Pegasperagase Toxicity in Adult Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Single Center Experience Comparing Patients Older and Younger Than 35 Years of Age [Meeting Abstract]
Background: The treatment paradigm of adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is primarily derived from successful pediatric chemotherapy regimens. Pegasparagase (PEG) is a key component of pediatric therapy and is the backbone of cytotoxic ALL regimens. However, among the adult population the use of PEG has been limited by the difficulty in tolerating prolonged asparagine depletion. Hepatotoxicity is among the most common adverse events reported with the use of PEG, with grade 3/4 hepatotoxicity seen in 20% of young adults compared to 40-60% of older adults. Incorporating PEG into the treatment of ALL patients under 40 remains an accepted practice despite some studies that report up to 75% of patients have grade 3/4 adverse events as a result of asparagine depletion. In a study of 85 patients with ALL, 3-year overall survival (OS) was significantly different between patients older and younger than 35 (52% vs 83% p = 0.003). Whether this difference is due to PEG toxicity or to other factors remains to be determined. At NYU hospitals, PEG-containing protocols are frequently deployed to treat adult ALL. In our study, we sought to look at the difference in PEG toxicity and response rate (RR) in patients older and younger than 35 and whether these toxicities contributed to a delay in subsequent treatments and to a worse outcome. XXMethod(s): We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients older than 18 diagnosed with ALL or lymphoblastic lymphoma, who received at least 1 dose of PEG at our institution between 2014 and 2018. All patients received PEG as part of their first line treatment protocol. Our main objective was to compare the tolerability and toxicity profile of intravenous PEG in patients >=35 years old versus <35. Our secondary objective was to investigate its effects on chemotherapy delay, RR, and relapse rate. XX= 35 (46%). Mean age was 34.4 (Range: 18.9-63.1). The 2 groups shared similar distributions in gender, race, and Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) subtypes (Table 1). The older group received significantly less PEG, 5114.8 vs. 25353.7 units (p=0.0007) and 1.65 vs. 3.59 doses (p<0.0001) compared to the younger group. Grade 1-4 toxicity profiles were similar as both groups had high hepatotoxicity rates: transaminitis 100% vs. 89% (p=0.079) and hyperbilirubinemia 78% vs. 78% (p=0.104) in the older vs younger group, respectively. Grade 3-4 hepatotoxicity was significantly more pronounced in patients >=35 years old (transaminitis 65% vs. 33% [p=0.0245], hyperbilirubinemia 48 vs. 15% [p=0.0111]). Coagulopathy rates evaluated with hypofibrinogenemia and thrombosis were similar between the older and the younger groups at 52% vs. 44% [p=0.104] and 17% vs. 7%, [p=0.855], respectively, and the frequency of pancreatitis and anaphylaxis were 4% vs. 18.5% (p=0.422) and 0% vs. 14.8% (p=0.115), respectively. In the older group, only 13% completed the planned PEG dosages compared to 59% in the younger group (p=0.0008), and delay in other chemotherapy by more than 30 days due to PEG hepatotoxicity occurred in 55% of older patients compared to 22% of younger patients (p=0.02). MRD negativity rate after induction was similar in the older and younger group (50% vs. 60% [p=0.491], respectively), but the 12-month relapse free survival was significantly lower in the older group (41%, [95% CI: 55.7%-89%] vs. 77%, [95% CI: 21%-61%], p=0.022) (Figure 1). XXConclusion(s): Patients aged >= 35 received significantly less PEG during their treatments but were more likely to develop severe grade 3-4 hepatotoxicity compared to their younger counterparts. The response rates were similar with comparable MRD negativity rates after induction regardless of total amount of PEG administered. However, relapse occurred more frequently in the older group, possibly resulting from more frequent delays in administering other chemotherapy agents due to PEG toxicity. Incorporation of PEG is important in the treatment of ALL but should be used with caution in patients >=35 years old, and will likely require dose and schedule modifications. A larger prospective trial investigating adequate dosing and scheduling of PEG in this age group is warranted, specifically comparing delays in chemotherapy, relapse, and survival rates in regimens with and without PEG. [Formula presented] Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.XXCopyright
Trisomy 8 in myeloid leukemia cutis confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis
We present a case of a 64-year-old man with refractory acute myeloid leukemia and trisomy 8 who developed leukemia cutis. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on a paraffin-embedded skin section. FISH confirmed a population of cells with trisomy 8 in the blastic infiltrates involving the skin. This case illustrates a novel application of interphase FISH to confirm the diagnosis of leukemia cutis.
