Try a new search

Format these results:

Searched for:



Total Results:


Can Na18F PET/CT bone scans help when deciding if early intervention is needed in patients being treated with a TSF attached to the tibia: insights from 41 patients

Lundblad, Henrik; Karlsson-Thur, Charlotte; Maguire, Gerald Q; Noz, Marilyn E; Zeleznik, Michael P; Weidenhielm, Lars
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To demonstrate the usefulness of positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) bone scans for gaining insight into healing bone status earlier than CT or X-ray alone. METHODS:in the region of healing bone by a time-sequenced movie allowed qualitative evaluation. RESULTS:Numerical evaluation, particularly the shape and distribution of Hounsfield Units and radionuclide uptake in the graphs, combined with visual evaluation and the movies enabled the identification of six patients needing intervention as well as those not requiring intervention. Every revised patient proceeded to a successful treatment conclusion. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:in specific regions of bone, it might be possible to shorten the recovery time and avoid unnecessary late complications.
PMID: 32889671
ISSN: 1633-8065
CID: 4588552

Accuracy and precision of a CT method for assessing migration in shoulder arthroplasty: an experimental study

Brodén, Cyrus; Giles, Joshua W; Popat, Ravi; Fetherston, Shirley; Olivecrona, Henrik; Sandberg, Olof; Maguire, Gerald Q; Noz, Marilyn E; Sköldenberg, Olof; Emery, Roger
PMID: 31684750
ISSN: 1600-0455
CID: 4172282

Are low-dose CT scans a satisfactory substitute for stereoradiographs for migration studies? A preclinical test of low-dose CT scanning protocols and their application in a pilot patient

Eriksson, Thomas; Maguire, Gerald Q; Noz, Marilyn E; Zeleznik, Michael P; Olivecrona, Henrik; Shalabi, Adel; Hänni, Mari
BACKGROUND:Computed tomography (CT) has the potential to acquire the data needed for migration studies of orthopedic joint implants of patients who have had tantalum beads implanted at the time of joint replacement surgery. This can be accomplished with the same precision as radiostereometric analysis (RSA). Switching to CT would increase availability without the need for the specific facilities required for RSA. However, higher effective dose is a concern. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To investigate if migration measurements can be done with CT with an accuracy and effective dose comparable to that of conventional RSA. MATERIAL AND METHODS/METHODS:Fourteen scanning protocols were tested in a hip phantom that incorporated tantalum beads and an uncemented femoral stem. The protocols were graded for clinical practice according to the three parameters of image quality, effective dose, and robustness of numerical data. After grading, the two protocols that graded best overall were applied to a pilot patient. RESULTS:All protocols produced scans in which the numerical data were sufficient for a migration analysis at least as precise as would be expected using RSA. A protocol with an effective dose of 0.70 mSv was shown to be applicable in a pilot patient. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Low-dose CT scans with an effective dose comparable to a set of routine plain radiographs can be used for precise migration measurements.
PMID: 31042065
ISSN: 1600-0455
CID: 3854752

Accuracy and precision of a CT method for assessing migration in shoulder arthroplasty: an experimental study

Broden, Cyrus; Giles, Joshua W.; Popat, Ravi; Fetherston, Shirley; Olivecrona, Henrik; Sandberg, Olof; Maguire, Gerald Q., Jr.; Noz, Marilyn E.; Skoldenberg, Olof; Emery, Roger
ISSN: 0284-1851
CID: 4222462

Motion Analysis in Lumbar Spinal Stenosis With Degenerative Spondylolisthesis: A Feasibility Study of the 3DCT Technique Comparing Laminectomy Versus Bilateral Laminotomy

Försth, Peter; Svedmark, Per; Noz, Marilyn E; Maguire, Gerald Q; Zeleznik, Mike P; Sandén, Bengt
STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:This was a randomized radiologic biomechanical pilot study in vivo. OBJECTIVE:The objectives of this study was to evaluate if 3-dimensional computed tomography is a feasible tool in motion analyses of the lumbar spine and to study if preservation of segmental midline structures offers less postoperative instability compared with central decompression in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis with degenerative spondylolisthesis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA/BACKGROUND:The role of segmental instability after decompression is controversial. Validated techniques for biomechanical evaluation of segmental motion in human live subjects are lacking. METHODS:In total, 23 patients (mean age, 68 y) with typical symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging findings of spinal stenosis with degenerative spondylolisthesis (>3 mm) in 1 or 2 adjacent lumbar levels from L3 to L5 were included. They were randomized to either laminectomy (LE) or bilateral laminotomy (LT) (preservation of the midline structures). Documentation of segmental motion was made preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively with CT in provoked flexion and extension. Analyses of movements were performed with validated software. The accuracy for this method is 0.6 mm in translation and 1 degree in rotation. Patient-reported outcome measures were collected from the Swespine register preoperatively and 2-year postoperatively. RESULTS:The mean preoperative values for 3D rotation and translation were 6.2 degrees and 1.8 mm. The mean increase in 3D rotation 6 months after surgery was 0.25 degrees after LT and 0.7 degrees after LE (P=0.79) while the mean increase in 3D translation was 0.15 mm after LT and 1.1 mm after LE (P=0.42). Both surgeries demonstrated significant improvement in patient-reported outcome measures 2 years postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS:The 3D computed tomography technique proved to be a feasible tool in the evaluation of segmental motion in this group of older patients. There was negligible increase in segmental motion after decompressive surgery. LE with removal of the midline structures did not create a greater instability compared with when these structures were preserved.
PMID: 29939843
ISSN: 2380-0194
CID: 3162702

