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Salvage Superficial Temporal Artery to Middle Cerebral Artery Direct Bypass Using an Interposition Graft for Failed Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis in Moyamoya Disease

Kim, Nora C; Raz, Eytan; Shapiro, Maksim; Riina, Howard A; Nelson, Peter K; Levine, Jamie P; Nossek, Erez
BACKGROUND:Moyamoya disease may present with either hemorrhagic or ischemic strokes. Surgical bypass has previously demonstrated superiority when compared to natural history and medical treatment alone. The best bypass option (direct vs. indirect), however, remains controversial in regard to adult ischemic symptomatic moyamoya disease. Multiple studies have demonstrated clinical as well as angiographic effectiveness of direct bypass in adult hemorrhagic moyamoya disease. In particular, there are limited data regarding strategies in the setting of failed indirect bypass with recurrent hemorrhagic strokes. Here, we describe a salvage procedure. METHODS:We describe a case of a 52-year-old man who presented with hemorrhagic moyamoya disease and failed previous bilateral encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) procedures at an outside institution. On a 3-year follow-up diagnostic cerebral angiogram, no synangiosis was noted on the right side and only minimal synangiosis was present on the left. The left hemisphere was significant for a left parietal hypoperfusion state. We performed a salvage left proximal superficial temporal artery to distal parietal M4 middle cerebral artery bypass using the descending branch of the lateral circumflex artery as an interposition graft with preservation of the existing EDAS sites. RESULTS:The patient underwent the procedure successfully and recovered well with resolution of headaches and no further strokes or hemorrhages on the 1-year follow-up magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. CONCLUSIONS:This case presents the use of a salvage direct bypass technique for recurrent symptomatic hemorrhagic moyamoya disease after failed EDAS. The strategy, approach, and technical nuances of this unique case have implications for revascularization options.
PMID: 35421586
ISSN: 1878-8769
CID: 5219102

Dural venous system: angiographic technique and correlation with ex vivo investigations

Shapiro, Maksim; Raz, Eytan; Nossek, Erez; Srivatanakul, Kittipong; Walker, Melanie; Mir, Osman; Nelson, Peter Kim
BACKGROUND:The dural vasculature plays a key role in several important conditions, including dural fistulas and subdural collections. While in vivo investigations of intrinsic dural arterial angioarchitecture are rare, no angiographic studies of dural venous drainage exist to our knowledge. OBJECTIVE:To describe methods by which dural venous drainage might be visualized with current angiographic equipment and technique, and to correlate our results with existing ex vivo literature. METHODS:Digital subtraction angiography and 3D angiography (rotational and Dyna CT) of dural neurovasculature were acquired in the context of subdural hematoma embolization and normal dura. Protocols for visualization of dural venous drainage were established, and findings correlated with ex vivo studies. RESULTS:Meningeal arteries supply both the skull and dura. Normal dural enhancement is accentuated by the presence of hypervascular membranes. Intrinsic meningeal veins/sinuses parallel outer layer arteries with well-known tram-tracking appearance. Dura adjacent to main arterial trunks drains via skull base foramina into the pterygopalatine venous plexus, or via emissary veins into the temporalis venous plexus. Dura near the sinuses drains into venous pouches adjacent to the sinus, before emptying into the sinus proper-possibly the same pouches implicated in the angioarchitecture of dural fistulas. Finally, posterior temporoparietal convexity dura, situated in a watershed-like region between middle and posterior meningeal territories, frequently empties into diploic and emissary veins of the skull. Wide variation in balance is expected between these three routes. Drainage patterns appear to correlate with venous embryologic investigations of Padget and ex vivo studies in adults. CONCLUSIONS:Continued attention to dural venous drainage may prove useful in the diagnosis and management of dural-based vascular diseases.
PMID: 33727412
ISSN: 1759-8486
CID: 4817742

Percutaneous transorbital direct puncture to obliterate a cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula

