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Evaluation of clinical outcomes of efficacy in food allergen immunotherapy trials, COFAITH EAACI task force

Rodríguez Del Río, Pablo; Álvaro-Lozano, Montserrat; Arasi, Stefania; Bazire, Raphaëlle; Escudero, Carmelo; Patel, Nandinee; Sandoval-Ruballos, Monica; Vazquez-Ortiz, Marta; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna; Blümchen, Katharina; Dunn Galvin, Audrey; Deschildre, Antoine; Greenhawt, Matthew; Schnadt, Sabine; Riggioni, Carmen; Remington, Benjamin C; Turner, Paul; Fernandez Rivas, Montserrat
Food allergy is a global public health problem that until recent years lacked any aetiological treatment supported by academy, industry and regulators. Food immunotherapy (AIT) is an evolving treatment option, supported by clinical practice and industry trial data. Recent AIT meta-analyses have highlighted the difficulty in pooling safety and efficacy data from AIT trials, due to secondary heterogeneity in the study. An EAACI task force (CO-FAITH) initiated by the Paediatric Section was created to focus on AIT efficacy outcomes for milk, egg and peanut allergy rather than in trial results. A systematic search and a narrative review of AIT controlled clinical trials and large case series was conducted. A total of 63 manuscripts met inclusion criteria, corresponding to 23, 21 and 22 studies of milk, egg and peanut AIT, respectively. The most common AIT efficacy outcome was desensitization, mostly defined as tolerating a maintenance phase dose, or reaching a particular dose upon successful exit oral food challenge (OFC). However, a large degree of heterogeneity was identified regarding the dose quantity defining this outcome. Sustained unresponsiveness and patient-reported outcomes (e.g. quality of life) were explored less frequently, and to date have been most rigorously described for peanut AIT versus other allergens. Change in allergen threshold assessed by OFC remains the most common efficacy measure, but OFC methods suffer from heterogeneity and methodological disparity. This review has identified multiple heterogeneous outcomes related to measuring the efficacy of AIT. Efforts to better standardize and harmonize which outcomes, and how to measure them must be carried out to help in the clinical development of safe and efficacious food allergy treatments.
PMID: 38263695
ISSN: 1398-9995
CID: 5624922

The Future of Food Allergy Management: Advancements in Therapies

Ezhuthachan, Idil D; Beaudoin, Michele; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna; Vickery, Brian P
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:To review current and future treatment options for IgE-mediated food allergy. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:Recent years have seen major developments in both allergen-specific and allergen-non-specific treatment options, with the first FDA-approved peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT) product becoming available in 2020. In addition to OIT, other immunotherapy modalities, biologics, adjunct therapies, and novel therapeutics are under investigation. Food allergy is a potentially life-threatening condition associated with a significant psychosocial impact. Numerous products and protocols are under investigation, with most studies focusing on OIT. A high rate of adverse events, need for frequent office visits, and cost remain challenges with OIT. Further work is needed to unify outcome measures, develop treatment protocols that minimize adverse events, establish demographic and clinical factors that influence candidate selection, and identify patient priorities.
PMID: 38393624
ISSN: 1534-6315
CID: 5634552

Current and future perspectives on the consensus guideline for food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES)

Anvari, Sara; Ruffner, Melanie A; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE mediated food allergy presenting with delayed onset of projectile vomiting in the absence of cutaneous and respiratory symptoms. The pathophysiology of FPIES remains poorly characterized. The first international consensus guidelines for FPIES were published in 2017 and provided clinicians with parameters on the diagnosis and treatment of FPIES. The guidelines have served as a resource in the recognition and management of FPIES, contributing to an increased awareness of FPIES. Since then, new evidence has emerged, shedding light on adult-onset FPIES, the different phenotypes of FPIES, the recognition of new food triggers, center-specific food challenge protocols and management of acute FPIES. Emerging evidence indicates that FPIES impacts both pediatric and adult population. As a result, there is growing need to tailor the consensus guidelines to capture diagnoses in both patient groups. Furthermore, it is crucial to provide food challenge protocols that meet the needs of both pediatric and adult FPIES patients, as well as the subset of patients with atypical FPIES. This review highlights the evolving clinical evidence relating to FPIES diagnosis and management published since the 2017 International FPIES Guidelines. We will focus on areas where recent published evidence may support evolution or revision of the guidelines.
PMID: 38326194
ISSN: 1440-1592
CID: 5632282

Diagnosis and Management of Pollen Food Allergy Syndrome to Nuts

Giovannini, Mattia; Skypala, Isabel J; Caubet, Jean Christoph; Du Toit, George; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna
Oral allergy syndrome or pollen food allergy syndrome (PFAS) represents a common clinical conundrum when the reported trigger food is a tree nut (usually almond or hazelnut) or peanut. The PFAS may give rise to uncertainty about the potential severity of the future reactions, indications for prescribing epinephrine, and the extent of the necessary dietary avoidance. As a food allergy, secondary to cross-reactivity with airborne pollen, PFAS usually manifests toward the end of the first decade of life as contact urticaria of the oropharyngeal mucous membranes. Molecular allergology facilitates diagnosis and risk stratification by establishing the profile of sensitization. Exclusive sensitization to pathogenesis-related proteins family 10 (PR10) and profilins indicates that signs and symptoms are due to PFAS, whereas sensitization to seed storage proteins with or without sensitization to PR10 and profilins may indicate a more severe primary nut allergy phenotype. Management relies on avoidance of the specific nut trigger, advice on the likelihood of more severe local or systemic symptoms, and treatment of reactions according to the severity. Future studies are needed to better delineate the risk of systemic reactions in individuals with nut PFAS and to establish the role of food or pollen allergen immunotherapy for the prevention or moderation of this condition.
PMID: 38280450
ISSN: 2213-2201
CID: 5627682

