The contribution of endocytosis to sensitization of nociceptors and synaptic transmission in nociceptive circuits
Tonello, Raquel; Anderson, Wayne B; Davidson, Steve; Escriou, Virginie; Yang, Lei; Schmidt, Brian L; Imlach, Wendy L; Bunnett, Nigel W
Chronic pain involves sensitization of nociceptors and synaptic transmission of painful signals in nociceptive circuits in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. We investigated the contribution of clathrin-dependent endocytosis to sensitization of nociceptors by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and to synaptic transmission in spinal nociceptive circuits. We determined whether therapeutic targeting of endocytosis could ameliorate pain. mRNA encoding dynamin (Dnm) 1-3 and adaptor-associated protein kinase 1 (AAK1), which mediate clathrin-dependent endocytosis, were localized to primary sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia of mouse and human and to spinal neurons in the dorsal horn of the mouse spinal cord by RNAScope®. When injected intrathecally to mice, Dnm and AAK1 siRNA or shRNA knocked-down Dnm and AAK1 mRNA in dorsal root ganglia neurons, reversed mechanical and thermal allodynia and hyperalgesia, and normalized non-evoked behavior in preclinical models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Intrathecally administered inhibiters of clathrin, Dnm and AAK1 also reversed allodynia and hyperalgesia. Disruption of clathrin, Dnm and AAK1 did not affect normal motor functions of behaviors. Patch clamp recordings of dorsal horn neurons revealed that Dnm1 and AAK1 disruption inhibited synaptic transmission between primary sensory neurons and neurons in lamina I/II of the spinal cord dorsal horn by suppressing release of synaptic vesicles from presynaptic primary afferent neurons. Patch clamp recordings from dorsal root ganglion nociceptors indicated that Dnm siRNA prevented sustained GPCR-mediated sensitization of nociceptors. By disrupting synaptic transmission in the spinal cord and blunting sensitization of nociceptors, endocytosis inhibitors offer a therapeutic approach for pain treatment.
Protease-Activated Receptors in Health and Disease
Peach, Chloe J; Edgington-Mitchell, Laura E; Bunnett, Nigel W; Schmidt, Brian L
Although generally regarded as degradatory enzymes, certain proteases are also signaling molecules that specifically control cellular functions by cleaving protease-activated receptors (PARs). The four known PARs are members of the large family of G protein-coupled receptors. These transmembrane receptors control most physiological and pathological processes and are the target of a large proportion of therapeutic drugs. Signaling proteases include enzymes from the circulation, from immune, inflammatory epithelial and cancer cells, as well as from commensal and pathogenic bacteria. Advances in our understanding of the structure and function of PARs provide insights into how diverse proteases activate these receptors to regulate physiological and pathological processes in most tissues and organ systems. The realization that proteases and PARs are key mediators of disease, coupled with advances in understanding the atomic level structure of PARs and their mechanisms of signaling in subcellular microdomains, has spurred the development of antagonists, some of which have advanced to the clinic. Herein we review the discovery, structure and function of this receptor system, highlight the contribution of PARs to homeostatic control, and discuss the potential of PAR antagonists for the treatment of major diseases.
Sustained endosomal release of a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist from nanostars provides long-lasting relief of chronic pain
Latorre, Rocco; RamÃrez-Garcia, Paulina D; Hegron, Alan; Grace, James L; Retamal, Jeffri S; Shenoy, Priyank; Tran, Mai; Aurelio, Luigi; Flynn, Bernard; Poole, Daniel P; Klein-Cloud, Rafael; Jensen, Dane D; Davis, Thomas P; Schmidt, Brian L; Quinn, John F; Whittaker, Michael R; Veldhuis, Nicholas A; Bunnett, Nigel W
Soft polymer nanoparticles designed to disassemble and release an antagonist of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) in endosomes provide efficacious yet transient relief from chronic pain. These micellar nanoparticles are unstable and rapidly release cargo, which may limit the duration of analgesia. We examined the efficacy of stable star polymer nanostars containing the NK1R antagonist aprepitant-amine for the treatment of chronic pain in mice. Nanostars continually released cargo for 24Â h, trafficked through the endosomal system, and disrupted NK1R endosomal signaling. After intrathecal injection, nanostars accumulated in endosomes of spinal neurons. Nanostar-aprepitant reversed mechanical, thermal and cold allodynia and normalized nociceptive behavior more efficaciously than free aprepitant in preclinical models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Analgesia was maintained for >10Â h. The sustained endosomal delivery of antagonists from slow-release nanostars provides effective and long-lasting reversal of chronic pain.
