Myopia/heavy eye syndrome: A rare cause of horizontal diplopia
Identification of Endolymphatic Hydrops in Meniere's Disease Utilizing Delayed Postcontrast 3D FLAIR and Fused 3D FLAIR and CISS Color Maps
OBJECTIVE: The preferential delayed enhancement of the perilymphatic space enables detection of the non-enhancing endolymphatic hydrops present in patients with Meniere's disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of delayed postcontrast 3D FLAIR images and a color map of fused postcontrast FLAIR and constructive interference steady state (CISS) images in the identification of endolymphatic hydrops in patients with clinically diagnosed Meniere's disease. STUDY DESIGN: Case control, blinded study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Ten patients with Meniere's disease and five volunteer controls. INTERVENTION: Diagnostic. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Two neuroradiologists blinded to the clinical history independently evaluated for the presence of endolymphatic hydrops on the images of both inner ears for test and control subjects. Both the standard gray-scale FLAIR images and the fused color map images were independently reviewed. RESULTS: The gray-scale 3D FLAIR images demonstrated 68.2% sensitivity and 97.4% specificity, and the fused color map images demonstrated 85.0% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity in the identification of endolymphatic hydrops in Meniere's disease. There was significant correlation between the gray-scale 3D FLAIR images and fused color map images with the categorization of involvement (p = 0.002). Inter-evaluator reliability was excellent (kappa = 0.83 for gray-scale images, kappa = 0.81 for fused color map). CONCLUSION: Delayed 3D FLAIR and fused 3D FLAIR-CISS color map images of the inner ears after intravenous contrast administration are potentially useful diagnostic tools in the evaluation of patients with suspected Meniere's disease.
Phase II trial of lapatinib in adult and pediatric patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 and progressive vestibular schwannomas
This single-institution phase II study was performed to estimate the response rate to lapatinib in neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients with progressive vestibular schwannoma (VS). Twenty-one eligible patients were enrolled. Brain and spine MRIs, including 3-dimensional volumetric tumor analysis, and audiograms were performed once at baseline and again every 12 weeks. The primary response end point was evaluable in 17 patients and defined as >/=15% decrease in VS volume. Hearing was evaluable as a secondary end point in 13 patients, with responses defined as an improvement in the pure tone average of at least 10 dB or a statistically significant increase in word recognition scores. Four of 17 evaluable patients experienced an objective volumetric response (23.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10%-47%), with median time to response of 4.5 months (range, 3-12). In responders, reduction in VS volumes ranged from -15.7% to -23.9%. Four of 13 patients evaluable for hearing met hearing criteria for response (30.8%; 95% CI, 13%-58%). One sustained response exceeded 9 months in duration. Median time to overall progression (ie, volumetric progression or hearing loss) was 14 months. The estimated overall progression-free survival and volumetric progression-free survival at 12 months were 64.2% (95% CI, 36.9%-82.1%) and 70.6% (95% CI, 43.1%-86.6%), respectively. Toxicity was generally minor, and no permanent dose modifications were required. Lapatinib carries minor toxicity and has objective activity in NF2 patients with progressive VS, including volumetric and hearing responses. Future studies could explore combination therapy with other molecular targeted agents such as bevacizumab.
MR Assessment of Oral Cavity Carcinomas
Approximately half of head and neck carcinomas arise from the oral cavity. Imaging plays an essential role in the preoperative evaluation of oral cavity carcinomas. MR imaging is particularly advantageous in the evaluation of the oral cavity, with better depiction of the anatomy in this region and reduction of dental artifacts compared with CT. MR is also the preferred imaging modality for the evaluation of bone marrow invasion and perineural tumor spread, which are findings critical for treatment planning. Advanced MR imaging techniques may potentially better delineate true tumor extent, determine lymph node metastases, and predict treatment response.
