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Artificial Intelligence Algorithms in Diabetic Retinopathy Screening

Zafar, Sidra; Mahjoub, Heba; Mehta, Nitish; Domalpally, Amitha; Channa, Roomasa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:In this review, we focus on artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms for diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening and risk stratification and factors to consider when implementing AI algorithms in the clinic. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:AI algorithms have been adopted, and have received regulatory approval, for automated detection of referable DR with clinically acceptable diagnostic performance. While these metrics are an important first step, performance metrics that go beyond measures of technical accuracy are needed to fully evaluate the impact of AI algorithm on patient outcomes. Recent advances in AI present an exciting opportunity to improve patient care. Using DR as an example, we have reviewed factors to consider in the implementation of AI algorithms in real-world clinical practice. These include real-world evaluation of safety, efficacy, and equity (bias); impact on patient outcomes; ethical, logistical, and regulatory factors.
PMID: 35438458
ISSN: 1539-0829
CID: 5218252


Tsui, Edmund; Leong, Belinda C S; Mehta, Nitish; Gupta, Akash; Goduni, Lediana; Cunningham, Emmett T; Freund, K Bailey; Lee, Gregory D; Dedania, Vaidehi S; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A; Modi, Yasha S
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To describe the vascular anatomy and intraluminal flow characteristics of segmental retinal arteritis (SRA) using structural and angiographic optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS:Retrospective case series of consecutive patients presenting with SRA. All patients were evaluated at presentation with fundus photography, spectral domain OCT, and OCT angiography. One patient was imaged with dense B-scan OCT angiography. RESULTS:Three eyes of three male patients were evaluated. All examinations were consistent with reactivation of ocular toxoplasmosis with an area of active retinochoroiditis adjacent to a focal chorioretinal scar. Spectral domain OCT through areas of SRA noted on clinical examination demonstrated areas of hyperreflectivity circumscribing the affected vessel with a normoreflective lumen. Optical coherence tomography angiography and dense B-scan OCT angiography demonstrated narrowing of the intraluminal flow signal that correlated with areas of segmental hyperreflectivity on spectral domain OCT. Vascular sections proximal and distal to areas of SRA showed normal flow signal. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Vessels with SRA demonstrated hyperreflectivity highlighting the vessel wall on spectral domain OCT. Optical coherence tomography angiography showed narrowing of the flow signal within these segments suggesting reduced lumen diameter. Coupling these finding with previous indocyanine green imaging findings in SRA, the collective data suggest the plaques are localized within the vessel wall to either the endothelium or the muscular tunica media without occlusion of the vessel lumen.
PMID: 31313702
ISSN: 1937-1578
CID: 3977882


Mehta, Nitish; Chong, Jillian; Tsui, Edmund; Duncan, Jacque L; Curcio, Christine A; Freund, K Bailey; Modi, Yasha
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To report a detachment that apparently separated photoreceptor inner segment myoids from inner segment ellipsoids as a manifestation of toxoplasmosis chorioretinitis in a patient with pachychoroid spectrum disease. METHODS:Multimodal imaging including fundus photography, spectral domain and enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography (OCT), indocyanine green angiography, and OCT angiography. RESULTS:A 33-year-old man with a history of toxoplasmosis chorioretinitis reported 1 week of decreased vision to 20/200 in his right eye. Examination of the right eye demonstrated mild vitritis with recurrent chorioretinitis inferior to the fovea and adjacent to a chorioretinal scar. A dome-shaped, foveal photoreceptor layer-splitting detachment was noted on OCT. Because degenerating cone photoreceptors are capable of shedding their inner segments, we inferred the location of the detachment at the level of the inner segment myoid and provided a histological example of such from an unrelated donor case. In addition, multimodal imaging revealed dilated choroidal veins (pachyvessels) with attenuation of the inner choroid in both eyes and asymptomatic findings of central serous chorioretinopathy in the left eye. After 1 month of antibiotic and steroid therapy, the chorioretinitis resolved, as did the detachment. Hyperreflective foci on the vitreoretinal interface were appreciated with en face OCT that appeared to aggregate throughout the course of therapy, induce inner retinal striae, and resolve without inducing epiretinal membrane formation. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Patients with preexisting pachychoroid spectrum disease may manifest a more significant retinal fluid accumulation in the setting of superimposed chorioretinal inflammation. In this case of macular toxoplasmosis chorioretinitis, inflammation manifested as a retinal detachment at the level of photoreceptor inner segment myoids that we named as a bacillary layer detachment. In this case, inflammatory sequelae of toxoplasmosis reactivation responded well to oral and intravitreal therapy.
PMID: 30142112
ISSN: 1937-1578
CID: 3255492

Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge

Wilkins, Carl S; Goduni, Lediana; Dedania, Vaidehi S; Modi, Yasha S; Johnson, Brandon; Mehta, Nitish; Weng, Christina Y
PMID: 32332425
ISSN: 1539-2864
CID: 4411532


Mehta, Nitish; Gal-Or, Orly; Barbazetto, Irene; Modi, Yasha; Shields, Carol L; Freund, K Bailey
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To report a retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) tumor with exudative maculopathy, originating from an atypical RPE lesion presumed to represent congenital hypertrophy of the RPE or RPE hyperplasia. METHODS:Multimodal imaging including fundus autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography angiography. RESULTS:A 76-year-old West African man noted visual acuity reduction to count fingers in the right eye and 20/400 in the left eye. Features of chronic glaucoma were noted. In addition, there was a fairly well-circumscribed darkly pigmented RPE lesion in the paramacular region in the right eye, measuring 4 mm in diameter and flat and consistent with atypical congenital hypertrophy of the RPE or RPE hyperplasia. On the posterior margin of this mass was an RPE tumor, presumed to represent RPE adenoma, producing exudative maculopathy and cystoid macular edema. Multimodal imaging was used to distinguish the RPE tumor from macular neovascularization. A similar atypical congenital hypertrophy of the RPE without retinopathy measuring 3.5mm in diameter was noted in the temporal macular region in the left eye. After six monthly doses of intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 mL) in the right eye, the maculopathy resolved and the RPE mass showed partial involution with visual acuity return to baseline 20/200. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Congenital hypertrophy of the RPE and RPE hyperplasia can produce RPE adenoma with related exudative maculopathy. In this case, the maculopathy responded to bevacizumab.
PMID: 30063581
ISSN: 1937-1578
CID: 3235882

A summary of eye-related visits to a tertiary emergency department

Rai, Ravneet S; Mehta, Nitish; Larochelle, Ryan; Rathi, Siddarth; Schuman, Joel S
Timely ophthalmologic consultation is important to ensure patients receive high quality ophthalmologic care in the Emergency Department (ED). Tele-ophthalmology may prove useful in safely and efficiently managing ED eye-related complaints. Prior to implementing such a solution, current consultation patterns must be understood. We aimed to assess case-mix acuity and consultation workflow patterns in the ophthalmology consult service at a tertiary emergency department in New York City. The medical records of patients with eye-related complaints who presented to the ED between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2015 were reviewed. Visits were retrospectively assigned acuities and the ophthalmologic subspecialty involved in the case was recorded. The number of ophthalmologic consultations ordered and consultant response times were analyzed. Patients who were transferred to the ED for eye-related complaints were included. The ED received 1090 eye-related complaints in this period. 60% were retrospectively assigned low acuity, 27% were assigned medium acuity, and 13% were assigned high acuity. Ophthalmology was consulted on 19% of low, 18% of medium, and 48% of high acuity cases. 44% of complaints involved the anterior segment and 30% involved oculoplastics. 2/3 of transfer patients initially assigned high acuity were downgraded to low acuity upon examination. On average, the consult note was created and signed within 109 and 153 min, respectively, after consult order. ED consults are heavily weighted towards pathology of low-to-medium acuity affecting the anterior segment and ocular adnexa. Currently available tele-ophthalmology technology can potentially address a large volume of eye-related visits.
PMID: 33589688
ISSN: 2045-2322
CID: 4806582