Prosthetic liner wear in total hip replacement: a longitudinal 13-year study with computed tomography

Weidenhielm, Lars; Olivecrona, Henrik; Maguire, Gerald Q; Noz, Marilyn E
This case report follows a woman who had a total hip replacement in 1992 when she was 45 years old. Six serial computed tomography (CT) examinations over a period of 13 years provided information that allowed her revision surgery to be limited to liner replacement as opposed to replacement of the entire prosthesis. Additionally, they provided data that ruled out the presence of osteolysis and indeed none was found at surgery. In 2004, when the first CT was performed, the 3D distance the femoral head had penetrated into the cup was determined to be 2.6 mm. By 2017, femoral head penetration had progressed to 5.0 mm. The extracted liner showed wear at the thinnest part to be 5.5 mm, as measured with a micrometer. The use of modern CT techniques can identify problems, while still correctable without major surgery. Furthermore, the ability of CT to assess the direction of wear revealed that the liner wear changed from the cranial to dorsal direction.
PMID: 29362844
ISSN: 1432-2161
CID: 2988662

Loop Representation of Wigner's Little Groups

Baskal, Sibel; Kim, Young S; Noz, Marilyn E
Wigner's little groups are the subgroups of the Lorentz group whose transformations leave the momentum of a given particle invariant. They thus define the internal space-time symmetries of relativistic particles. These symmetries take different mathematical forms for massive and for massless particles. However, it is shown possible to construct one unified representation using a graphical description. This graphical approach allows us to describe vividly parity, time reversal, and charge conjugation of the internal symmetry groups. As for the language of group theory, the two-by-two representation is used throughout the paper. While this two-by-two representation is for spin-1/2 particles, it is shown possible to construct the representations for spin-0 particles, spin-1 particles, as well as for higher-spin particles, for both massive and massless cases. It is shown also that the four-by-four Dirac matrices constitute a two-by-two representation of Wigner's little group.
ISSN: 2073-8994
CID: 2676982

Can Spatiotemporal Fluoride (18F-) Uptake be Used to Assess Bone Formation in the Tibia? A Longitudinal Study Using PET/CT

Lundblad, Henrik; Karlsson-Thur, Charlotte; Maguire, Gerald Q Jr; Jonsson, Cathrine; Noz, Marilyn E; Zeleznik, Michael P; Weidenhielm, Lars
BACKGROUND: When a bone is broken for any reason, it is important for the orthopaedic surgeon to know how bone healing is progressing. There has been resurgence in the use of the fluoride (18F-) ion to evaluate various bone conditions. This has been made possible by availability of positron emission tomography (PET)/CT hybrid scanners together with cyclotrons. Absorbed on the bone surface from blood flow, 18F- attaches to the osteoblasts in cancellous bone and acts as a pharmacokinetic agent, which reflects the local physiologic activity of bone. This is important because it shows bone formation indicating that the bone is healing or no bone formation indicating no healing. As 18F- is extracted from blood in proportion to blood flow and bone formation, it thus enables determination of bone healing progress. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: The primary objective of this study was to determine whether videos showing the spatiotemporal uptake of 18F- via PET bone scans could show problematic bone healing in patients with complex tibia conditions. A secondary objective was to determine if semiquantification of radionuclide uptake was consistent with bone healing. METHODS: This study investigated measurements of tibia bone formation in patients with complex fractures, osteomyelitis, and osteotomies treated with a Taylor Spatial FrameTM (TSF) by comparing clinical healing progress with spatiotemporal fluoride (18F-) uptake and the semiquantitative standardized uptake value (SUV). This procedure included static and dynamic image acquisition. For intrapatient volumes acquired at different times, the CT and PET data were spatially registered to bring the ends of the bones that were supposed to heal into alignment. To qualitatively observe how and where bone formation was occurring, time-sequenced volumes were reconstructed and viewed as a video. To semiquantify the uptake, the mean and maximum SUVs (SUVmean, SUVmax) were calculated for the ends of the bones that were supposed to heal and for normal bone, using a spherical volume of interest drawn on the registered volumes. To make the semiquantitative data comparable for all patients with multiple examinations, the SUVmean and SUVmax difference per day (SUVmeanDPD and SUVmaxDPD) between the first PET/CT scan and each subsequent one was calculated. Indicators of poor healing progress were (1) uneven distribution of the radionuclide uptake between ends of the bones that were supposed to heal as seen in the video or, (2) low absolute magnitude of the SUV difference data. Twenty-four patients treated between October 2013 and April 2015 with a TSF gave informed consent to be examined with 18F- PET/CT bone scans. Twenty-two patients successfully completed treatment, one of whom had only one PET/CT scan. RESULTS: Observation of 18F- uptake was able to identify three patients whose healing progress was poor, indicated by uneven distribution of radionuclide uptake across the ends of the bones that were supposed to heal. An absolute magnitude of the SUVmaxDPD of 0.18 or greater indicated good bone formation progress. This was verified in 10 patients by the days between the operation to attach and to remove the TSF being less than 250 days, whereas other SUVmaxDPD values were ambiguous, with 11 patients achieving successful completion. CONCLUSIONS: Observation of the spatiotemporal uptake of 18F- appears to be a promising method to enable the clinician to assess the progress of bone formation in different parts of the bone. Bone uptake which is uneven across the ends of bone that were supposed to heal or very low bone uptake might indicate impaired bone healing where early intervention may then be needed. However, semiquantification of 18F- uptake (SUVmaxDPD), SUVmeanDPD) was ambiguous in showing consistency with the bone-healing progress. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, diagnostic study.
PMID: 28150226
ISSN: 1528-1132
CID: 2545292

