Metformin Use Is Inversely Associated with Prevalent, but Not Incident Colorectal Adenomas
BACKGROUND:Chemoprevention for colorectal neoplasia has attracted growing interest, with multiple medications investigated. Metformin may decrease the overall incidence of cancer in patients with diabetes and may decrease the incidence of colorectal cancer. AIMS/OBJECTIVE:We aimed to determine the impact of metformin use on the behavior of colorectal adenomas in a US veteran population. METHODS:All patients with at least two high-quality colonoscopies between January 1997 and December 2013 at Veterans Affairs New York Harbor Healthcare System were identified. Outpatient prescription records were used to determine metformin exposure, and colonoscopy findings were recorded. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with adenoma detection on baseline and interval colonoscopy. RESULTS:In total, 1869 patients with two successive colonoscopies (median 4.5Â years) were included. Four hundred and sixty patients had metformin exposure prior to baseline and/or interval colonoscopy. Overall adenoma detection rate was 59.7% at baseline and 45.9% at interval colonoscopy. On multivariable analysis, metformin use was associated with decreased adenoma prevalence at baseline (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.51-0.92; pâ€‰=â€‰0.015). Metformin did not impact adenoma incidence at interval colonoscopy whether prescribed before baseline (OR 1.26; 95% CI 0.60-2.67), after baseline (OR 1.25; 95% CI 0.91-1.72), or before and after baseline (OR 1.14; 95% CI 0.82-1.58). CONCLUSIONS:In this retrospective analysis of an average-risk cohort, metformin use was associated with a decreased prevalence of colorectal adenomas at baseline colonoscopy. This inverse association did not persist on interval colonoscopy. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate potential chemoprotective effects of metformin over time.
The prefixed and postfixed brachial plexus: a review with surgical implications
The definition of a pre and postfixed brachial plexus is varied in the literature, which results in inconsistent conclusions for various studies. As anatomical variation is important both during clinical evaluation and surgical procedures of the brachial plexus, a review of this literature was performed. Based on our review, variation in the contribution to the brachial plexus is more the rule than the exception. These variations may lead to deviation from the expected dermatome distribution as well as differences in the motor innervation of muscles of the upper limb. Such variations may predispose patients to certain pathology such as thoracic outlet syndrome and may alter surgical approaches to the brachial plexus.
Cytomegalic interneurons: a new abnormal cell type in severe pediatric cortical dysplasia
A defining histopathologic feature of Taylor-type cortical dysplasia (CD) is the presence of cytomegalic neurons and balloon cells. Most cytomegalic neurons appear to be pyramidal-shaped and glutamatergic. The present study demonstrates the presence of cytomegalic GABAergic interneurons in a subset of pediatric patients with severe CD. Cortical tissue samples from children with mild, severe, and non-CD pathologies were examined using morphologic and electrophysiologic techniques. By using in vitro slices, cytomegalic cells with characteristics consistent with interneurons were found in 6 of 10 patients with severe CD. Biocytin labeling demonstrated that cytomegalic interneurons had more dendrites than normal-appearing interneurons. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings showed that cytomegalic interneurons had increased membrane capacitance and time constant compared with normal-appearing interneurons. They also displayed signs of cellular hyperexcitability, evidenced by increased firing rates, decreased action potential inactivation, and the occurrence of spontaneous membrane depolarizations. Single-cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry for GABAergic markers provided further evidence that these cells were probably cytomegalic interneurons. The pathophysiologic significance of GABAergic cytomegalic interneurons in severe CD tissue is unknown, but they could inhibit glutamatergic cytomegalic pyramidal neurons, or contribute to the synchronization of neuronal networks and the propagation of ictal activity in a subset of pediatric patients with severe CD.
Infantile spasm-associated microencephaly in tuberous sclerosis complex and cortical dysplasia
OBJECTIVE:In children with and without infantile spasms, this study determined brain volumes and cell densities in epilepsy surgery patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and cortical dysplasia with balloon cells (CD). METHODS:We compared TSC (n = 18) and CD (n = 17) patients with normal/autopsy controls (n = 20) for MRI gray and white matter volumes and neuronal nuclei (NeuN) cell densities. RESULTS:In patients without a history of infantile spasms, TSC cases showed decreased gray and white matter volumes (-16%). In cases with a history of infantile spasms, both CD (-25%) and TSC (-35%) patients showed microencephaly. This was confirmed in monozygotic twins with TSC, where the twin with a history of spasms had cerebral volumes less (-16%) than the twin without a history of seizures. Regardless of seizure history, TSC patients showed decreased NeuN cell densities in lower gray matter (-36%), whereas CD patients had increased densities in upper cortical (+52%) and white matter regions (+65%). For TSC patients, decreased lower gray matter NeuN densities correlated with reduced MRI volumes. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with tuberous sclerosis without spasms showed microencephaly associated with decreased cortical neuronal densities. In contrast, cortical dysplasia patients without spasms were normocephalic with increased cell densities. This supports the concept that tuberous sclerosis and cortical dysplasia have different pathogenetic mechanisms despite similarities in refractory epilepsy and postnatal histopathology. Furthermore, a history of infantile spasms was associated with reduced cerebral volumes in both cortical dysplasia and tuberous sclerosis patients, suggesting that spasms or their treatment may contribute to microencephaly independent of etiology.
