Beyond Coronary Artery Disease: Assessing the Microcirculation
Ischemic heart disease (IHD) affects more than 20 million adults in the United States. Although classically attributed to atherosclerosis of the epicardial coronary arteries, nearly half of patients with stable angina and IHD who undergo invasive coronary angiography do not have obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease. Ischemia with nonobstructive coronary arteries is frequently caused by microvascular angina with underlying coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD). Greater understanding the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of CMD holds promise to improve clinical outcomes of patients with ischemic heart disease.
The impact of preoperative stress testing on cardiovascular and surgical care - Does it actually improve outcomes? [Comment]
Existing Nongated CT Coronary Calcium Predicts Operative Risk in Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgeries (ENCORES)
BACKGROUND:Preoperative cardiovascular risk stratification before noncardiac surgery is a common clinical challenge. Coronary artery calcium scores from ECG-gated chest computed tomography (CT) imaging are associated with perioperative events. At the time of preoperative evaluation, many patients will not have had ECG-gated CT imaging, but will have had nongated chest CT studies performed for a variety of noncardiac indications. We evaluated relationships between coronary calcium severity estimated from previous nongated chest CT imaging and perioperative major clinical events (MCE) after noncardiac surgery. METHODS:We retrospectively identified consecutive adults age ≥45 years who underwent in-hospital, major nongated surgery from 2016 to 2020 at a large academic health system composed of 4 acute care centers. All patients had nongated (contrast or noncontrast) chest CT imaging performed within 1 year before surgery. Coronary calcium in each vessel was retrospectively graded from absent to severe using a 0 to 3 scale (absent, mild, moderate, severe) by physicians blinded to clinical data. The estimated coronary calcium burden (ECCB) was computed as the sum of scores for each coronary artery (0 to 9 scale). A Revised Cardiac Risk Index was calculated for each patient. Perioperative MCE was defined as all-cause death or myocardial infarction within 30 days of surgery. RESULTS:<0.0001). An ECCB ≥3 was associated with 2-fold higher adjusted odds of MCE versus an ECCB <3 (adjusted odds ratio, 2.11 [95% CI, 1.42-3.12]). CONCLUSIONS:Prevalence and severity of coronary calcium obtained from existing nongated chest CT imaging improve preoperative clinical risk stratification before nongated surgery.
Perioperative considerations for patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing elective noncardiac surgery [Editorial]
Comprehensive Management of ANOCA, Part 1-Definition, Patient Population, and Diagnosis: JACC State-of-the-Art Review
Angina with nonobstructive coronary arteries (ANOCA) is increasingly recognized and may affect nearly one-half of patients undergoing invasive coronary angiography for suspected ischemic heart disease. This working diagnosis encompasses coronary microvascular dysfunction, microvascular and epicardial spasm, myocardial bridging, and other occult coronary abnormalities. Patients with ANOCA often face a high burden of symptoms and may experience repeated presentations to multiple medical providers before receiving a diagnosis. Given the challenges of establishing a diagnosis, patients with ANOCA frequently experience invalidation and recidivism, possibly leading to anxiety and depression. Advances in scientific knowledge and diagnostic testing now allow for routine evaluation of ANOCA noninvasively and in the cardiac catheterization laboratory with coronary function testing (CFT). CFT includes diagnostic coronary angiography, assessment of coronary flow reserve and microcirculatory resistance, provocative testing for endothelial dysfunction and coronary vasospasm, and intravascular imaging for identification of myocardial bridging, with hemodynamic assessment as needed.
Comprehensive Management of ANOCA, Part 2-Program Development, Treatment, and Research Initiatives: JACC State-of-the-Art Review
Centers specializing in coronary function testing are critical to ensure a systematic approach to the diagnosis and treatment of angina with nonobstructive coronary arteries (ANOCA). Management leveraging lifestyle, pharmacology, and device-based therapeutic options for ANOCA can improve angina burden and quality of life in affected patients. Multidisciplinary care teams that can tailor and titrate therapies based on individual patient needs are critical to the success of comprehensive programs. As coronary function testing for ANOCA is more widely adopted, collaborative research initiatives will be fundamental to improve ANOCA care. These efforts will require standardized symptom assessments and data collection, which will propel future large-scale clinical trials.
Perioperative strategies to reduce risk of myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS): A narrative review
Myocardial injury is a frequent complication of surgical patients after having non-cardiac surgery that is strongly associated with perioperative mortality. While intraoperative anesthesia-related deaths are exceedingly rare, about 1% of patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery die within the first 30 postoperative days. Given the number of surgeries performed annually, death following surgery is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS) is defined as an elevation in troponin concentrations within 30 days postoperatively. Although typically asymptomatic, patients with MINS suffer myocardial damage and have a 10% risk of death within 30 days after surgery and excess risks of mortality that persist during the first postoperative year. Many factors for the development of MINS are non-modifiable, such as preexistent coronary artery disease. Preventive measures, systematic approaches to surveillance and treatment standards are still lacking, however many factors are modifiable and should be considered in clinical practice: the importance of hemodynamic control, adequate oxygen supply, metabolic homeostasis, the use of perioperative medications such as statins, anti-thrombotic agents, beta-blockers, or anti-inflammatory agents, as well as some evidence regarding the choice of sedative and analgesic for anesthesia are discussed. Also, as age and complexity in comorbidities of the surgical patient population increase, there is an urgent need to identify patients at risk for MINS and develop prevention and treatment strategies. In this review, we provide an overview of current screening standards and promising preventive options in the perioperative setting and address knowledge gaps requiring further investigation.
Age or Functional Debility to Predict Death After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Age Is More Than a Number [Editorial]
Effect of therapeutic-dose heparin on severe acute kidney injury and death in noncritically ill patients hospitalized for COVID-19: a prespecified secondary analysis of the ACTIV4a and ATTACC randomized trial
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with COVID-19 is partly mediated by thromboinflammation. In noncritically ill patients with COVID-19, therapeutic-dose anticoagulation with heparin increased the probability of survival to hospital discharge with reduced use of cardiovascular or respiratory organ support. OBJECTIVES/UNASSIGNED:We investigated whether therapeutic-dose heparin reduces the incidence of AKI or death in noncritically ill patients hospitalized for COVID-19. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:We report a prespecified secondary analysis of the ACTIV4a and ATTACC open-label, multiplatform randomized trial of therapeutic-dose heparin vs usual-care pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis on the incidence of severe AKI (≥2-fold increase in serum creatinine or initiation of kidney replacement therapy (KDIGO stage 2 or 3) or all-cause mortality in noncritically ill patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Bayesian statistical models were adjusted for age, sex, D-dimer, enrollment period, country, site, and platform. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Among 1922 enrolled, 23 were excluded due to pre-existing end stage kidney disease and 205 were missing baseline or follow-up creatinine measurements. Severe AKI or death occurred in 4.4% participants assigned to therapeutic-dose heparin and 5.5% assigned to thromboprophylaxis (adjusted relative risk [aRR]: 0.72; 95% credible interval (CrI): 0.47, 1.10); the posterior probability of superiority for therapeutic-dose heparin (relative risk < 1.0) was 93.6%. Therapeutic-dose heparin was associated with a 97.7% probability of superiority to reduce the composite of stage 3 AKI or death (3.1% vs 4.6%; aRR: 0.64; 95% CrI: 0.40, 0.99) compared to thromboprophylaxis. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:Therapeutic-dose heparin was associated with a high probability of superiority to reduce the incidence of in-hospital severe AKI or death in patients hospitalized for COVID-19.
The Reply [Letter]