Arterial and Venous 3D Fusion AV-3D-DSA: A Novel Approach to Cerebrovascular Neuroimaging
DSA is the standard imaging technique for evaluation of cerebrovascular conditions. However, One drawback is its limitation in depicting a single angiographic phase at a time. We describe a new 3D-DSA algorithm, which we call arterial and venous-3D-DSA, which allows the concurrent yet distinct display of the arterial and venous structures, which may be useful for different clinical and educational purposes.
Anticoagulation use and Hemorrhagic Stroke in SARS-CoV-2 Patients Treated at a New York Healthcare System
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:While the thrombotic complications of COVID-19 have been well described, there are limited data on clinically significant bleeding complications including hemorrhagic stroke. The clinical characteristics, underlying stroke mechanism, and outcomes in this particular subset of patients are especially salient as therapeutic anticoagulation becomes increasingly common in the treatment and prevention of thrombotic complications of COVID-19. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with hemorrhagic stroke (both non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage and spontaneous non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage) who were hospitalized between March 1, 2020, and May 15, 2020, within a major healthcare system in New York, during the coronavirus pandemic. Patients with hemorrhagic stroke on admission and who developed hemorrhage during hospitalization were both included. We compared the clinical characteristics of patients with hemorrhagic stroke and COVID-19 to those without COVID-19 admitted to our hospital system between March 1, 2020, and May 15, 2020 (contemporary controls), and March 1, 2019, and May 15, 2019 (historical controls). Demographic variables and clinical characteristics between the individual groups were compared using Fischer's exact test for categorical variables and nonparametric test for continuous variables. We adjusted for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni method. RESULTS:During the study period in 2020, out of 4071 patients who were hospitalized with COVID-19, we identified 19 (0.5%) with hemorrhagic stroke. Of all COVID-19 with hemorrhagic stroke, only three had isolated non-aneurysmal SAH with no associated intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Among hemorrhagic stroke in patients with COVID-19, coagulopathy was the most common etiology (73.7%); empiric anticoagulation was started in 89.5% of these patients versus 4.2% in contemporary controls (pâ€‰â‰¤â€‰.001) and 10.0% in historical controls (pâ€‰â‰¤â€‰.001). Compared to contemporary and historical controls, patients with COVID-19 had higher initial NIHSS scores, INR, PTT, and fibrinogen levels. Patients with COVID-19 also had higher rates of in-hospital mortality (84.6% vs. 4.6%, pâ€‰â‰¤â€‰0.001). Sensitivity analyses excluding patients with strictly subarachnoid hemorrhage yielded similar results. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We observed an overall low rate of imaging-confirmed hemorrhagic stroke among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Most hemorrhages in patients with COVID-19 infection occurred in the setting of therapeutic anticoagulation and were associated with increased mortality. Further studies are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of therapeutic anticoagulation in patients with COVID-19.
How I do it: endarterectomy for carotid web
BACKGROUND:The carotid web is an important and under recognized etiology for recurrent cryptogenic strokes. A management option for a symptomatic carotid web is a carotid endarterectomy (CEA) with surgical microdissection and removal of the intimal luminal defect. METHODS:We describe some of the technical nuances involved in successfully performing a carotid endarterectomy for resection of a carotid web. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Utilizing a familiar approach to an understudied pathology, this procedure can be safely performed and provides the patient with lasting protection against recurrent infarcts through removal of the thromboembolic nidus.