Mehta, Nitish; Lavinsky, Fabio; Larochelle, Ryan; Rebhun, Carl; Mehta, Nihaal B; Yanovsky, Rebecca L; Cohen, Michael N; Lee, Gregory D; Dedania, Vaidehi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S; Waheed, Nadia; Modi, Yasha
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To determine which spectral domain optical coherence tomography biomarkers of idiopathic macular hole (MH) correlate with the postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in anatomically closed MH. METHODS:Retrospective analysis of spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans of 44 patients presenting with MH followed for a mean of 17 months. Widths of MH aperture, base, and ellipsoid zone disruption were calculated from presenting foveal spectral domain optical coherence tomography B-scans. Macular hole base area and ellipsoid zone disruption area were calculated through the custom in-house software. RESULTS:Poorer postoperative BCVA correlated with increased preoperative choroidal hypertransmission (r = 0.503, P = 0.0005), minimum diameter (r = 0.491, P = 0.0007), and base diameter (r = 0.319, P = 0.0348), but not with preoperative ellipsoid zone width (r = 0.199, P = 0.2001). Applying en-face analysis, the BCVA correlated weakly with preoperative ellipsoid zone loss area (r = 0.380, P = 0.013), but not with preoperative MH base area (r = 0.253, P = 0.1058). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Increased MH minimum diameter, base diameter, base area, and choroidal hypertransmission are correlated with a poorer postoperative BCVA. Ellipsoid zone loss measurements were not consistently correlated with a BCVA. Choroidal hypertransmission width may be an easy-to-visualize predictive imaging biomarker in MH surgery.
PMID: 32251240
ISSN: 1539-2864
CID: 4378752

Inner Retinal Layer Reflectivity as Predictor of Retinal Vein Occlusion Visual Acuity Outcomes

Greenlee, Tyler E; Cutler, Nathan E; Mehta, Nitish; Hom, Grant L; Wai, Karen; Conti, Felipe F; Conti, Thais F; Bena, James F; Modi, Yasha; Singh, Rishi P
PMID: 31810899
ISSN: 2468-7219
CID: 4530412

Long-Term Multimodal Imaging of Solar Retinopathy

Goduni, Lediana; Mehta, Nitish; Tsui, Edmund; Bottini, Alexander; Kaden, Talia R; Leong, Belinda C S; Dedania, Vaidehi; Lee, Gregory D; Freund, K Bailey; Modi, Yasha S
This is a rare, multimodal imaging report spanning a decade of monitoring in a patient with chronic solar retinopathy showing the natural course of the disease. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed mild widening of subfoveal loss of ellipsoid and interdigitation zones bilaterally, progressive retinal pigment epithelial thinning in the right eye, and hyperplasia in the left eye. Structural en face OCT showed subfoveal tissue loss bilaterally. There was no leakage on fluorescein angiography and OCT angiography (OCTA), and dense B-scan OCTA images were unremarkable. Microperimetry revealed bilateral decreased central sensitivity and eccentric fixation in the left eye. Vision remained stable throughout. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2019;50:388-392.].
PMID: 31233157
ISSN: 2325-8179
CID: 3955152

Choroidal Hemangioma in a Black Patient With Sturge-Weber Syndrome: Challenges in Diagnosis

Sarrafpour, Soshian; Tsui, Edmund; Mehta, Nitish; Modi, Yasha S; Finger, Paul T
A black teenager presented with long-standing vision loss in his right eye. Clinical exam revealed increased conjunctival vascularity and total exudative retinal detachment of the right eye. Ultrasound imaging demonstrated a choroidal mass with moderate-to-high reflectivity consistent with a choroidal hemangioma. A closer external examination demonstrated a subtle reddish hue of the eyelids and cheek, consistent with a nevus flammeus. MRI of the brain revealed a T2 enhancing vascular mass. Collectively, these findings were consistent with Sturge-Weber Syndrome. This case highlights the need for a high degree of suspicion for Sturge-Weber Syndrome in dark-skinned individuals that can otherwise mask the nevus flammeus. Physical exam findings and radiographic evidence can be used to guide the diagnosis. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2019;50:183-186.].
PMID: 30893453
ISSN: 2325-8179
CID: 3749102