Cavalcanti, Daniel; Raz, Eytan; Shapiro, Maksim; Mir, Osman; Nossek, Erez; Nelson, Peter Kim
Cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas (CS-DAVF) can have an indolent course, with insidious onset, but still showing a high likelihood of spontaneous resolution.1 Nevertheless, symptoms in a subset of patients evolve more rapidly, with malignant signs on imaging, warranting intervention.2 We report on a patient in his 40s presenting with redness and proptosis of the right eye, intermittent blurred vision and diplopia. Once ophthalmological examination revealed increased intraocular pressure and imaging showed cortical venous congestion, the decision was made to obliterate a CS-DAVF involving the posteromedial right cavernous sinus.Multiple arteries including branches of the ascending pharyngeal artery, occipital artery and bilateral meningohypophyseal trunks supplied the fistula. Once transarterial embolization was deemed unsafe and both inferior petrosal sinuses did not grant access to the right cavernous sinus, a direct puncture to the cavernous sinus was performed to successfully coil the involved compartments.3-5 The aid of DynaCT imaging and needle guidance software is emphasized (video 1).neurintsurg;neurintsurg-2020-017118v1/V1F1V1Video 1.
PMID: 33685982
ISSN: 1759-8486
CID: 4809172

Flow Diversion for Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysms: An International Cohort Study

Diestro, Jose Danilo Bengzon; Adeeb, Nimer; Dibas, Mahmoud; Boisseau, William; Harker, Pablo; Brinjikji, Waleed; Xiang, Sishi; Joyce, Evan; Shapiro, Maksim; Raz, Eytan; Parra-Farinas, Carmen; Pickett, Gwynedd; Alotaibi, Naif M; Regenhardt, Robert W; Bernstock, Joshua D; Spears, Julian; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Hafeez, Muhammad U; Kan, Peter; Grandhi, Ramesh; Taussky, Philipp; Nossek, Erez; Hong, Tao; Zhang, Hongqi; Rinaldo, Lorenzo; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Stapleton, Christopher J; Rabinov, James D; Patel, Aman B; Marotta, Thomas R; Roy, Daniel; Dmytriw, Adam A
BACKGROUND:Open surgery has traditionally been preferred for the management of bifurcation middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms. Flow diverting stents present a novel endovascular strategy for aneurysm treatment. OBJECTIVE:To add to the limited literature describing the outcomes and complications in the use of flow diverters for the treatment of these complex aneurysms. METHODS:This is a multicenter retrospective review of MCA bifurcation aneurysms undergoing flow diversion. We assessed post-treatment radiological outcomes and both thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications. RESULTS:We reviewed the outcomes of 54 aneurysms treated with flow diversion. Four (7.4%) of the aneurysms had a history of rupture (3 remote and 1 acute). Fourteen (25.9%) of the aneurysms already underwent either open surgery or coiling prior to flow diversion. A total of 36 out of the 45 aneurysms (80%) with available follow-up data had adequate aneurysm occlusion with a median follow-up time of 12 mo. There were no hemorrhagic complications but 16.7% (9/54) had thromboembolic complications. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Flow diverting stents may be a viable option for the endovascular treatment of complex bifurcation MCA aneurysms. However, compared to published series on the open surgical treatment of this subset of aneurysms, flow diversion has inferior outcomes and are associated with a higher rate of complications.
PMID: 34624100
ISSN: 1524-4040
CID: 5103742