Improving MRI differentiation of gray and white matter in epileptogenic lesions based on nonlinear feedback
A new method for enhancing MRI contrast between gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in epilepsy surgery patients with symptomatic lesions is presented. This method uses the radiation damping feedback interaction in high-field MRI to amplify contrast due to small differences in resonance frequency in GM and WM corresponding to variations in tissue susceptibility. High-resolution radiation damping-enhanced (RD) images of in vitro brain tissue from five patients were acquired at 14 T and compared with corresponding conventional T(1)-, T(2) (*)-, and proton density (PD)-weighted images. The RD images yielded a six times better contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR = 44.8) on average than the best optimized T(1)-weighted (CNR = 7.92), T(2) (*)-weighted (CNR = 4.20), and PD-weighted images (CNR = 2.52). Regional analysis of the signal as a function of evolution time and initial pulse flip angle, and comparison with numerical simulations confirmed that radiation damping was responsible for the observed signal growth. The time evolution of the signal in different tissue regions was also used to identify subtle changes in tissue composition that were not revealed in conventional MR images. RD contrast is compared with conventional MR methods for separating different tissue types, and its value and limitations are discussed.
Contralateral hemimicrencephaly and clinical-pathological correlations in children with hemimegalencephaly
In paediatric epilepsy surgery patients with hemimegalencephaly (HME; n = 23), this study compared clinical, neuroimaging and pathologic features to discern potential mechanisms for suboptimal post-hemispherectomy developmental outcomes and structural pathogenesis. MRI measured affected and non-affected cerebral hemisphere volumes for HME and non-HME cases, including monozygotic twins where one sibling had HME. Staining against neuronal nuclei (NeuN) determined grey and white matter cell densities and sizes in HME and autopsy cases, including the non-affected side of a HME surgical/autopsy case. By MRI, the affected hemisphere was larger and the non-affected side smaller in HME compared with non-HME children. The affected HME side showed enlarged abnormal deep grey and white matter structures and/or T2-weighted hypointensity in the subcortical white matter in 75% of cases, suggestive of excessive pre-natal neurogenesis and heterotopias. Histopathological examination of the affected HME side revealed immature-appearing neurons in 70%, polymicrogyria (PMG) in 61% and balloon cells in 45% of cases. Compared with autopsy cases, in HME children NeuN cell densities on the affected side were increased in the molecular layer and upper cortex (+244 to +18%), decreased in lower cortical layers (-35%) and increased in the white matter (+139 to +149%). Deep grey matter MRI abnormalities and/or T2-weighted white matter hypointensity correlated with the presence of immature-appearing neurons and PMG on histopathology, decreased NeuN cell densities in lower cortical layers and a positive history of infantile spasms. Post-surgery seizure control was associated with decreased NeuN densities in the molecular layer. In young children with HME and epilepsy, these findings indicate that there are bilateral cerebral hemispheric abnormalities and contralateral hemimicrencephaly is a likely explanation for poorer post-surgery seizure control and cognitive outcomes. In addition, our findings support the hypothesis that HME pathogenesis probably involves somatic mutations that affect each developing cerebral hemisphere differently with more neurons than expected on the HME side.
Human cortical dysplasia and epilepsy: an ontogenetic hypothesis based on volumetric MRI and NeuN neuronal density and size measurements
In epilepsy patients with cortical dysplasia (CD), this study determined the probable ontogenetic timing of pathogenesis based on the number, location and appearance of neurons. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) determined gray and white matter volumes of affected and non-affected cerebral hemispheres, and gray and white matter neuronal-nuclear protein (NeuN) densities and sizes were assessed in epilepsy surgery patients (0.2-38 years) with CD (n = 25) and non-CD etiologies (n = 14), and compared with autopsy cases (n = 13; 0-33 years). Pathology group, seizure type and age at surgery were compared against MRI and NeuN data. CD patients demonstrated increased MRI cerebral (3%) and gray matter (8%) volumes of the affected compared with non-affected cerebral hemisphere, and increased layer 1 (131%), upper cortical (9-23%) and white matter (28-77%) NeuN densities compared with autopsy cases. Non-CD cases showed decreased cerebral volumes of the affected hemisphere (14-18%) without changes in NeuN densities. Compared with autopsy cases, in CD and non-CD patients, cortical neurons were hypertrophied. Patients with a history of infantile spasms had a 40% increase in the size of layer 1 neurons compared with cases without spasms. By age, regardless of pathology group, there were logarithmic increases in MRI cerebral and white matter volumes, logarithmic increases in the size of lower gray and superficial white matter neurons, and logarithmic decreases in gray and white matter neuronal densities. These results support the concept that there were more neurons than expected in layer 1, gray, and white matter of CD patients compared with non-CD and autopsy cases. In addition, the location and appearance of neurons are consistent with the hypothesis that CD is the consequence of abnormalities occurring late in corticoneurogenesis that involve excessive neurogenesis with retention of pre-plate cells in the molecular layer and subplate regions.
