management. METHODS:Self-reported medication-taking behavior was assessed at randomization with a modified 4-item Morisky-Green-Levine Adherence Scale, and participants were classified as adherent or nonadherent. Twelve-month health status was assessed with the 7-item Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ-7) summary score (SS), which ranges from 0 to 100 (higher scoreÂ =Â better). The association of adherence with outcomes was evaluated using Bayesian proportional odds models, including an interaction by study arm (conservative vs invasive). RESULTS:Among 4,480 randomized participants, 1,245 (27.8%) were nonadherent at baseline. Nonadherent participants had worse baseline SAQ-7 SS in both conservative (72.9 Â± 19.3 vs 75.6 Â± 18.4) and invasive (71.0 Â± 19.8 vs 74.2 Â± 18.7) arms. In adjusted analyses, adherence was associated with higher 12-month SAQ-7 SS in both treatment groups (mean difference in SAQ-7 SS with conservative treatmentÂ =Â 1.6 [95% credible interval: 0.3-2.9] vs with invasive managementÂ =Â 1.9 [95% credible interval: 0.8-3.1]), with no interaction by treatment. CONCLUSIONS:More than 1 in 4 participants reported medication nonadherence, which was associated with worse health status in both conservative and invasive treatment strategies at baseline and 12Â months. Strategies to improve medication adherence are needed to improve health status outcomes in CCD, regardless of treatment strategy. (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness With Medical and Invasive Approaches [ISCHEMIA]; NCT01471522).
Management of dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in prediabetes
Prediabetes affects at least 1 in 3 adults in the U.S. and 1 in 5 in Europe. Although guidelines advocate aggressive management of lipid parameters in diabetes, most guidelines do not address treatment of dyslipidemia in prediabetes despite the increased atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. Several criteria are used to diagnose prediabetes: impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and HbA1c of 5.7-6.4%. Individuals with prediabetes have a greater risk of diabetes, a higher prevalence of dyslipidemia with a more atherogenic lipid profile and an increased risk of ASCVD. In addition to calculating ASCVD risk using traditional methods, an OGTT may further stratify risk. Those with 1-hour plasma glucose â‰¥8.6Â mmol/L (155Â mg/dL) and/or 2-hour â‰¥7.8Â mmol/L (140Â mg/dL) (IGT) have a greater risk of ASCVD. Diet and lifestyle modification are fundamental in prediabetes. Statins, ezetimibe and PCSK9 inhibitors are recommended in people requiring pharmacotherapy. Although high-intensity statins may increase risk of diabetes, this is acceptable because of the greater reduction of ASCVD. The LDL-C goal in prediabetes should be individualized. In those with IGT and/or elevated 1-hour plasma glucose, the same intensive approach to dyslipidemia as recommended for diabetes should be considered, particularly if other ASCVD risk factors are present.
The Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy 2 (TACT2): Rationale and Design
The Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy 2 (TACT2) is an NIH-sponsored, randomized, 2x2 factorial, double masked, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial testing 40 weekly infusions of a multi-component edetate disodium (disodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid, or Na2EDTA)-based chelation solution and twice daily oral, high-dose multivitamin and mineral supplements in patients with diabetes and a prior myocardial infarction (MI). TACT2 completed enrollment of 1000 subjects in December 2020, and infusions in December 2021. Subjects are being followed for 2.5 to 5 years. The primary endpoint is a composite of the time to first occurrence of all-cause mortality, MI, stroke, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for unstable angina. The trial is designed to have >85% power to detect a 30% relative reduction in the primary endpoint for each active treatment versus placebo comparison. TACT2 also includes a Trace Metals and Biorepository Core Lab, which will test the novel hypothesis that the prognostic benefits of chelation, if present, are due to removal of lead and cadmium from patients. Most of the design features of TACT2 were chosen to replicate selected features of the first TACT trial, which demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in cardiovascular outcomes in the EDTA chelation arm compared with placebo among patients with a prior MI, with the largest effect in patients with diabetes. Results from TACT2, if concordant with TACT, will provide definitive evidence of the benefit of edetate disodium-based chelation on cardiovascular outcomes, as well as the possible clinical importance of longitudinal changes in toxic metal levels of participants.
Diabetes Mellitus And Outcomes Of Lower Extremity Revascularization For Peripheral Artery Disease
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on outcomes of lower extremity revascularization (LER) for peripheral artery disease (PAD) is uncertain. We characterized associations between DM and post-procedural outcomes in PAD patients undergoing LER. METHODS:Adults undergoing surgical or endovascular LER were identified from the 2014 Nationwide Readmissions Database. DM was defined by ICD-9 diagnosis codes and sub-classified based on the presence or absence of complications (poor glycemic control or end-organ damage). Major adverse cardiovascular and limb events (MACLE) were defined as the composite of death, myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or major limb amputation during the index hospitalization for LER. For survivors, all-cause 6-month hospital readmission was determined. RESULTS:Among 39,441 patients with PAD hospitalized for LER, 50.8% had DM. The composite of MACLE after LER was not different in patients with and without DM after covariate adjustment, but patients with DM were more likely to require major limb amputation (5.5% vs. 3.2%, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.22, 95% CI 1.03-1.44) and hospital readmission (59.2% vs. 41.3%, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001; aOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.34-1.55). Of 20,039 patients with DM hospitalized for LER, 55.7% had DM with complications. These patients were more likely to have MACLE after LER (11.1% vs. 5.2%, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001; aOR 1.56 95% CI 1.28-1.89) and require hospital readmission (61.1% vs. 47.2%, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001; aOR 1.41 95% CI 1.27-1.57) than patients with uncomplicated DM. CONCLUSIONS:DM is present in â‰ˆ50% of patients undergoing LER for PAD and is an independent risk factor for major limb amputation and 6-month hospital readmission.