Central Retinal Artery Visualization with Cone-Beam CT Angiography

Raz, Eytan; Shapiro, Maksim; Shepherd, Timothy M; Nossek, Erez; Yaghi, Shadi; Gold, Doria M; Ishida, Koto; Rucker, Janet C; Belinsky, Irina; Kim, Eleanore; Grory, Brian Mac; Mir, Osman; Hagiwara, Mari; Agarwal, Shashank; Young, Matthew G; Galetta, Steven L; Nelson, Peter Kim
Background There are multiple tools available to visualize the retinal and choroidal vasculature of the posterior globe. However, there are currently no reliable in vivo imaging techniques that can visualize the entire retrobulbar course of the retinal and ciliary vessels. Purpose To identify and characterize the central retinal artery (CRA) using cone-beam CT (CBCT) images obtained as part of diagnostic cerebral angiography. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, patients with catheter DSA performed between October 2019 and October 2020 were included if CBCT angiography included the orbit in the field of view. The CBCT angiography data sets were postprocessed with a small field-of-view volume centered in the posterior globe to a maximum resolution of 0.2 mm. The following were evaluated: CRA origin, CRA course, CRA point of penetration into the optic nerve sheath, bifurcation of the CRA at the papilla, visualization of anatomic variants, and visualization of the central retinal vein. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results Twenty-one patients with 24 visualized orbits were included in the analysis (mean age, 55 years ± 15; 14 women). Indications for angiography were as follows: diagnostic angiography (n = 8), aneurysm treatment (n = 6), or other (n = 7). The CRA was identified in all orbits; the origin, course, point of penetration of the CRA into the optic nerve sheath, and termination in the papilla were visualized in all orbits. The average length of the intraneural segment was 10.6 mm (range, 7-18 mm). The central retinal vein was identified in six of 24 orbits. Conclusion Cone-beam CT, performed during diagnostic angiography, consistently demonstrated the in vivo central retinal artery, demonstrating excellent potential for multiple diagnostic and therapeutic applications. © RSNA, 2021 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
PMID: 34783593
ISSN: 1527-1315
CID: 5049072

Interventional neuroradiology in the time of plague: New York City, Spring 2020

Nelson, Peter K; Raz, Eytan; Nossek, Erez; Warren, Linda; Schwegel, Claire; Tanweer, Omar; Riina, Howard; Shapiro, Maksim
PMID: 34668787
ISSN: 2385-2011
CID: 5043292

Arterial and Venous 3D Fusion AV-3D-DSA: A Novel Approach to Cerebrovascular Neuroimaging

Raz, E; Shapiro, M; Mir, O; Nossek, E; Nelson, P K
DSA is the standard imaging technique for evaluation of cerebrovascular conditions. However, One drawback is its limitation in depicting a single angiographic phase at a time. We describe a new 3D-DSA algorithm, which we call arterial and venous-3D-DSA, which allows the concurrent yet distinct display of the arterial and venous structures, which may be useful for different clinical and educational purposes.
PMID: 33832953
ISSN: 1936-959x
CID: 4840952

Anticoagulation use and Hemorrhagic Stroke in SARS-CoV-2 Patients Treated at a New York Healthcare System

Kvernland, Alexandra; Kumar, Arooshi; Yaghi, Shadi; Raz, Eytan; Frontera, Jennifer; Lewis, Ariane; Czeisler, Barry; Kahn, D Ethan; Zhou, Ting; Ishida, Koto; Torres, Jose; Riina, Howard A; Shapiro, Maksim; Nossek, Erez; Nelson, Peter K; Tanweer, Omar; Gordon, David; Jain, Rajan; Dehkharghani, Seena; Henninger, Nils; de Havenon, Adam; Grory, Brian Mac; Lord, Aaron; Melmed, Kara
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:While the thrombotic complications of COVID-19 have been well described, there are limited data on clinically significant bleeding complications including hemorrhagic stroke. The clinical characteristics, underlying stroke mechanism, and outcomes in this particular subset of patients are especially salient as therapeutic anticoagulation becomes increasingly common in the treatment and prevention of thrombotic complications of COVID-19. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with hemorrhagic stroke (both non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage and spontaneous non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage) who were hospitalized between March 1, 2020, and May 15, 2020, within a major healthcare system in New York, during the coronavirus pandemic. Patients with hemorrhagic stroke on admission and who developed hemorrhage during hospitalization were both included. We compared the clinical characteristics of patients with hemorrhagic stroke and COVID-19 to those without COVID-19 admitted to our hospital system between March 1, 2020, and May 15, 2020 (contemporary controls), and March 1, 2019, and May 15, 2019 (historical controls). Demographic variables and clinical characteristics between the individual groups were compared using Fischer's exact test for categorical variables and nonparametric test for continuous variables. We adjusted for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni method. RESULTS:During the study period in 2020, out of 4071 patients who were hospitalized with COVID-19, we identified 19 (0.5%) with hemorrhagic stroke. Of all COVID-19 with hemorrhagic stroke, only three had isolated non-aneurysmal SAH with no associated intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Among hemorrhagic stroke in patients with COVID-19, coagulopathy was the most common etiology (73.7%); empiric anticoagulation was started in 89.5% of these patients versus 4.2% in contemporary controls (p ≤ .001) and 10.0% in historical controls (p ≤ .001). Compared to contemporary and historical controls, patients with COVID-19 had higher initial NIHSS scores, INR, PTT, and fibrinogen levels. Patients with COVID-19 also had higher rates of in-hospital mortality (84.6% vs. 4.6%, p ≤ 0.001). Sensitivity analyses excluding patients with strictly subarachnoid hemorrhage yielded similar results. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We observed an overall low rate of imaging-confirmed hemorrhagic stroke among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Most hemorrhages in patients with COVID-19 infection occurred in the setting of therapeutic anticoagulation and were associated with increased mortality. Further studies are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of therapeutic anticoagulation in patients with COVID-19.
PMID: 32839867
ISSN: 1556-0961
CID: 4574182