Identifying Children at Risk of Growth and Nutrient Deficiencies in the Food Allergy Clinic

Venter, Carina; Meyer, Rosan; Bauer, Maureen; Bird, J Andrew; Fleischer, David M; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna; Anagnostou, Aikaterini; Vickery, Brian P; Wang, Julie; Groetch, Marion
BACKGROUND:Food allergies affect growth in children by decreasing the availability of nutrients through decreased dietary intake, increased dietary needs, food-medication interactions, and psychosocial burden. Guidelines on food allergy management frequently recommend nutrition counseling and growth monitoring of children with food allergies. OBJECTIVE:To provide clear guidance for clinicians to identify children with food allergies who are at nutritional risk and ensure prompt intervention. METHODS:We provide a narrative review summarizing information from national and international guidelines, retrospective studies, population studies, review articles, case reports, and case series to identify those with food allergy at greatest nutritional risk, determine the impact of nutritional interventions on growth, and develop guidance for risk reduction in children with food allergies. RESULTS:Children with food allergies are at increased risk of nutritional deficiencies and poor growth. Nutritional assessment and intervention can improve outcomes. Identifying poor growth is an important step in the nutrition assessment. Therefore, growth should be assessed at each allergy evaluation. Interventions to ensure adequate dietary intake for growth include appropriately prescribed elimination diets, breast-feeding support and assessment, supplemental formula, vitamin and/or mineral supplementation, appropriate milk substitutes, and timely introduction of nutrient-dense complementary foods. Access to foods of appropriate nutritional value is an ongoing concern. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Nutrition intervention or referral to registered dietitian nutritionists with additional training and/or experience in food allergy may result in improved growth and nutrition outcomes.
PMID: 38280452
ISSN: 2213-2201
CID: 5627692

Tolerance development in cow's milk-allergic children receiving amino acid-based formula with synbiotics: 36-Months follow-up of a randomized controlled trial (PRESTO Study)

Chatchatee, Pantipa; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna; Lange, Lars; Benjaponpitak, Suwat; Chong, Kok W; Sangsupawanich, Pasuree; Eussen, Simone R B M; van Ampting, Marleen T J; Oude Nijhuis, Manon M; Langford, Jane E; Trendelenburg, Valerie; Pesek, Robert; Davis, Carla M; Muraro, Antonella; Erlewyn-Lajeunesse, Michel; Fox, Adam T; Michaelis, Louise J; Beyer, Kirsten; ,
The objective of the present study is to assess the rates of acquired tolerance to cow's milk (CM) after 36 months in subjects who consumed amino acid-based formula with synbiotics (AAF-S) or amino acid-based formula without synbiotics (AAF) during a 1-year intervention period in early life as part of the PRESTO study (Netherlands Trial Register number NTR3725). Differences in CM tolerance development between groups were analysed using a logistic regression model. Results show that the proportion of subjects (mean [±SD] age, 3.8 ± 0.27 years) who developed CM tolerance after 36 months was similar in the group receiving AAF-S (47/60 [78%]) and in the group receiving AAF (49/66 [74%]) (p = 0.253), that is, figures comparable to natural outgrowth of CM allergy. Our data suggest that the consumption of AAF and absence of exposure to CM peptides do not slow down CM tolerance acquisition.
PMID: 38504410
ISSN: 1536-4801
CID: 5640472

Baked Milk and Egg Diets Revisited

Upton, Julia E M; Wong, Dennis; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna
Most milk and egg allergic children are non-reactive to modified forms of milk and egg in bakery products such as muffins due to conformational changes in proteins. These baked milk (BM) and baked egg (BE) diets have become commonplace in the management of milk and egg allergy, respectively. Current laboratory and skin test based diagnostic approaches remain limited in their ability to predict BM/BE tolerance, resulting in various approaches to introduce these foods. One approach to introduce BM/BE is to offer a medically supervised oral food challenge (OFC) and then advise dietary introduction of baked products for children who are tolerant. Another approach is adapted from a home-based protocol of graded ingestion of BM or BE originally intended for non-IgE mediated allergy, often referred to as a "ladder." The ladder advises home-ingestion of increasing amounts of BM or BE. For children who are allergic to BM or BE, the ladder is essentially oral immunotherapy (OIT), although not always labeled or recognized as such. Risk assessment and education of patients suitable for home-introduction is essential. A home approach that may be called a ladder can also be used to escalate diets after demonstrated tolerance of baked forms by introducing lesser cooked forms of milk or egg after tolerating BM or BE. A randomized controlled trial provided clear evidence that baked diets can hasten the resolution of IgE-mediated milk allergy. BM/BE foods have an emerging role in the treatment of non-IgE mediated allergy. There is tangential evidence for BM and BE diets in the prevention of IgE-mediated allergy.
PMID: 38151097
ISSN: 1534-4436
CID: 5623212

Experience transitioning post-food allergy clinical trial participants to daily ingestion of retail food equivalents

Baker, Mary Grace; Cox, Amanda; Kattan, Jacob D; Oriel, Roxanne C; Tsuang, Angela; Agyemang, Amanda; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna; Flom, Julie D; Schaible, Allison; Groetch, Marion; Wang, Julie; Sicherer, Scott H
PMID: 37972920
ISSN: 2213-2201
CID: 5610952

Allergic reactions during travel among individuals with IgE-mediated food allergy

Brady, Kathryn; Martinez-Flores, Beatriz; Trogen, Brit; Cruz-Vasquez, Joseline; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna
PMID: 37925073
ISSN: 2213-2201
CID: 5607202

Food allergy ladders: when to use them?

Meyer, Rosan; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna
PMID: 38056525
ISSN: 1534-4436
CID: 5595792