Cabozantinib plus Nivolumab Phase I Expansion Study in Patients with Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma Refractory to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy
PURPOSE/UNASSIGNED:This study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of cabozantinib plus nivolumab (CaboNivo) in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) that progressed on checkpoint inhibition (CPI). PATIENTS AND METHODS/UNASSIGNED:A phase I expansion cohort of patients with mUC who received prior CPI was treated with cabozantinib 40 mg/day and nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks until disease progression/unacceptable toxicity. The primary goal was objective response rate (ORR) per RECIST v.1.1. Secondary objectives included progression-free survival (PFS), duration of response (DoR), overall survival (OS), safety, and tolerability. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Twenty-nine out of 30 patients enrolled were evaluable for efficacy. Median follow-up was 22.2 months. Most patients (86.7%) received prior chemotherapy and all patients received prior CPI (median seven cycles). ORR was 16.0%, with one complete response and three partial responses (PR). Among 4 responders, 2 were primary refractory, 1 had a PR, and 1 had stable disease on prior CPI. Median DoR was 33.5 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 3.7-33.5], median PFS was 3.6 months (95% CI, 2.1-5.5), and median OS was 10.4 months (95% CI, 5.8-19.5). CaboNivo decreased immunosuppressive subsets such as regulatory T cells (Tregs) and increased potential antitumor immune subsets such as nonclassical monocytes and effector T cells. A lower percentage of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSC) and polymorphonuclear MDSCs, lower CTLA-4 and TIM-3 expression on Tregs, and higher effector CD4+ T cells at baseline were associated with better PFS and/or OS. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:CaboNivo was clinically active, well tolerated, and favorably modulated peripheral blood immune subsets in patients with mUC refractory to CPI.
Evolving Role of Adjuvant Systemic Therapy for Kidney and Urothelial Cancers
The role of adjuvant therapy in renal cell carcinoma and urothelial carcinoma is rapidly evolving. To date, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved sunitinib and pembrolizumab in the adjuvant setting for renal cell carcinoma and nivolumab for urothelial carcinoma based on disease-free survival benefit. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration held a joint workshop with the National Cancer Institute and the Society of Urologic Oncology in 2017 to harmonize design elements, including eligibility and radiologic assessments across adjuvant trials in renal cell carcinoma and urothelial carcinoma. Considerations from the discussion at these workshops led the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to draft guidances to help inform subsequent adjuvant trial design for renal cell carcinoma and urothelial carcinoma. Patient-centered decision-making is crucial when determining therapeutic choices in the adjuvant setting; utility functions can be used to help quantify each patient's goals, values, and risk/benefit trade-offs to ensure that the decision regarding adjuvant therapy is informed by their preferences and the evolving outcomes data.
The association of FDG PET/CT and NaF PET/CT with survival outcomes in patients (pts) with metastatic genitourinary malignancies (mGU) treated with cabozantinib plus nivolumab plus /- ipilimumab (CaboNivo plus /- Ipi). [Meeting Abstract]
Clinical value of 18FDG PET/MRI in muscle-invasive, locally advanced, and metastatic bladder cancer
OBJECTIVE:F-FDG) PET/MRI for surveillance and restaging of patients with muscle-invasive, locally advanced, and metastatic bladder cancer compared to conventional imaging methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS:F-FDG PET/MRI and conventional imaging. Lesions were confirmed by sequential imaging or lesion biopsy. All patients were followed for survival. RESULTS:F-FDG PET/MRI detected 82 metastatic malignant lesions involving lymph nodes (nâ€¯=â€¯22), liver (nâ€¯=â€¯10), lung (nâ€¯=â€¯34), soft tissue (nâ€¯=â€¯12), adrenal glands (nâ€¯=â€¯1), prostate (nâ€¯=â€¯1), and bone (nâ€¯=â€¯2) with a resultant advantage of 36% for lesion visibility in comparison with CT. Serial imaging or biopsy confirmed these lesions as malignant. CONCLUSION:
Circulating Tumor Cell Subtypes and T-cell Populations as Prognostic Biomarkers to Combination Immunotherapy in Patients with Metastatic Genitourinary Cancer
PURPOSE:Circulating tumor cells (CTC) are under investigation as a minimally invasive liquid biopsy that may improve risk stratification and treatment selection. CTCs uniquely allow for digital pathology of individual malignant cell morphology and marker expression. We compared CTC features and T-cell counts with survival endpoints in a cohort of patients with metastatic genitourinary cancer treated with combination immunotherapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:Markers evaluated included pan-CK/CD45/PD-L1/DAPI for CTCs and CD4/CD8/Ki-67/DAPI for T cells. ANOVA was used to compare CTC burden and T-cell populations across timepoints. Differences in survival and disease progression were evaluated using the maximum log-rank test. RESULTS:< 0.01, cycle 2). Low baseline and on-therapy CD4/CD8 counts were also associated with poor OS and response category. CONCLUSIONS:CTCs, and low %CD4/8 T cells in patients with metastatic genitourinary cancer. A future study is warranted to validate the prognostic utility of CTC heterogeneity and detection of specific CTC morphologies.