The impact of interventions on provider and treatment delays in head and neck cancer patients [Meeting Abstract]
Background: Diagnosis and management of squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN) involves a multidisciplinary approach. Navigation at a public hospital can be difficult and lead to delays. In a previous study, we reported English-speaking and employed patients having longer provider delays (Lai 2011). In July 2010, we instituted the use of patient navigators, bimonthly management conferences, and improved inter-disciplinary communication in order to improve the patient experience. Aims: 1. Study differences in "provider delay" (time between first contact with health care provider and positive biopsy) between patients in cohort A (diagnosed between 1/2007 and 6/2010) and cohort "B" (diagnosed between 7/2010 and 6/ 2011). 2. Study differences in "treatment delay" (time between biopsy and initiation of treatment) between the two cohorts. 3. Determine what factors influence delays in both cohorts. Methods: The delays of the two cohorts were compared using the student t-test. Independent t-test and chi-square tests were used to examine associations between delays and the following characteristics: language, employment, presence of partner, gender, ethnicity, age, cancer sub-site, staging, number of co-morbidities, tobacco use, and alcohol use. The likelihood ratio test was used for multivariate analysis. Results: 133 patients in cohort A and 20 patients in cohort B were evaluable. Both provider and treatment delays in cohort B (50.5 and 39.3 days, respectively) were shorter than cohort A (60.2 and 41.6 days), but this was not statistically significant. The standard deviations of both delays were lower in cohort B, pointing towards a greater consistency in this group. In cohort A, provider delay was significantly shorter (p-value=0.003) for non-English speakers than English speakers on univariate and multivariate analysis. Other trends were not observed. Conclusions: Simple interventions can reduce provider and treatment delays. Our observations suggest that these interventions can mitigate t!
Cancer portal project: a multidisciplinary approach to cancer care among Hispanic patients
PURPOSE: This study investigates the impact of a multilingual, multidisciplinary team targeting social and economic determinants of cancer treatment adherence among at-risk Hispanic immigrants. METHODS: Patients were recruited at 10 hospital-based cancer clinics in New York City between December 2008 and November 2009. This is a nested cohort study of Hispanic patients and their sociodemographic characteristics, areas of needed assistance, and reported impact of meeting service needs on keeping appointments. At the core of the intervention is the trained, bilingual Portal Access Facilitator, who assesses needs and synchronizes an individualized set of transdisciplinary services for each patient. RESULTS: A total of 328 Hispanic patients participated in the study. Of these, 89% preferred to speak Spanish in the health care setting, and 17% had no health insurance. The most common cancer diagnosis among participants was breast cancer (35%) followed by GI (17%) and gynecologic (16%) cancers. Patients most commonly requested financial support (59%), food support (37%), transportation assistance (21%), social work services (14%), psychosocial support (6%), help with health insurance issues (5%), and legal services (5%). In a follow-up assessment of high-need patients in urgent need of financial support, 86% reported that portal services helped them attend cancer care and treatment appointments, and 72% reported that portal services decreased worry about their care. CONCLUSION: Most patients reported that financial, social, and logistical support would help them attend their appointments for cancer care and treatment. Further multidisciplinary interventions should be implemented and evaluated to address social and economic determinants in cancer care for this population
Phase II study of darinaparsin in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma
BACKGROUND: Darinaparsin is a novel organic arsenic that reaches higher intracellular concentration with decreased toxicity compared to inorganic arsenic. We conducted a multi-center phase II study with darinaparsin in patients with advanced HCC. METHODS: Eligibility criteria included unresectable or metastatic measurable HCC, up to two prior systemic treatments, ECOG performance status < or = 2, Child Pugh Class A or B and adequate organ functions. Darinaparsin was administered at 420 mg/m(2) intravenously, twice weekly at least 72 h apart for 3 weeks in a 4-week cycle. The primary end point was response rate. A Simon two-stage design was used. RESULTS: Among 15 patients in the first stage, no objective responses were observed. Two patients had stable disease. The median number of cycles on study per patient was 2 (1-6). The median progression free survival and overall survival were 55 days (95% confidence interval: 50-59) and 190 days (95% confidence interval: 93-227), respectively. No treatment related hospitalizations or deaths occurred. Treatment related grade 1-2 toxicities included nausea, vomiting (26.7% each), fatigue (20%), anorexia and diarrhea (13.3% each). Grade 3 anorexia, wheezing, agitation, abdominal pain and SGPT were observed in 1 patient each (6.7%). One patient experienced grade 4 hypoglycemia (6.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Darinaparsin could be safely administered with tolerable toxicity profiles, and no QTc prolongation in patients with advanced HCC. However, at this dose and schedule, it has shown no objective responses in HCC and this trial was terminated as planned after the first stage of efficacy analysis
Tumor growth and metastasis
Amsterdam ; Boston : Academic Press/Elsevier, 2007
Thrombin induces tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis: Evidence for a thrombin-regulated dormant tumor phenotype
The association of idiopathic venous thrombosis with occult cancer is generally recognized. However, it has not been fully appreciated that thrombin generated during thrombosis can augment the malignant phenotype. Thrombin activates tumor cell adhesion to platelets, endothelial cells, and subendothelial matrix proteins; enhances tumor cell growth; increases tumor cell seeding and spontaneous metastasis; and stimulates tumor cell angiogenesis. These mechanisms are reviewed. Evidence is also presented to support the hypothesis that thrombin serves to preserve dormant tumor cells in individuals, preventing host eradication. It is proposed that tumor malignancy may be regulated by a procoagulant/anticoagulant axis
Hypercoagulability preceding cancer. Does hypercoagulability awaken dormant tumor cells in the host?