How I do it: endarterectomy for carotid web

Esparza, Rogelio; Schneider, Julia R; Grory, Brian Mac; Nossek, Erez
BACKGROUND:The carotid web is an important and under recognized etiology for recurrent cryptogenic strokes. A management option for a symptomatic carotid web is a carotid endarterectomy (CEA) with surgical microdissection and removal of the intimal luminal defect. METHODS:We describe some of the technical nuances involved in successfully performing a carotid endarterectomy for resection of a carotid web. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Utilizing a familiar approach to an understudied pathology, this procedure can be safely performed and provides the patient with lasting protection against recurrent infarcts through removal of the thromboembolic nidus.
PMID: 33871697
ISSN: 0942-0940
CID: 4862612

Early Experience with Comaneci, a Newly FDA-Approved Controllable Assist Device for Wide-Necked Intracranial Aneurysm Coiling

Taqi, M Asif; Raz, Eytan; Vechera, Anastasia; Shapiro, Maksim; Gupta, Rishi; Haynes, Joseph; Taussky, Philipp; Grandhi, Ramesh; Riina, Howard A; Nelson, Peter Kim; Nossek, Erez
BACKGROUND:Comaneci (Rapid Medical) is a compliant, adjustable mesh that provides temporary scaffolding during coiling of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms (WNAs) that preserves antegrade flow. We report our early multi-institutional experience with the Comaneci device in the USA. METHOD/METHODS:We reviewed all patients with WNAs that were treated using the Comaneci device for coil remodeling of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms at 4 institutions between July 2019 and May 2020. Clinical characteristics, angiographic variables, and endovascular results were assessed. RESULTS:A total of 26 patients were included (18 women). The mean age was 62.7 years (range 44-81). Fifteen patients presented with ruptured aneurysms and 11 with unruptured aneurysms. The mean aneurysm neck width was 3.91 mm (range 1.9-6.5) with a mean dome-to-neck ratio of 1.57 (range 0.59-3.39). The mean maximum width was 5.80 mm (range 3.0-9.9) and the mean maximum height was 5.61 mm (range 2.0-11.8). Successful aneurysm occlusion was achieved in 25 of 26 patients. Complete occlusion was achieved in 16 patients, near-complete occlusion was observed in 9 patients, and 1 patient demonstrated residual filling. The mean time of device exposure was 24 min (range 8-76). No vasospasm was observed at the device location. Clot formation on the device was noted in 2 separate cases, but there were no clinical sequelae. There was 1 intraprocedural complication in a case that involved the simultaneous use of 2 Comaneci devices. CONCLUSIONS:Our initial experience shows that the Comaneci device is a promising and reliable tool that can safely support coil remodeling of WNAs.
PMID: 33971661
ISSN: 1421-9786
CID: 4867202