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Diabetes Mellitus And Outcomes Of Lower Extremity Revascularization For Peripheral Artery Disease

Bhandari, Nipun; Newman, Jonathan D; Berger, Jeffrey S; Smilowitz, Nathaniel R
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on outcomes of lower extremity revascularization (LER) for peripheral artery disease (PAD) is uncertain. We characterized associations between DM and post-procedural outcomes in PAD patients undergoing LER. METHODS:Adults undergoing surgical or endovascular LER were identified from the 2014 Nationwide Readmissions Database. DM was defined by ICD-9 diagnosis codes and sub-classified based on the presence or absence of complications (poor glycemic control or end-organ damage). Major adverse cardiovascular and limb events (MACLE) were defined as the composite of death, myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or major limb amputation during the index hospitalization for LER. For survivors, all-cause 6-month hospital readmission was determined. RESULTS:Among 39,441 patients with PAD hospitalized for LER, 50.8% had DM. The composite of MACLE after LER was not different in patients with and without DM after covariate adjustment, but patients with DM were more likely to require major limb amputation (5.5% vs. 3.2%, p < 0.001; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.22, 95% CI 1.03-1.44) and hospital readmission (59.2% vs. 41.3%, p < 0.001; aOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.34-1.55). Of 20,039 patients with DM hospitalized for LER, 55.7% had DM with complications. These patients were more likely to have MACLE after LER (11.1% vs. 5.2%, p < 0.001; aOR 1.56 95% CI 1.28-1.89) and require hospital readmission (61.1% vs. 47.2%, p < 0.001; aOR 1.41 95% CI 1.27-1.57) than patients with uncomplicated DM. CONCLUSIONS:DM is present in ≈50% of patients undergoing LER for PAD and is an independent risk factor for major limb amputation and 6-month hospital readmission.
PMID: 33351089
ISSN: 2058-1742
CID: 4751762

Risk factors, transcriptomics, and outcomes of myocardial injury following lower extremity revascularization

Smilowitz, Nathaniel R; Cornwell, MacIntosh; Offerman, Erik J; Rockman, Caron B; Shah, Svati H; Newman, Jonathan D; Ruggles, Kelly; Voora, Deepak; Berger, Jeffrey S
Myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS) is common. We investigated the incidence and outcomes of MINS, and mechanistic underpinnings using pre-operative whole blood gene expression profiling in a prospective cohort study of individuals undergoing lower extremity revascularization (LER) for peripheral artery disease (PAD). Major adverse cardiovascular and limb events (MACLE) were defined as a composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, major lower extremity amputation or reoperation. Among 226 participants undergoing LER, MINS occurred in 53 (23.5%). Patients with MINS had a greater incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (49.1% vs. 22.0%, adjusted HR 1.87, 95% CI 1.07-3.26) and MACLE (67.9% vs. 44.5%; adjusted HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.08-2.55) at median 20-month follow-up. Pre-operative whole blood transcriptome profiling of a nested matched MINS case-control cohort (n = 41) identified upregulation of pathways related to platelet alpha granules and coagulation in patients who subsequently developed MINS. Thrombospondin 1 (THBS1) mRNA expression was 60% higher at baseline in patients who later developed MINS, and was independently associated with long-term cardiovascular events in the Duke Catheterization Genetics biorepository cohort. In conclusion, pre-operative THBS1 mRNA expression is higher in patients who subsequently develop MINS and is associated with incident cardiovascular events. Pathways related to platelet activity and coagulation associated with MINS provide novel insights into mechanisms of myocardial injury.
PMCID:9038775
PMID: 35468922
ISSN: 2045-2322
CID: 5205492

Vascular endothelium as a target for perfluroalkyl substances (PFAs)