Early Experience with Comaneci, a Newly FDA-Approved Controllable Assist Device for Wide-Necked Intracranial Aneurysm Coiling
BACKGROUND:Comaneci (Rapid Medical) is a compliant, adjustable mesh that provides temporary scaffolding during coiling of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms (WNAs) that preserves antegrade flow. We report our early multi-institutional experience with the Comaneci device in the USA. METHOD/METHODS:We reviewed all patients with WNAs that were treated using the Comaneci device for coil remodeling of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms at 4 institutions between July 2019 and May 2020. Clinical characteristics, angiographic variables, and endovascular results were assessed. RESULTS:A total of 26 patients were included (18 women). The mean age was 62.7 years (range 44-81). Fifteen patients presented with ruptured aneurysms and 11 with unruptured aneurysms. The mean aneurysm neck width was 3.91 mm (range 1.9-6.5) with a mean dome-to-neck ratio of 1.57 (range 0.59-3.39). The mean maximum width was 5.80 mm (range 3.0-9.9) and the mean maximum height was 5.61 mm (range 2.0-11.8). Successful aneurysm occlusion was achieved in 25 of 26 patients. Complete occlusion was achieved in 16 patients, near-complete occlusion was observed in 9 patients, and 1 patient demonstrated residual filling. The mean time of device exposure was 24 min (range 8-76). No vasospasm was observed at the device location. Clot formation on the device was noted in 2 separate cases, but there were no clinical sequelae. There was 1 intraprocedural complication in a case that involved the simultaneous use of 2 Comaneci devices. CONCLUSIONS:Our initial experience shows that the Comaneci device is a promising and reliable tool that can safely support coil remodeling of WNAs.
New Class of Radially Adjustable Stentrievers for Acute Ischemic Stroke: Primary Results of the Multicenter TIGER Trial
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Neuroanatomy of cranial dural vessels: implications for subdural hematoma embolization
Adoption of middle meningeal artery embolization in the management of chronic subdural hematomas has led to a renewed interest in dural vascular anatomy. The readily identifiable major dural arteries and potential hazards associated with their embolization are well described. Less emphasized are several levels of intrinsic dural angioarchitecture, despite their more direct relationship to dural based diseases, such as subdural hematoma and dural fistula. Fortunately, microvascular aspects of dural anatomy, previously limited to ex vivo investigations, are becoming increasingly accessible to in vivo visualization, setting the stage for synthesis of the old and the new, and providing a rationale for the endovascular approach to subdural collections in particular. In contrast with traditional anatomical didactics, where descriptions advance from larger trunks to smaller pedicles, we present a strategic approach that proceeds from a fundamental understanding of the dural microvasculature and its relationship to larger vessels.
Pipeline embolization of cerebral aneurysms in pediatric patients: combined systematic review of patient-level data and multicenter retrospective review
OBJECTIVE:Cerebral aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare and optimal treatment strategies are not as well characterized as in adults. The Pipeline embolization device (PED) is an endoluminal flow diverter that is commonly used to treat aneurysms in adults, but experience with this device in children is limited. The authors sought to further characterize PED use and outcomes in this specific population by performing both a systematic review of patient-level data from studies reporting the use of the PED to treat pediatric aneurysms and a retrospective review of their experience. METHODS:A systematic review of the PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases was performed to identify studies reporting the use of the PED in pediatric patients (age â‰¤ 18 years). Disaggregated data regarding demographics, aneurysm characteristics, treatment, and outcomes were collected. Retrospective data from the authors' two institutions were also included. RESULTS:Thirty studies comprising patient-level data on 43 pediatric patients with 47 aneurysms were identified. An additional 9 patients with 9 aneurysms were included from the authors' institutions for a total of 52 patients with 56 aneurysms. The mean patient age was 11.1 years. Presentations included aneurysm rupture (17.3%) and symptomatic mass effect (23.1%). Aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation in 55.4% of cases, and 73.2% were described as nonsaccular. Imaging follow-up was available for 89.3% with a mean follow-up of 13.3 months. Aneurysm occlusion was reported in 75%, with 1 case each (1.8%) demonstrating significant in-stent stenosis and parent vessel occlusion. Clinical follow-up was reported in 90.4% with a mean follow-up of 14.7 months. Good functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score of 0-1 or Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 5) were reported in 65.4% of the total population. Two major complications were reported, including 1 death. CONCLUSIONS:Despite substantial differences in aneurysm location and type between published pediatric and adult patient populations treated with the PED, the use of the PED in the pediatric population appears to be safe. While the short-term effectiveness is also similar to that of adults, additional studies are needed to further characterize the long-term outcomes and better define the use of this device in pediatric patients.
