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Impact of Maternal SARS-CoV-2 Detection on Breastfeeding Due to Infant Separation at Birth

Popofsky, Stephanie; Noor, Asif; Leavens-Maurer, Jill; Quintos-Alagheband, Maria Lyn; Mock, Ann; Vinci, Alexandra; Magri, Eileen; Akerman, Meredith; Noyola, Estela; Rigaud, Mona; Pak, Billy; Lighter, Jennifer; Ratner, Adam J; Hanna, Nazeeh; Krilov, Leonard
OBJECTIVE:To assess the impact of separation of SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive mother-newborn dyads on breastfeeding outcomes. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:This is an observational longitudinal cohort study of SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive mothers and their infants at three NYU Langone Health hospitals from March 25, 2020 through May 30, 2020. Mothers were surveyed by telephone regarding pre-delivery feeding plans, in-hospital feeding, and home feeding of their neonates. Any change prompted an additional question to determine whether this change was due to COVID-19. RESULTS:Of the 160 mother-newborn dyads, 103 mothers were reached by telephone, and 85 consented to participate. No significant difference was observed in pre-delivery feeding plan between the separated and unseparated dyads (P = .268). Higher rates of breastfeeding were observed in the unseparated dyads compared with the separated dyads in the hospital (p<0.001), and at home (p=0.012). Only two mothers in each group reported expressed breast milk as the hospital feeding source (5.6% of unseparated vs 4.1% of separated). COVID-19 was more commonly cited as the reason for change among the separated compared with the unseparated group (49.0% vs 16.7%, p<0.001). When dyads were further stratified by symptom status into four groups (asymptomatic separated, asymptomatic unseparated, symptomatic separated, and symptomatic unseparated), results remained unchanged. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In the setting of COVID-19, separation of mother-newborn dyads impacts breastfeeding outcomes, with lower rates of breastfeeding both during hospitalization and at home following discharge compared with unseparated mothers and infants. No evidence of vertical transmission was observed; one case of postnatal transmission occurred from an unmasked symptomatic mother who held her infant at birth.
PMID: 32791077
ISSN: 1097-6833
CID: 4556622

Neonatal Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) Infection: A Case Report and Review of Literature [Case Report]

Dumpa, Vikramaditya; Kamity, Ranjith; Vinci, Alexandra N; Noyola, Estela; Noor, Asif
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to a global pandemic affecting 213 countries as of April 26, 2020. Although this disease is affecting all age groups, infants and children seem to be at a lower risk of severe infection, for reasons unknown at this time. We report a case of neonatal infection in New York, United States, and provide a review of the published cases. A 22-day-old, previously healthy, full-term neonate was hospitalized after presenting with a one-day history of fever and poor feeding. Routine neonatal sepsis evaluation was negative. SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing was obtained, given rampant community transmission, which returned positive. There were no other laboratory or radiographic abnormalities. The infant recovered completely and was discharged home in two days once his feeding improved. The family was advised to self-quarantine to prevent the transmission of COVID-19. We believe that the mode of transmission was horizontal spread from his caregivers. This case highlights the milder presentation of COVID-19 in otherwise healthy, full-term neonates. COVID-19 must be considered in the evaluation of a febrile infant. Infants and children may play an important role in the transmission of COVID-19 in the community. Hence, with an understanding of the transmission patterns, parents and caregivers would be better equipped to limit the spread of the virus and protect the more vulnerable population.
PMCID:7234017
PMID: 32432015
ISSN: 2168-8184
CID: 4444292

Prevalence of Bandemia in Respiratory Viral Infections: A Pediatric Emergency Room Experience

Noyola, Estela; Noor, Asif; Sweeney, Nicole; Chan, Joshua; Ramesh, Rahul; Calixte, Rose; Krilov, Leonard R
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of bandemia in confirmed respiratory viral infections in febrile infants and children presenting to the emergency department. Methods: An observational retrospective study from January 1, 2016, through December 31, 2016, was conducted in patients between the ages of ≥ 1 month and ≤ 5 years presenting to the emergency room with fever and who had a complete blood cell count performed. Patients were separated into seven groups based on the type of respiratory viral infection. Inclusion criteria strictly counted children with viral infections and absence of clinical and laboratory evidence of a bacterial coinfection. Results: A total of 419 patients had a documented viral infection. A significant proportion of these children were found to have bandemia; children with adenovirus (17%), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (14.9%), human metapneumovirus (hMPV) (13%), and parainfluenza virus (7.9%) had the highest prevalence when the cutoff for bandemia was set at 10%. The prevalence increased to 35.3, 30.9, 40.3, and 15.8% for adenovirus, RSV, hMPV, and parainfluenza virus, respectively, when this cutoff was lowered further to 5%. Conclusion: Band neutrophils are detected frequently in confirmed respiratory viral infections particularly during early stages.
PMCID:7816918
PMID: 33489997
ISSN: 2296-2360
CID: 4766832

Reducing Antibiotic Use in Respiratory Syncytial Virus-A Quality Improvement Approach to Antimicrobial Stewardship

Quintos-Alagheband, Maria Lyn; Noyola, Estela; Makvana, Sejal; El-Chaar, Gladys; Wang, Shan; Calixte, Rose; Krilov, Leonard R
Objective/UNASSIGNED:The increased incidence of multidrug-resistant organisms is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, hospital length of stay, and cost. Estimates show that up to 50% of antimicrobial use is inappropriate. This initiative focuses on inappropriate use of antibiotics in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections. This virus is the most common cause of bronchiolitis during childhood. Methods/UNASSIGNED:Baseline data from the 2011-2012 RSV season showed that 56.2% of our RSV-positive patients received antibiotics. To decrease inappropriate antibiotic use in RSV infections, we established an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP). This process improvement initiative aimed to decrease exposure to antibiotics and days of antibiotic therapy per 1,000 patient days (DOT/1000PD) in hospitalized RSV-positive patients by 25%. Key drivers included building health-care knowledge, proactive interventions using prospective audit and feedback, emergency department engagement, and performance dashboards. Results/UNASSIGNED:= 0.017). This change represents a reduction of 164.6 DOT/1000PD from baseline after full ASP implementation. Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:Despite the lack of a unified hospitalist group in our institution, we were successful in reducing inappropriate antibiotic use by focusing on standardizing care among different private pediatricians in the community. A multifaceted strategy and well-designed quality improvement methodology led to a sustained reduction in antibiotic use.
PMID: 30229182
ISSN: 2472-0054
CID: 3300582