Wittkopp, Sharine; Wu, Fen; Windheim, Joseph; Robinson, Morgan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Katz, Stuart D; Chen, Yu; Newman, Jonathan D
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAs) are ubiquitous, anthropogenic organic compounds that have been linked with cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors. Older, long-chain PFAs have been phased out due to adverse cardiometabolic health effect and replaced by newer short-chain PFAs. However, emerging research suggests that short-chain PFAs may also have adverse cardiovascular effects. Non-invasive measures of vascular function can detect preclinical cardiovascular disease and serve as a useful surrogate for early CVD risk. We hypothesized that serum concentrations of PFAs would be associated with noninvasive measures of vascular function, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and brachial artery reactivity testing (BART), in adults with non-occupational exposure to PFAs. METHODS:We measured serum concentrations of 14 PFAs with hybrid solid-phase extraction and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 94 adult outpatients with no known cardiovascular disease. We collected clinical and demographic data; and measured vascular function, PWV and BART, using standard protocols. We assessed associations of individual PFAs with log-transformed BART and PWV using linear regression. We used weighted quantile sum regression to assess effects of correlated PFA mixtures on BART and PWV. RESULTS:Ten PFAs were measured above the limit of detection in >50% of participants. Each standard deviation increase in concentration of perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) was associated with 15% decrease in BART (95% CI: -28.5, -0.17). The weighted index of a mixture of PFAs with correlated concentrations was inversely associated with BART: each tertile increase in the weighted PFA mixture was associated with 25% lower BART, with 73% of the effect driven by PFHpA. In contrast, no PFAs or mixtures were associated with PWV. CONCLUSIONS:Serum concentration of PFHpA, a new, short-chain PFA, was associated with impaired vascular function among outpatients without CVD. Our findings support a potential adverse cardiovascular effect of newer, short-chain PFAs.
PMID: 35447152
ISSN: 1096-0953
CID: 5218522

Long-term dietary and weight changes following a short-term dietary intervention study: EVADE-CAD trial follow-up

Dogra, Siddhant; Woolf, Kathleen; Xia, Yuhe; Getz, Alec; Newman, Jonathan D; Slater, James; Shah, Binita
PMID: 34010190
ISSN: 1473-5830
CID: 4908372

Predictors of Left Main Coronary Artery Disease in the ISCHEMIA Trial

Senior, Roxy; Reynolds, Harmony R; Min, James K; Berman, Daniel S; Picard, Michael H; Chaitman, Bernard R; Shaw, Leslee J; Page, Courtney B; Govindan, Sajeev C; Lopez-Sendon, Jose; Peteiro, Jesus; Wander, Gurpreet S; Drozdz, Jaroslaw; Marin-Neto, Jose; Selvanayagam, Joseph B; Newman, Jonathan D; Thuaire, Christophe; Christopher, Johann; Jang, James J; Kwong, Raymond Y; Bangalore, Sripal; Stone, Gregg W; O'Brien, Sean M; Boden, William E; Maron, David J; Hochman, Judith S
BACKGROUND:Detection of ≥50% diameter stenosis left main coronary artery disease (LMD) has prognostic and therapeutic implications. Noninvasive stress imaging or an exercise tolerance test (ETT) are the most common methods to detect obstructive coronary artery disease, though stress test markers of LMD remain ill-defined. OBJECTIVES:The authors sought to identify markers of LMD as detected on coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA), using clinical and stress testing parameters. METHODS:This was a post hoc analysis of ISCHEMIA (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness With Medical and Invasive Approaches), including randomized and nonrandomized participants who had locally determined moderate or severe ischemia on nonimaging ETT, stress nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging, or stress echocardiography followed by CTA to exclude LMD. Stress tests were read by core laboratories. Prior coronary artery bypass grafting was an exclusion. In a stepped multivariate model, the authors identified predictors of LMD, first without and then with stress testing parameters. RESULTS:Among 5,146 participants (mean age 63 years, 74% male), 414 (8%) had LMD. Predictors of LMD were older age (P < 0.001), male sex (P < 0.01), absence of prior myocardial infarction (P < 0.009), transient ischemic dilation of the left ventricle on stress echocardiography (P = 0.05), magnitude of ST-segment depression on ETT (P = 0.004), and peak metabolic equivalents achieved on ETT (P = 0.001). The models were weakly predictive of LMD (C-index 0.643 and 0.684). CONCLUSIONS:In patients with moderate or severe ischemia, clinical and stress testing parameters were weakly predictive of LMD on CTA. For most patients with moderate or severe ischemia, anatomical imaging is needed to rule out LMD. (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness With Medical and Invasive Approaches [ISCHEMIA]; NCT01471522).
PMID: 35177194
ISSN: 1558-3597
CID: 5167522