Phase I Study of Cabozantinib and Nivolumab Alone or With Ipilimumab for Advanced or Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma and Other Genitourinary Tumors
PURPOSE:We assessed the safety and efficacy of cabozantinib and nivolumab (CaboNivo) and CaboNivo plus ipilimumab (CaboNivoIpi) in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) and other genitourinary (GU) malignances. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients received escalating doses of CaboNivo or CaboNivoIpi. The primary objective was to establish a recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Secondary objectives included objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), duration of response (DoR), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS:Fifty-four patients were enrolled at eight dose levels with a median follow-up time of 44.6 months; data cutoff was January 20, 2020. Grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events (AEs) occurred in 75% and 87% of patients treated with CaboNivo and CaboNivoIpi, respectively, and included fatigue (17% and 10%, respectively), diarrhea (4% and 7%, respectively), and hypertension (21% and 10%, respectively); grade 3 or 4 immune-related AEs included hepatitis (0% and 13%, respectively) and colitis (0% and 7%, respectively). The RP2D was cabozantinib 40 mg/d plus nivolumab 3 mg/kg for CaboNivo and cabozantinib 40 mg/d, nivolumab 3 mg/kg, and ipilimumab 1 mg/kg for CaboNivoIpi. ORR was 30.6% (95% CI, 20.0% to 47.5%) for all patients and 38.5% (95% CI, 13.9% to 68.4%) for patients with mUC. Median DoR was 21.0 months (95% CI, 5.4 to 24.1 months) for all patients and not reached for patients with mUC. Median PFS was 5.1 months (95% CI, 3.5 to 6.9 months) for all patients and 12.8 months (95% CI, 1.8 to 24.1 months) for patients with mUC. Median OS was 12.6 months (95% CI, 6.9 to 18.8 months) for all patients and 25.4 months (95% CI, 5.7 to 41.6 months) for patients with mUC. CONCLUSION:CaboNivo and CaboNivoIpi demonstrated manageable toxicities with durable responses and encouraging survival in patients with mUC and other GU tumors. Multiple phase II and III trials are ongoing for these combinations.
CIRCULATING TUMOR CELL SUBTYPES AND BASELINE T-CELL POPULATION AS PROGNOSTIC BIOMARKERS TO COMBINATION THERAPY WITH CABOZANTINIB, NIVOLUMAB, AND IPILIMUMAB IN METASTATIC GENITOURINARY CANCER PATIENTS [Meeting Abstract]
Phase I expansion study of cabozantinib plus nivolumab (CaboNivo) in metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) patients (pts) with progressive disease following immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy. [Meeting Abstract]
Ipilimumab challenge/re-challenge in metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) and other genitourinary (GU) tumors treated with cabozantinib plus nivolumab (CaboNivo) or cabozantinib plus nivolumab plus ipilimumab (CaboNivoIpi). [Meeting Abstract]
IMPACT OF ANGIOTENSIN II PATHWAY INHIBITION ON TUMOR RESPONSE TO ANTI PD(L)1 BASED THERAPY [Meeting Abstract]