A validated, real-time prediction model for favorable outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients
The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged front-line clinical decision-making, leading to numerous published prognostic tools. However, few models have been prospectively validated and none report implementation in practice. Here, we use 3345 retrospective and 474 prospective hospitalizations to develop and validate a parsimonious model to identify patients with favorable outcomes within 96â€‰h of a prediction, based on real-time lab values, vital signs, and oxygen support variables. In retrospective and prospective validation, the model achieves high average precision (88.6% 95% CI: [88.4-88.7] and 90.8% [90.8-90.8]) and discrimination (95.1% [95.1-95.2] and 86.8% [86.8-86.9]) respectively. We implemented and integrated the model into the EHR, achieving a positive predictive value of 93.3% with 41% sensitivity. Preliminary results suggest clinicians are adopting these scores into their clinical workflows.
An artificial intelligence system for predicting the deterioration of COVID-19 patients in the emergency department [PrePrint]
During the COVID-19 pandemic, rapid and accurate triage of patients at the emergency department is critical to inform decision-making. We propose a data-driven approach for automatic prediction of deterioration risk using a deep neural network that learns from chest X-ray images, and a gradient boosting model that learns from routine clinical variables. Our AI prognosis system, trained using data from 3,661 patients, achieves an AUC of 0.786 (95% CI: 0.742-0.827) when predicting deterioration within 96 hours. The deep neural network extracts informative areas of chest X-ray images to assist clinicians in interpreting the predictions, and performs comparably to two radiologists in a reader study. In order to verify performance in a real clinical setting, we silently deployed a preliminary version of the deep neural network at NYU Langone Health during the first wave of the pandemic, which produced accurate predictions in real-time. In summary, our findings demonstrate the potential of the proposed system for assisting front-line physicians in the triage of COVID-19 patients.
Augmented reality microscopes for cancer histopathology
Predicting childhood obesity using electronic health records and publicly available data
BACKGROUND:Because of the strong link between childhood obesity and adulthood obesity comorbidities, and the difficulty in decreasing body mass index (BMI) later in life, effective strategies are needed to address this condition in early childhood. The ability to predict obesity before age five could be a useful tool, allowing prevention strategies to focus on high risk children. The few existing prediction models for obesity in childhood have primarily employed data from longitudinal cohort studies, relying on difficult to collect data that are not readily available to all practitioners. Instead, we utilized real-world unaugmented electronic health record (EHR) data from the first two years of life to predict obesity status at age five, an approach not yet taken in pediatric obesity research. METHODS AND FINDINGS/RESULTS:We trained a variety of machine learning algorithms to perform both binary classification and regression. Following previous studies demonstrating different obesity determinants for boys and girls, we similarly developed separate models for both groups. In each of the separate models for boys and girls we found that weight for length z-score, BMI between 19 and 24 months, and the last BMI measure recorded before age two were the most important features for prediction. The best performing models were able to predict obesity with an Area Under the Receiver Operator Characteristic Curve (AUC) of 81.7% for girls and 76.1% for boys. CONCLUSIONS:We were able to predict obesity at age five using EHR data with an AUC comparable to cohort-based studies, reducing the need for investment in additional data collection. Our results suggest that machine learning approaches for predicting future childhood obesity using EHR data could improve the ability of clinicians and researchers to drive future policy, intervention design, and the decision-making process in a clinical setting.
Classification and mutation prediction from non-small cell lung cancer histopathology images using deep learning
Visual inspection of histopathology slides is one of the main methods used by pathologists to assess the stage, type and subtype of lung tumors. Adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) are the most prevalent subtypes of lung cancer, and their distinction requires visual inspection by an experienced pathologist. In this study, we trained a deep convolutional neural network (inception v3) on whole-slide images obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas to accurately and automatically classify them into LUAD, LUSC or normal lung tissue. The performance of our method is comparable to that of pathologists, with an average area under the curve (AUC) of 0.97. Our model was validated on independent datasets of frozen tissues, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and biopsies. Furthermore, we trained the network to predict the ten most commonly mutated genes in LUAD. We found that six of them-STK11, EGFR, FAT1, SETBP1, KRAS and TP53-can be predicted from pathology images, with AUCs from 0.733 to 0.856 as measured on a held-out population. These findings suggest that deep-learning models can assist pathologists in the detection of cancer subtype or gene mutations. Our approach can be applied to any cancer type, and the code is available at https://github.com/ncoudray/DeepPATH .
Population-Level Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes From Claims Data and Analysis of Risk Factors
We present a new approach to population health, in which data-driven predictive models are learned for outcomes such as type 2 diabetes. Our approach enables risk assessment from readily available electronic claims data on large populations, without additional screening cost. Proposed model uncovers early and late-stage risk factors. Using administrative claims, pharmacy records, healthcare utilization, and laboratory results of 4.1 million individuals between 2005 and 2009, an initial set of 42,000 variables were derived that together describe the full health status and history of every individual. Machine learning was then used to methodically enhance predictive variable set and fit models predicting onset of type 2 diabetes in 2009-2011, 2010-2012, and 2011-2013. We compared the enhanced model with a parsimonious model consisting of known diabetes risk factors in a real-world environment, where missing values are common and prevalent. Furthermore, we analyzed novel and known risk factors emerging from the model at different age groups at different stages before the onset. Parsimonious model using 21 classic diabetes risk factors resulted in area under ROC curve (AUC) of 0.75 for diabetes prediction within a 2-year window following the baseline. The enhanced model increased the AUC to 0.80, with about 900 variables selected as predictive (p < 0.0001 for differences between AUCs). Similar improvements were observed for models predicting diabetes onset 1-3 years and 2-4 years after baseline. The enhanced model improved positive predictive value by at least 50% and identified novel surrogate risk factors for type 2 diabetes, such as chronic liver disease (odds ratio [OR] 3.71), high alanine aminotransferase (OR 2.26), esophageal reflux (OR 1.85), and history of acute bronchitis (OR 1.45). Liver risk factors emerge later in the process of diabetes development compared with obesity-related factors such as hypertension and high hemoglobin A1c. In conclusion, population-level risk prediction for type 2 diabetes using readily available administrative data is feasible and has better prediction performance than classical diabetes risk prediction algorithms on very large populations with missing data. The new model enables intervention allocation at national scale quickly and accurately and recovers potentially novel risk factors at different stages before the disease onset.