Causes of Cardiovascular and Non-Cardiovascular Death in the ISCHEMIA Trial

Sidhu, Mandeep S; Alexander, Karen P; Huang, Zhen; O'Brien, Sean M; Chaitman, Bernard R; Stone, Gregg W; Newman, Jonathan D; Boden, William E; Maggioni, Aldo P; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Ferguson, Thomas B; Demkow, Marcin; Peteiro, Jesus; Wander, Gurpreet S; Phaneuf, Denis C; De Belder, Mark A; Doerr, Rolf; Alexanderson-Rosas, Erick; Polanczyk, Carisi A; Henriksen, Peter A; Conway, Dwayne S G; Miro, Vicente; Sharir, Tali; Lopes, Renato D; Min, James K; Berman, Daniel S; Rockhold, Frank W; Balter, Stephen; Borrego, David; Rosenberg, Yves D; Bangalore, Sripal; Reynolds, Harmony R; Hochman, Judith S; Maron, David J
BACKGROUND:The ISCHEMIA trial demonstrated no overall difference in the composite primary endpoint and the secondary endpoints of cardiovascular (CV) death/myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality between an initial invasive or conservative strategy among participants with chronic coronary disease and moderate or severe myocardial ischemia. Detailed cause-specific death analyses have not been reported. METHODS:We compared overall and cause-specific death rates by treatment group using Cox models with adjustment for pre-specified baseline covariates. Cause of death was adjudicated by an independent Clinical Events Committee as cardiovascular (CV), non-CV, and undetermined. We evaluated the association of risk factors and treatment strategy with cause of death. RESULTS:Four-year cumulative incidence rates for CV death were similar between invasive and conservative strategies [2.6% vs. 3.0%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.98; 95% CI (0.70 - 1.38)], but non-CV death rates were higher in the invasive strategy [3.3% vs. 2.1%; HR 1.45 (1.00 - 2.09)]. Overall, 13% of deaths were attributed to undetermined causes (38/289). Fewer undetermined deaths [0.6% vs. 1.3%; HR 0.48 (0.24 - 0.95)] and more malignancy deaths [2.0% vs. 0.8%; HR 2.11 (1.23 - 3.60)] occurred in the invasive strategy than in the conservative strategy. CONCLUSIONS:In ISCHEMIA, all-cause and CV death rates were similar between treatment strategies. The observation of fewer undetermined deaths and more malignancy deaths in the invasive strategy remains unexplained. These findings should be interpreted with caution in the context of prior studies and the overall trial results.
PMID: 35149037
ISSN: 1097-6744
CID: 5176162

A Clinical Perspective on Arsenic Exposure and Development of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease

Kaur, Gurleen; Desai, Karan P; Chang, Isabella Y; Newman, Jonathan D; Mathew, Roy O; Bangalore, Sripal; Venditti, Ferdinand J; Sidhu, Mandeep S
Cardiovascular risk has traditionally been defined by modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors, such as tobacco use, hyperlipidemia, and family history. However, chemicals and pollutants may also play a role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Arsenic is a naturally occurring element that is widely distributed in the Earth's crust. Inorganic arsenic (iAs) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, with chronic high-dose exposure to iAs (> 100 µg/L) being linked to CVD; however, whether low-to-moderate dose exposures of iAs (< 100 µg/L) are associated with the development of CVD is unclear. Due to limitations of the existing literature, it is difficult to define a threshold for iAs toxicity. Studies demonstrate that the effect of iAs on CVD is far more complex with influences from several factors, including diet, genetics, metabolism, and traditional risk factors such as hypertension and smoking. In this article, we review the existing data of low-to-moderate dose iAs exposure and its effect on CVD, along with highlighting the potential mechanisms of action.
PMID: 35029799
ISSN: 1573-7241
CID: 5119142