Risk factors, transcriptomics, and outcomes of myocardial injury following lower extremity revascularization
Myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS) is common. We investigated the incidence and outcomes of MINS, and mechanistic underpinnings using pre-operative whole blood gene expression profiling in a prospective cohort study of individuals undergoing lower extremity revascularization (LER) for peripheral artery disease (PAD). Major adverse cardiovascular and limb events (MACLE) were defined as a composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, major lower extremity amputation or reoperation. Among 226 participants undergoing LER, MINS occurred in 53 (23.5%). Patients with MINS had a greater incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (49.1% vs. 22.0%, adjusted HR 1.87, 95% CI 1.07-3.26) and MACLE (67.9% vs. 44.5%; adjusted HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.08-2.55) at median 20-month follow-up. Pre-operative whole blood transcriptome profiling of a nested matched MINS case-control cohort (nâ€‰=â€‰41) identified upregulation of pathways related to platelet alpha granules and coagulation in patients who subsequently developed MINS. Thrombospondin 1 (THBS1) mRNA expression was 60% higher at baseline in patients who later developed MINS, and was independently associated with long-term cardiovascular events in the Duke Catheterization Genetics biorepository cohort. In conclusion, pre-operative THBS1 mRNA expression is higher in patients who subsequently develop MINS and is associated with incident cardiovascular events. Pathways related to platelet activity and coagulation associated with MINS provide novel insights into mechanisms of myocardial injury.
Vascular endothelium as a target for perfluroalkyl substances (PFAs)
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAs) are ubiquitous, anthropogenic organic compounds that have been linked with cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors. Older, long-chain PFAs have been phased out due to adverse cardiometabolic health effect and replaced by newer short-chain PFAs. However, emerging research suggests that short-chain PFAs may also have adverse cardiovascular effects. Non-invasive measures of vascular function can detect preclinical cardiovascular disease and serve as a useful surrogate for early CVD risk. We hypothesized that serum concentrations of PFAs would be associated with noninvasive measures of vascular function, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and brachial artery reactivity testing (BART), in adults with non-occupational exposure to PFAs. METHODS:We measured serum concentrations of 14 PFAs with hybrid solid-phase extraction and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 94 adult outpatients with no known cardiovascular disease. We collected clinical and demographic data; and measured vascular function, PWV and BART, using standard protocols. We assessed associations of individual PFAs with log-transformed BART and PWV using linear regression. We used weighted quantile sum regression to assess effects of correlated PFA mixtures on BART and PWV. RESULTS:Ten PFAs were measured above the limit of detection in >50% of participants. Each standard deviation increase in concentration of perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) was associated with 15% decrease in BART (95% CI: -28.5, -0.17). The weighted index of a mixture of PFAs with correlated concentrations was inversely associated with BART: each tertile increase in the weighted PFA mixture was associated with 25% lower BART, with 73% of the effect driven by PFHpA. In contrast, no PFAs or mixtures were associated with PWV. CONCLUSIONS:Serum concentration of PFHpA, a new, short-chain PFA, was associated with impaired vascular function among outpatients without CVD. Our findings support a potential adverse cardiovascular effect of newer, short-chain PFAs.
Long-term dietary and weight changes following a short-term dietary intervention study: EVADE-CAD trial follow-up
Predictors of Left Main Coronary Artery Disease in the ISCHEMIA Trial
BACKGROUND:Detection ofÂ â‰¥50% diameter stenosis left main coronary artery disease (LMD) has prognostic and therapeutic implications. Noninvasive stress imaging or an exercise tolerance test (ETT) are the most common methods to detect obstructive coronary artery disease, though stress test markers of LMD remain ill-defined. OBJECTIVES:The authors sought to identify markers of LMD as detected on coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA), using clinical and stress testing parameters. METHODS:This was a post hoc analysis of ISCHEMIA (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness With Medical and Invasive Approaches), including randomized and nonrandomized participants who had locally determined moderate or severe ischemia on nonimaging ETT, stress nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging, or stress echocardiography followed by CTA to exclude LMD. Stress tests were read by core laboratories. Prior coronary artery bypass grafting was an exclusion. In a stepped multivariate model, the authors identified predictors of LMD, first without and then with stress testing parameters. RESULTS:Among 5,146 participants (mean age 63 years, 74% male), 414 (8%) had LMD. Predictors of LMD were older age (PÂ < 0.001), male sex (PÂ < 0.01), absence of prior myocardial infarction (PÂ < 0.009), transient ischemic dilation of the left ventricle on stress echocardiography (PÂ =Â 0.05), magnitude of ST-segment depression on ETT (PÂ =Â 0.004), and peak metabolic equivalents achieved on ETT (PÂ =Â 0.001). The models were weakly predictive of LMD (C-index 0.643 and 0.684). CONCLUSIONS:In patients with moderate or severe ischemia, clinical and stress testing parameters were weakly predictive of LMD on CTA. For most patients with moderate or severe ischemia, anatomical imaging is needed to rule out LMD. (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness With Medical and Invasive Approaches [ISCHEMIA]; NCT01471522).