Superficial Temporal Artery to Middle Cerebral Artery Cranial Bypass for Nonmoyamoya Steno-Occlusive Disease in Patients Who Failed Optimal Medical Treatment: A Case Series
BACKGROUND:In the post-Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study (COSS) era, multiple reviews suggested subset groups of patients as potential candidates for superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass. Among them are patients with recurrent strokes despite optimal medical therapy. There is a paucity of data on the outcome of bypass in these specific patients. OBJECTIVE:To examine the safety and efficacy of direct STA-MCA bypass in patients with nonmoyamoya, symptomatic steno-occlusive disease with impaired distal perfusion, who failed optimal medical management or endovascular treatment. METHODS:A retrospective review was performed to identify patients with cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease who underwent bypass after symptomatic recurrent or rapidly progressive strokes, despite optimal conservative or endovascular treatment. RESULTS:A total of 8 patients (mean age 60Â Â±Â 6 yr) underwent direct or combined direct/indirect STA-MCA bypass between 2016 and 2019. All anastomoses were patent. One bypass carried slow flow. There were no procedure-related permanent deficits. One patient developed seizures which were controlled by medications. A total of 7 out of 8 patients were stable or improved clinically at last follow-up (mean 27.3Â Â±Â 13.8 mo) without recurrent strokes. One patient did not recover from their presenting stroke, experienced severe bilateral strokes 4 mo postoperatively, and subsequently expired. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) improved in 6 patients (75%), remained stable in 1 patient (12.5%), and deteriorated in 1 (12.5%). Good long-term functional outcome was achieved in 5 patients (63%, mRSÂ â‰¤Â 2). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Patients with symptomatic, hypoperfused steno-occlusive disease who fail optimal medical or endovascular treatment may benefit from cerebral revascularization. Direct or combined STA-MCA bypass was safe and provided favorable outcomes in this small series.
Dural venous system: angiographic technique and correlation with ex vivo investigations
BACKGROUND:The dural vasculature plays a key role in several important conditions, including dural fistulas and subdural collections. While in vivo investigations of intrinsic dural arterial angioarchitecture are rare, no angiographic studies of dural venous drainage exist to our knowledge. OBJECTIVE:To describe methods by which dural venous drainage might be visualized with current angiographic equipment and technique, and to correlate our results with existing ex vivo literature. METHODS:Digital subtraction angiography and 3D angiography (rotational and Dyna CT) of dural neurovasculature were acquired in the context of subdural hematoma embolization and normal dura. Protocols for visualization of dural venous drainage were established, and findings correlated with ex vivo studies. RESULTS:Meningeal arteries supply both the skull and dura. Normal dural enhancement is accentuated by the presence of hypervascular membranes. Intrinsic meningeal veins/sinuses parallel outer layer arteries with well-known tram-tracking appearance. Dura adjacent to main arterial trunks drains via skull base foramina into the pterygopalatine venous plexus, or via emissary veins into the temporalis venous plexus. Dura near the sinuses drains into venous pouches adjacent to the sinus, before emptying into the sinus proper-possibly the same pouches implicated in the angioarchitecture of dural fistulas. Finally, posterior temporoparietal convexity dura, situated in a watershed-like region between middle and posterior meningeal territories, frequently empties into diploic and emissary veins of the skull. Wide variation in balance is expected between these three routes. Drainage patterns appear to correlate with venous embryologic investigations of Padget and ex vivo studies in adults. CONCLUSIONS:Continued attention to dural venous drainage may prove useful in the diagnosis and management of dural-based vascular diseases.