Effects of initial invasive vs. initial conservative treatment strategies on recurrent and total cardiovascular events in the ISCHEMIA trial

Lopez-Sendon, Jose L; Cyr, Derek D; Mark, Daniel B; Bangalore, Sripal; Huang, Zhen; White, Harvey D; Alexander, Karen P; Li, Jianghao; Nair, Rajesh Goplan; Demkow, Marcin; Peteiro, Jesus; Wander, Gurpreet S; Demchenko, Elena A; Gamma, Reto; Gadkari, Milind; Poh, Kian Keong; Nageh, Thuraia; Stone, Peter H; Keltai, Matyas; Sidhu, Mandeep; Newman, Jonathan D; Boden, William E; Reynolds, Harmony R; Chaitman, Bernard R; Hochman, Judith S; Maron, David J; O'Brien, Sean M
AIMS/OBJECTIVE:The International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches (ISCHEMIA) trial prespecified an analysis to determine whether accounting for recurrent cardiovascular events in addition to first events modified understanding of the treatment effects. METHODS AND RESULTS/RESULTS:Patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and moderate or severe ischaemia on stress testing were randomized to either initial invasive (INV) or initial conservative (CON) management. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), and hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure, or cardiac arrest. The Ghosh-Lin method was used to estimate mean cumulative incidence of total events with death as a competing risk. The 5179 ISCHEMIA patients experienced 670 index events (318 INV, 352 CON) and 203 recurrent events (102 INV, 101 CON). A single primary event was observed in 9.8% of INV and 10.8% of CON patients while ≥2 primary events were observed in 2.5% and 2.8%, respectively. Patients with recurrent events were older; had more frequent hypertension, diabetes, prior MI, or cerebrovascular disease; and had more multivessel CAD. The average number of primary endpoint events per 100 patients over 4 years was 18.2 in INV [95% confidence interval (CI) 15.8-20.9] and 19.7 in CON (95% CI 17.5-22.2), difference -1.5 (95% CI -5.0 to 2.0, P = 0.398). Comparable results were obtained when all-cause death was substituted for cardiovascular death and when stroke was added as an event. CONCLUSIONS:In stable CAD patients with moderate or severe myocardial ischaemia enrolled in ISCHEMIA, an initial INV treatment strategy did not prevent either net recurrent events or net total events more effectively than an initial CON strategy. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION/BACKGROUND:ISCHEMIA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01471522, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01471522.
PMID: 34514494
ISSN: 1522-9645
CID: 5166802

