Experience transitioning post-food allergy clinical trial participants to daily ingestion of retail food equivalents
The Remaining Challenge to Diagnose and Manage Cow's Milk Allergy: An Opinion Paper to Daily Clinical Practice
Guidelines and recommendations for the diagnosis and management of cow's milk allergy (CMA) in childhood are based on scientific review of the available evidence. While this approach is the most rigorous, guidelines may not fully address all scenarios encountered by clinicians. Many symptoms of CMA overlap with other common childhood illnesses and are subjectively reported by the caregivers of the infant, as is the interpretation of the dietary interventions. Additionally, many healthcare professionals and caregivers do not follow the recommendations to perform an oral food challenge or reintroduction of cow's milk after a diagnostic elimination diet because (1) the infant is doing well and (2) the carer's fear of symptoms relapsing with this procedure. As a result, CMA in infants may be either under-diagnosed leading to reduced quality of life for families or over-diagnosed, resulting in unnecessary long-term elimination diets and increasing the risk for nutritional deficiencies. This paper discusses some of these controversial topics, focusing on misdiagnosis and mismanagement in clinical practice. The lack of objective diagnostic criteria can hamper the diagnosis and management of CMA in daily practice.
Allergic Reactions During Travel Among Individuals with IgE-mediated Food Allergy
Feeding difficulties in children with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome
When Supplemental Formula Is Essential: Overcoming Barriers to Hypoallergenic Formula Access for Patients With Food Allergies
For food-allergic patients, hypoallergenic formulas (HFs) are medically indicated, often a primary component of the diet and essential for patient safety, health, nutrition, and overall well-being. Yet, food allergy is not included among the conditions mandated for coverage under federal health programs and private health insurance. The 2022 infant formula crisis has affected many North American families and has particularly influenced patients with food allergies who rely on a limited number of safe HF brands to safely meet their nutritional needs for growth and development. The current formula shortage further highlights the longstanding difficulties faced by families with food allergies in accessing HF. Within this context, this article focuses on chronic barriers faced by patients with food allergies in accessing HF and proposes potential solutions. Legislation is desperately needed to address HF affordability through changes in insurance reimbursement and disparities in access to HF among individuals with food allergy.
World Allergy Organization (WAO) Diagnosis and Rationale for Action against Cow's Milk Allergy (DRACMA) Guideline update "“ VII "“ Milk elimination and reintroduction in the diagnostic process of cow's milk allergy
The diagnosis of cow's milk allergy (CMA) in infants and young children remains a challenge because many of the presenting symptoms are similar to those experienced in other diagnoses. Both over- and under-diagnosis occur frequently. Misdiagnosis carries allergic and nutritional risks, including acute reactions, growth faltering, micronutrient deficiencies and a diminished quality of life for infants and caregivers. An inappropriate diagnosis may also add a financial burden on families and on the healthcare system. Elimination and reintroduction of cow's milk (CM) and its derivatives is essential for diagnosing CMA as well as inducing tolerance to CM. In non-IgE mediated CMA, the diagnostic elimination diet typically requires 2"“4 weeks before reintroduction, while for IgE mediated allergy the time window may be shorter (1"“2 weeks). An oral food challenge (OFC) under medical supervision remains the most reliable diagnostic method for IgE mediated and more severe types of non-IgE mediated CMA such as food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES). Conversely, for other forms of non-IgE mediated CMA, reintroduction can be performed at home. The OFC cannot be replaced by the milk ladder after a diagnostic elimination diet. The duration of the therapeutic elimination diet, once a diagnosis was confirmed, can only be established through testing changes in sensitization status, OFCs or home reintroduction, which are directed by local protocols and services' availability. Prior non-evidence-based recommendations suggest that the first therapeutic elimination diet should last for at least 6 months or up to the age of 9"“12 months, whichever is reached first. After a therapeutic elimination diet, a milk-ladder approach can be used for non-IgE mediated allergies to determine tolerance. Whilst some centers use the milk ladder also for IgE mediated allergies, there are concerns about the risk of having immediate-type reactions at home. Milk ladders have been adapted to local dietary habits, and typically start with small amounts of baked milk which then step up in the ladder to less heated and fermented foods, increasing the allergenicity. This publication aims to narratively review the risks associated with under- and over-diagnosis of CMA, therefore stressing the necessity of an appropriate diagnosis and management.
Oral food challenges: Measuring what counts [Editorial]
Novel therapies for food allergy: The search continues [Editorial]
Why You Should Care About Implicit Bias as an Allergist-Immunologist and Ways We Can Address It
The role of online symptom questionnaires to support the diagnosis of cow's milk allergy in children for healthcare professionals - A Delphi consensus study
BACKGROUND:Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is one of the most common food allergies world-wide. The emergence of online CMA symptom questionnaires, aimed at parents and/or healthcare professionals (HCP), may raise awareness about the possible diagnosis of CMA, but also increases the risk for overdiagnosis leading to unnecessary dietary restriction impacting on growth and nutrition. This publication sets out to establish the availability of these CMA symptom questionnaires and critically assesses the development and validity. METHODS:Thirteen HCP working in the field of CMA, from different countries, were recruited to participate. A combination of a Pubmed and CINAHL literature and online review using the Google search engine in English language was used. Symptoms in the questionnaires were assessed, using the European Academy for Allergy and Clinical Immunology guidelines for food allergy. Following the assessment of both the questionnaires and literature, the authors followed the modified Delphi approach to generate consensus statements. RESULTS:Six hundred and fifty-one publications were identified, of which 29 were suitable for inclusion, with 26 being associated with the Cow's Milk-Related Symptoms Score. The online search yielded 10 available questionnaires: 7/10 were sponsored by formula milk companies and 7/10 were aimed at parents and three at HCP. Following the assessment of data, 19 statements were generated in two rounds of anonymous voting reaching 100% agreement. CONCLUSIONS:Online CMA questionnaires, available to parents and HCP's, are varied in symptoms, and most were not validated. The overarching consensus generated from authors is that these questionnaires should not be used without the involvement of HCP.