PHASE II TRIAL OF LAPATINIB IN CHILDREN AND ADULTS WITH NEUROFIBROMATOSIS TYPE 2 AND PROGRESSIVE VESTIBULAR SCHWANNOMAS [Meeting Abstract]
PHASE II CLINICAL TRIAL OF LAPATINIB IN CHILDREN AND ADULTS WITH NEUROFIBROMATOSIS TYPE 2 (NF2) [Meeting Abstract]
PHASE II CLINICAL TRIAL OF LAPATINIB IN CHILDREN AND ADULTS WITH NF2-RELATED TUMORS [Meeting Abstract]
Superior turbinate pneumatization in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis: prevalence on paranasal sinus CT
With the availability of high-resolution computed tomography (CT), a great deal of attention has been paid to the anatomy of the paranasal sinuses. But while investigators have focused on the osteomeatal complex and its relation to chronic rhinosinusitis, there has been little discussion of the superior turbinate. Although a few anatomic studies have tried to quantify pneumatization of the superior turbinate, the prevalence of this finding on radiography is not well addressed in the literature. We prospectively studied 100 consecutively presenting patients who underwent coronal CT of the paranasal sinuses (200 sides) for the evaluation of symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis at an academic tertiary referral center to determine the prevalence of pneumatization of the superior turbinate. We found evidence of pneumatization in 44 of the 200 sides, for a prevalence of 22%. In all, pneumatized superior turbinates were found in 27 patients (27%)-bilaterally in 17 (17%) and unilaterally in 10 (10%)
Dynamic sagittal half-Fourier acquired single-shot turbo spin-echo MR imaging of the temporomandibular joint: initial experience and comparison with sagittal oblique proton-attenuation images
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Our aim was to assess dynamic half-Fourier acquired single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) MR imaging of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) using parallel imaging, in comparison with static proton density (Pd) imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four TMJs from 17 subjects (7 volunteers, 10 patients) were imaged in a multichannel head coil on a 1.5 T magnet by using a 35-second dynamic sagittal HASTE acquisition (TR/TE, 1180/65 msec; matrix, 128 x 128; section thickness, 7 mm; 30 images) and sagittal oblique Pd in closed- and open-mouthed positions (TR/TE, 1800/12 msec; matrix, 256 x 256; section thickness, 2 mm; 15 sections). Images were reviewed by 3 readers and rated for confidence of disk position, presence of motion artifact, range of motion, and presence of disk displacement on a 5-point scale. Consensus review of cases was also performed to assess disk dislocation and limited range of motion. RESULTS: More static examinations were rated as having motion artifact (19.6% versus 6.9%, P=.016), limited range of motion (30.4% versus 17.7%, P=.016), and disk dislocations (31.4% versus 22.6%, P=.071). Confidence ratings were higher on dynamic examinations (4.11 versus 3.74, P=.018). Chi-squared tests demonstrated no significant difference in consensus reviews of the 2 examination types. CONCLUSION: Dynamic HASTE TMJ MR imaging is a time-efficient adjunct to standard MR imaging protocols, producing fewer motion artifacts, additional range of motion information, and a dynamic assessment of disk position, when compared with static imaging. Further study is needed to evaluate the role of this sequence in diagnosing disk displacement
Bone deposition/generation with LeFort III (midface) distraction
BACKGROUND: It is essential to critically assess bone deposition in midface distraction. The aim of this study was to characterize the quality and volume of bone deposition at specific osteotomy sites following midface distraction. METHODS: At approximately 6 months after distraction, computed tomographic scans with three-dimensional reconstruction were obtained on 10 craniosynostosis syndromal patients who had undergone LeFort III osteotomy and midface distraction. Patient age ranged from 37 to 109 months (mean, 63.7 months) and the distractions ranged from 7 to 15 mm. Both the reconstructed scans and axial cuts were independently evaluated by four blinded observers (two plastic surgeons, an orthodontist, and a radiologist) and graded for bone deposition in predetermined anatomical sites correlated to the osteotomy. RESULTS: The authors found that variable bony bridging occurred at all sites along the osteotomy, but bone deposition was most reliably seen at the pterygomaxillary buttress and nasofrontal junction. In addition, the medial orbital walls tended to show greater consistency in bone deposition than the lateral orbital walls, and deposition at the zygomatic arches was shown to be least likely to occur. The technique of evaluation and the clinically significant findings are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Bony deposition occurs more reliably in the medial facial skeleton following LeFort III osteotomy, and osteotomy through the zygomatic body was more likely to result in deposition than one through the arch