Outcomes of Participants With Diabetes in the ISCHEMIA Trials

Newman, Jonathan D; Anthopolos, Rebecca; Mancini, G B John; Bangalore, Sripal; Reynolds, Harmony R; Kunichoff, Dennis F; Senior, Roxy; Peteiro, Jesus; Bhargava, Balram; Garg, Pallav; Escobedo, Jorge; Doerr, Rolf; Mazurek, Tomasz; Gonzalez-Juanatey, Jose; Gajos, Grzegorz; Briguori, Carlo; Cheng, Hong; Vertes, Andras; Mahajan, Sandeep; Guzman, Luis A; Keltai, Matyas; Maggioni, Aldo P; Stone, Gregg W; Berger, Jeffrey S; Rosenberg, Yves D; Boden, William E; Chaitman, Bernard R; Fleg, Jerome L; Hochman, Judith S; Maron, David J
BACKGROUND:Among patients with diabetes and chronic coronary disease, it is unclear if invasive management improves outcomes when added to medical therapy. METHODS:The ISCHEMIA (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches) trials (ie, ISCHEMIA and ISCHEMIA-Chronic Kidney Disease) randomized chronic coronary disease patients to an invasive (medical therapy + angiography and revascularization if feasible) or a conservative approach (medical therapy alone with revascularization if medical therapy failed). Cohorts were combined after no trial-specific effects were observed. Diabetes was defined by history, hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5%, or use of glucose-lowering medication. The primary outcome was all-cause death or myocardial infarction (MI). Heterogeneity of effect of invasive management on death or MI was evaluated using a Bayesian approach to protect against random high or low estimates of treatment effect for patients with versus without diabetes and for diabetes subgroups of clinical (female sex and insulin use) and anatomic features (coronary artery disease severity or left ventricular function). RESULTS:<0.001). At median 3.1-year follow-up the adjusted event-free survival was 0.54 (95% bootstrapped CI, 0.48-0.60) and 0.66 (95% bootstrapped CI, 0.61-0.71) for patients with diabetes versus without diabetes, respectively, with a 12% (95% bootstrapped CI, 4%-20%) absolute decrease in event-free survival among participants with diabetes. Female and male patients with insulin-treated diabetes had an adjusted event-free survival of 0.52 (95% bootstrapped CI, 0.42-0.56) and 0.49 (95% bootstrapped CI, 0.42-0.56), respectively. There was no difference in death or MI between strategies for patients with diabetes versus without diabetes, or for clinical (female sex or insulin use) or anatomic features (coronary artery disease severity or left ventricular function) of patients with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS:Despite higher risk for death or MI, chronic coronary disease patients with diabetes did not derive incremental benefit from routine invasive management compared with initial medical therapy alone. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01471522.
PMCID:8545918
PMID: 34521217
ISSN: 1524-4539
CID: 5107752

Outcomes in the ISCHEMIA Trial Based on Coronary Artery Disease and Ischemia Severity

Reynolds, Harmony R; Shaw, Leslee J; Min, James K; Page, Courtney B; Berman, Daniel S; Chaitman, Bernard R; Picard, Michael H; Kwong, Raymond Y; O'Brien, Sean M; Huang, Zhen; Mark, Daniel B; Nath, Ranjit K; Dwivedi, Sudhanshu K; Smanio, Paola E P; Stone, Peter H; Held, Claes; Keltai, Matyas; Bangalore, Sripal; Newman, Jonathan D; Spertus, John A; Stone, Gregg W; Maron, David J; Hochman, Judith S
BACKGROUND:The ISCHEMIA trial (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness With Medical and Invasive Approaches) postulated that patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and moderate or severe ischemia would benefit from revascularization. We investigated the relationship between severity of CAD and ischemia and trial outcomes, overall and by management strategy. METHODS:In total, 5179 patients with moderate or severe ischemia were randomized to an initial invasive or conservative management strategy. Blinded, core laboratory-interpreted coronary computed tomographic angiography was used to assess anatomic eligibility for randomization. Extent and severity of CAD were classified with the modified Duke Prognostic Index (n=2475, 48%). Ischemia severity was interpreted by independent core laboratories (nuclear, echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, exercise tolerance testing, n=5105, 99%). We compared 4-year event rates across subgroups defined by severity of ischemia and CAD. The primary end point for this analysis was all-cause mortality. Secondary end points were myocardial infarction (MI), cardiovascular death or MI, and the trial primary end point (cardiovascular death, MI, or hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure, or resuscitated cardiac arrest). RESULTS:=NS after adjustment for CAD). Increasing CAD severity was associated with death (HR, 2.72 [95% CI, 1.06-6.98]) and MI (HR, 3.78 [95% CI, 1.63-8.78]) for the most versus least severe CAD subgroup. Ischemia severity did not identify a subgroup with treatment benefit on mortality, MI, the trial primary end point, or cardiovascular death or MI. In the most severe CAD subgroup (n=659), the 4-year rate of cardiovascular death or MI was lower in the invasive strategy group (difference, 6.3% [95% CI, 0.2%-12.4%]), but 4-year all-cause mortality was similar. CONCLUSIONS:Ischemia severity was not associated with increased risk after adjustment for CAD severity. More severe CAD was associated with increased risk. Invasive management did not lower all-cause mortality at 4 years in any ischemia or CAD subgroup. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01471522.
PMCID:8478888
PMID: 34496632
ISSN: 1524-4539
CID: 5061282