Concentration-dependent dual effect of thrombin on impaired growth/apoptosis or mitogenesis in tumor cells
Because thrombin-treated tumor cell-induced metastasis increases tumor nodule volume(12) greater than nodule number, we studied the effect of thrombin on tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo (murine B16F10 melanoma, human HCT8 colon carcinoma, DU145 prostate carcinoma). Tumor cell growth was measured after 3 to 7 days in 1% fetal calf serum (FCS) + RPMI 1640. We found that, whereas relatively low concentrations of thrombin, 0.1 to 0.5 U/mL (1-5 nmol/L) enhance tumor cell growth in vitro approximately 2- to 3-fold, higher concentrations, 0.5 to 1 U/mL (5-10 nmol/L) impaired cell growth approximately 2- to 4-fold. Impaired cell growth was associated with cell cycle arrest at G(2)M and increased pre-G(o) DNA, as well as apoptosis, measured by tumor cell binding to Annexin V and propidium iodide. Apoptosis was reversed with the general caspase inhibitor, FK-011. The enhancing and inhibiting effects were specific for thrombin (reversed with inactive diisopropyl-fluorophosphate [DFP]-thrombin) and mediated via the protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1). PAR-1 activation was demonstrated by (1) use of a cell line, B16F10, devoid of the 3 other thrombin receptors, PAR-3, PAR-4, and GPIb; and (2) greater sensitivity of PAR-1 transfected B16F10 and HCT8 cells to impaired cell growth/apoptosis, 3- and 14-fold, respectively. Thus, thrombin has a bimodal effect on PAR-1 in tumor cells: enhanced growth at low concentration, impaired growth/apoptosis at higher concentration
Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) is required and rate-limiting for thrombin-enhanced experimental pulmonary metastasis
Thrombin-treated tumor cells induce a metastatic phenotype in experimental pulmonary murine metastasis. Thrombin binds to a unique protease-activated receptor (PAR-1) that requires N-terminal proteolytic cleavage for activation by its tethered end. A 14-mer thrombin receptor activation peptide (TRAP) of the tethered end induces the same cellular changes as thrombin. Four murine tumor cells (Lewis lung, CT26 colon CA, B16F10 melanoma, and CCL163 fibroblasts) contain PAR-1, as detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). B16F10 cells did not contain the two other thrombin receptors, PAR-3 and glycoprotein Ib. TRAP-treated B16F10 tumor cells enhance pulmonary metastasis 41- to 48-fold (n = 17). Thrombin-treated B16F10 cells transfected with full-length murine PAR-1 sense cDNA (S6, S7, S14, and S22) enhanced their adhesion to fibronectin 1.5- to 2.4-fold (n = 5, P <.04), whereas thrombin-treated wild-type cells do not. S6 (adhesion index, 1.5-fold) and S14 (index, 2.4-fold) when examined by RT-PCR and Northern analysis showed minimal expression of PAR-1 for S6 over wild-type and considerable expression for S14. Immunohistochemistry showed greater expression of PAR-1 for S14 compared with wild-type or empty-plasmid transfected cells. In vivo experiments with the thrombin-treated S14 transfectant showed a fivefold to sixfold increase in metastases compared with empty-plasmid transfected thrombin-treated naive cells or S6 cells (n = 20, P =.0001 to .02). Antisense had no effect on thrombin-stimulated tumor mass. Thus, PAR-1 ligation and expression enhances and regulates tumor metastasis