Deep learning integrates histopathology and proteogenomics at a pan-cancer level
We introduce a pioneering approach that integrates pathology imaging with transcriptomics and proteomics to identify predictive histology features associated with critical clinical outcomes in cancer. We utilize 2,755 H&E-stained histopathological slides from 657 patients across 6 cancer types from CPTAC. Our models effectively recapitulate distinctions readily made by human pathologists: tumor vs. normal (AUROC = 0.995) and tissue-of-origin (AUROC = 0.979). We further investigate predictive power on tasks not normally performed from H&E alone, including TP53 prediction and pathologic stage. Importantly, we describe predictive morphologies not previously utilized in a clinical setting. The incorporation of transcriptomics and proteomics identifies pathway-level signatures and cellular processes driving predictive histology features. Model generalizability and interpretability is confirmed using TCGA. We propose a classification system for these tasks, and suggest potential clinical applications for this integrated human and machine learning approach. A publicly available web-based platform implements these models.
Multiple Instance Learning via Iterative Self-Paced Supervised Contrastive Learning [Proceedings Paper]
On gaps of clinical diagnosis of dementia subtypes: A study of Alzheimer"™s disease and Lewy body disease
Introduction: Alzheimer"™s disease (AD) and Lewy body disease (LBD) are the two most common neurodegenerative dementias and can occur in combination (AD+LBD). Due to overlapping biomarkers and symptoms, clinical differentiation of these subtypes could be difficult. However, it is unclear how the magnitude of diagnostic uncertainty varies across dementia spectra and demographic variables. We aimed to compare clinical diagnosis and post-mortem autopsy-confirmed pathological results to assess the clinical subtype diagnosis quality across these factors. Methods: We studied data of 1,920 participants recorded by the National Alzheimer"™s Coordinating Center from 2005 to 2019. Selection criteria included autopsy-based neuropathological assessments for AD and LBD, and the initial visit with Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) stage of normal, mild cognitive impairment, or mild dementia. Longitudinally, we analyzed the first visit at each subsequent CDR stage. This analysis included positive predictive values, specificity, sensitivity and false negative rates of clinical diagnosis, as well as disparities by sex, race, age, and education. If autopsy-confirmed AD and/or LBD was missed in the clinic, the alternative clinical diagnosis was analyzed. Findings: In our findings, clinical diagnosis of AD+LBD had poor sensitivities. Over 61% of participants with autopsy-confirmed AD+LBD were diagnosed clinically as AD. Clinical diagnosis of AD had a low sensitivity at the early dementia stage and low specificities at all stages. Among participants diagnosed as AD in the clinic, over 32% had concurrent LBD neuropathology at autopsy. Among participants diagnosed as LBD, 32% to 54% revealed concurrent autopsy-confirmed AD pathology. When three subtypes were missed by clinicians, "No cognitive impairment" and "primary progressive aphasia or behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia" were the leading primary etiologic clinical diagnoses. With increasing dementia stages, the clinical diagnosis accuracy of black participants became significantly worse than other races, and diagnosis quality significantly improved for males but not females. Discussion: These findings demonstrate that clinical diagnosis of AD, LBD, and AD+LBD are inaccurate and suffer from significant disparities on race and sex. They provide important implications for clinical management, anticipatory guidance, trial enrollment and applicability of potential therapies for AD, and promote research into better biomarker-based assessment of LBD pathology.
Generalizable deep learning model for early Alzheimer's disease detection from structural MRIs
Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease plays a pivotal role in patient care and clinical trials. In this study, we have developed a new approach based on 3D deep convolutional neural networks to accurately differentiate mild Alzheimer's disease dementia from mild cognitive impairment and cognitively normal individuals using structural MRIs. For comparison, we have built a reference model based on the volumes and thickness of previously reported brain regions that are known to be implicated in disease progression. We validate both models on an internal held-out cohort from The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and on an external independent cohort from The National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC). The deep-learning model is accurate, achieved an area-under-the-curve (AUC) of 85.12 when distinguishing between cognitive normal subjects and subjects with either MCI or mild Alzheimer's dementia. In the more challenging task of detecting MCI, it achieves an AUC of 62.45. It is also significantly faster than the volume/thickness model in which the volumes and thickness need to be extracted beforehand. The model can also be used to forecast progression: subjects with mild cognitive impairment misclassified as having mild Alzheimer's disease dementia by the model were faster to progress to dementia over time. An analysis of the features learned by the proposed model shows that it relies on a wide range of regions associated with Alzheimer's disease. These findings suggest that deep neural networks can automatically learn to identify imaging biomarkers that are predictive of Alzheimer's disease, and leverage them to achieve accurate early detection of the disease.