Are CT Scans a Satisfactory Substitute for the Follow-Up of RSA Migration Studies of Uncemented Cups? A Comparison of RSA Double Examinations and CT Datasets of 46 Total Hip Arthroplasties

Otten, Volker; Maguire, Gerald Q Jr; Noz, Marilyn E; Zeleznik, Michael P; Nilsson, Kjell G; Olivecrona, Henrik
As part of the 14-year follow-up of a prospectively randomized radiostereometry (RSA) study on uncemented cup fixation, two pairs of stereo radiographs and a CT scan of 46 hips were compared. Tantalum beads, inserted during the primary operation, were detected in the CT volume and the stereo radiographs and used to produce datasets of 3D coordinates. The limit of agreement between the combined CT and RSA datasets was calculated in the same way as the precision of the double RSA examination. The precision of RSA corresponding to the 99% confidence interval was 1.36 degrees , 1.36 degrees , and 0.60 degrees for X-, Y-, and Z-rotation and 0.40, 0.17, and 0.37 mm for X-, Y-, and Z-translation. The limit of agreement between CT and RSA was 1.51 degrees , 2.17 degrees , and 1.05 degrees for rotation and 0.59, 0.56, and 0.74 mm for translation. The differences between CT and RSA are close to the described normal 99% confidence interval for precision in RSA: 0.3 degrees to 2 degrees for rotation and 0.15 to 0.6 mm for translation. We conclude that measurements using CT and RSA are comparable and that CT can be used for migration studies for longitudinal evaluations of patients with RSA markers.
PMID: 28243598
ISSN: 2314-6141
CID: 2471092

A CT method for following patients with both prosthetic replacement and implanted tantalum beads: preliminary analysis with a pelvic model and in seven patients

Olivecrona, Henrik; Maguire, Gerald Q Jr; Noz, Marilyn E; Zeleznik, Michael P; Kesteris, Uldis; Weidenhielm, Lars
BACKGROUND: Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) is often used for evaluating implanted devices over time. Following patients who have had tantalum beads implanted as markers in conjunction with joint replacements is important for longitudinal evaluation of these patients and for those with similar implants. As doing traditional RSA imaging is exacting and limited to specialized centers, it is important to consider alternative techniques for this ongoing evaluation. This paper studies the use of computed tomography (CT) to evaluate over time tantalum beads which have been implanted as markers. METHODS: The project uses both a hip model implanted with tantalum beads, acquired in several orientations, at two different CT energy levels, and a cohort of seven patients. The model was evaluated twice by the same observer with a 1-week interval. All CT volumes were analyzed using a semi-automated 3D volume fusion (spatial registration) tool which provides landmark-based fusion of two volumes, registering a target volume with a reference volume using a rigid body 3D algorithm. The mean registration errors as well as the accuracy and repeatability of the method were evaluated. RESULTS: The mean registration error, maximum value of repeatability, and accuracy for the relative movement in the model were 0.16 mm, 0.02 degrees and 0.1 mm, and 0.36 degrees and 0.13 mm for 120 kVp and 0.21 mm, 0.04 degrees and 0.01 mm, and 0.39 degrees and 0.12 mm for 100 kVp. For the patients, the mean registration errors per patient ranged from 0.08 to 0.35 mm. These results are comparable to those in typical clinical RSA trials. This technique successfully evaluated two patients who would have been lost from the cohort if only RSA were used. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed technique can be used to evaluate patients with tantalum beads over time without the need for stereoradiographs. Further, the effective dose associated with CT is decreasing.
PMID: 26911571
ISSN: 1749-799x
CID: 1964802