Pediatric cortical dysplasia: correlations between neuroimaging, electrophysiology and location of cytomegalic neurons and balloon cells and glutamate/GABA synaptic circuits
Seizures in cortical dysplasia (CD) could be from cytomegalic neurons and balloon cells acting as epileptic 'pacemakers', or abnormal neurotransmission. This study examined these hypotheses using in vitro electrophysiological techniques to determine intrinsic membrane properties and spontaneous glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic activity for normal-pyramidal neurons, cytomegalic neurons and balloon cells from 67 neocortical sites originating from 43 CD patients (ages 0.2-14 years). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), (18)fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and electrocorticography graded cortical sample sites from least to worst CD abnormality. Results found that cytomegalic neurons and balloon cells were observed more frequently in areas of severe CD compared with mild or normal CD regions as assessed by FDG-PET/MRI. Cytomegalic neurons (but not balloon cells) correlated with the worst electrocorticography scores. Electrophysiological recordings demonstrated that cytomegalic and normal-pyramidal neurons displayed similar firing properties without intrinsic bursting. By contrast, balloon cells were electrically silent. Normal-pyramidal and cytomegalic neurons displayed decreased spontaneous glutamatergic synaptic activity in areas of severe FDG-PET/MRI abnormalities compared with normal regions, while GABAergic activity was unaltered. In CD, these findings indicate that cytomegalic neurons (but not balloon cells) might contribute to epileptogenesis, but are not likely to be 'pacemaker' cells capable of spontaneous paroxysmal depolarizations. Furthermore, there was more GABA relative to glutamate synaptic neurotransmission in areas of severe CD. Thus, in CD tissue alternate mechanisms of epileptogenesis should be considered, and we suggest that GABAergic synaptic circuits interacting with cytomegalic and normal-pyramidal neurons with immature receptor properties might contribute to seizure generation.
NMDA receptor alterations in neurons from pediatric cortical dysplasia tissue
The subunit composition of glutamate receptors affects their functional properties, and could contribute to abnormal electrophysiology in pediatric cortical dysplasia (CD). We examined electrophysiological responses and subunit assembly of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in acutely dissociated normal-appearing pyramidal and cytomegalic neurons from CD tissue and normal-appearing pyramidal neurons from non-CD tissue. In most cytomegalic and approximately 30% of normal-appearing pyramidal neurons from CD tissue, NMDA currents showed decreased Mg(2+) sensitivity compared with neurons from non-CD tissue. Ifenprodil had less effect in CD compared with non-CD neurons, indicating a functional loss of NR2B subunits. NMDA-evoked current density was decreased in cytomegalic compared with normal-appearing neurons. Single-cell reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction showed that all non-CD neurons expressed NR2B subunit mRNA. By comparison, 22% of pyramidal neurons in CD tissue lacked NR2B mRNA. Immunofluorescence showed a decrease in NR2B subunit expression in cytomegalic neurons and a subset of normal-appearing pyramidal neurons from CD tissue. Taken together, these results demonstrate the presence of NMDA receptors with altered subunit composition and Mg(2+) sensitivity that could contribute to functional abnormalities in CD.
Cerebral hemispherectomy: hospital course, seizure, developmental, language, and motor outcomes
OBJECTIVE:To compare hemispherectomy patients with different pathologic substrates for hospital course, seizure, developmental, language, and motor outcomes. METHODS:The authors compared hemispherectomy patients (n = 115) with hemimegalencephaly (HME; n = 16), hemispheric cortical dysplasia (hemi CD; n = 39), Rasmussen encephalitis (RE; n = 21), infarct/ischemia (n = 27), and other/miscellaneous (n = 12) for differences in operative management, postsurgery seizure control, and antiepilepsy drug (AED) usage. In addition, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) developmental quotients (DQ), language, and motor assessments were performed pre- or postsurgery, or both. RESULTS:Surgically, HME patients had the greatest perioperative blood loss, and the longest surgery time. Fewer HME patients were seizure free or not taking AEDs 1 to 5 years postsurgery, but the differences between pathologic groups were not significant. Postsurgery, 66% of HME patients had little or no language and worse motor scores in the paretic limbs. By contrast, 40 to 50% of hemi CD children showed near normal language and motor assessments, similar to RE and infarct/ischemia cases. VABS DQ scores showed +5 points or more improvement postsurgery in 57% of patients, and hemi CD (+12.7) and HME (+9.1) children showed the most progress compared with RE (+4.6) and infarct/ischemia (-0.6) cases. Postsurgery VABS DQ scores correlated with seizure duration, seizure control, and presurgery DQ scores. CONCLUSIONS:The pathologic substrate predicted pre- and postsurgery differences in outcomes, with hemimegalencephaly (but not hemispheric cortical dysplasia) patients doing worse in several domains. Furthermore, shorter seizure durations, seizure control, and greater presurgery developmental quotients predicted better postsurgery developmental quotients in all patients, irrespective of pathology.