Opioid-Induced Pronociceptive Signaling in the Gastrointestinal Tract Is Mediated by Delta-Opioid Receptor Signaling
Jaramillo-Polanco, Josue; Lopez-Lopez, Cintya; Yu, Yang; Neary, Emma; Hegron, Alan; Canals, Meritxell; Bunnett, Nigel W; Reed, David E; Lomax, Alan E; Vanner, Stephen J
Opioid tolerance (OT) leads to dose escalation and serious side effects, including opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). We sought to better understand the mechanisms underlying this event in the gastrointestinal tract. Chronic in vivo administration of morphine by intraperitoneal injection in male C57BL/6 mice evoked tolerance and evidence of OIH in an assay of colonic afferent nerve mechanosensitivity; this was inhibited by the Î´-opioid receptor (DOPr) antagonist naltrindole when intraperitoneally injected in previous morphine administration. Patch-clamp studies of DRG neurons following overnight incubation with high concentrations of morphine, the Âµ-opioid receptors (MOPr) agonist [D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-Enkephalin (DAMGO) or the DOPr agonist [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]-Enkephalin evoked hyperexcitability. The pronociceptive actions of these opioids were blocked by the DOPr antagonist SDM25N but not the MOPr antagonist D-Pen-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 The hyperexcitability induced by DAMGO was reversed after a 1 h washout, but reapplication of low concentrations of DAMGO or [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]-Enkephalin restored the hyperexcitability, an effect mediated by protein kinase C. DOPr-dependent DRG neuron hyperexcitability was blocked by the endocytosis inhibitor Pitstop 2, and the weakly internalizing DOPr agonist ARM390 did not cause hyperexcitability. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer studies in HEK cells showed no evidence of switching of G-protein signaling from Gi to a Gs pathway in response to either high concentrations or overnight incubation of opioids. Thus, chronic high-dose opioid exposure leads to opioid tolerance and features of OIH in the colon. This action is mediated by DOPr signaling and is dependent on receptor endocytosis and downstream protein kinase C signaling.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Opioids are effective in the treatment of abdominal pain, but escalating doses can lead to opioid tolerance and potentially opioid-induced hyperalgesia. We found that Î´-opioid receptor (DOPr) plays a central role in the development of opioid tolerance and opioid-induced hyperalgesia in colonic afferent nociceptors following prolonged exposure to high concentrations of MOPr or DOPr agonists. Furthermore, the role of DOPr was dependent on OPr internalization and activation of a protein kinase C signaling pathway. Thus, targeting DOPr or key components of the downstream signaling pathway could mitigate adverse side effects by opioids.
Agonist that activates the Âµ-opioid receptor in acidified microenvironments inhibits colitis pain without side effects
Jiménez-Vargas, Nestor Nivardo; Yu, Yang; Jensen, Dane D; Bok, Diana Daeun; Wisdom, Matthew; Latorre, Rocco; Lopez, Cintya; Jaramillo-Polanco, Josue O; Degro, Claudius; Guzman-Rodriguez, Mabel; Tsang, Quentin; Snow, Zachary; Schmidt, Brian L; Reed, David E; Lomax, Alan Edward; Margolis, Kara Gross; Stein, Christoph; Bunnett, Nigel W; Vanner, Stephen J
OBJECTIVE:The effectiveness of Âµ-opioid receptor (MOPr) agonists for treatment of visceral pain is compromised by constipation, respiratory depression, sedation and addiction. We investigated whether a fentanyl analogue, (Â±)-N-(3-fluoro-1-phenethylpiperidine-4-yl)-N-phenyl propionamide (NFEPP), which preferentially activates MOPr in acidified diseased tissues, would inhibit pain in a preclinical model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) without side effects in healthy tissues. DESIGN/METHODS:Antinociceptive actions of NFEPP and fentanyl were compared in control mice and mice with dextran sodium sulfate colitis by measuring visceromotor responses to colorectal distension. Patch clamp and extracellular recordings were used to assess nociceptor activation. Defecation, respiration and locomotion were assessed. Colonic migrating motor complexes were assessed by spatiotemporal mapping of isolated tissue. NFEPP-induced MOPr signalling and trafficking were studied in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. RESULTS:NFEPP inhibited visceromotor responses to colorectal distension in mice with colitis but not in control mice, consistent with acidification of the inflamed colon. Fentanyl inhibited responses in both groups. NFEPP inhibited the excitability of dorsal root ganglion neurons and suppressed mechanical sensitivity of colonic afferent fibres in acidified but not physiological conditions. Whereas fentanyl decreased defecation and caused respiratory depression and hyperactivity in mice with colitis, NFEPP was devoid of these effects. NFEPP did not affect colonic migrating motor complexes at physiological pH. NFEPP preferentially activated MOPr in acidified extracellular conditions to inhibit cAMP formation, recruit Î²-arrestins and evoke MOPr endocytosis. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In a preclinical IBD model, NFEPP preferentially activates MOPr in acidified microenvironments of inflamed tissues to induce antinociception without causing respiratory depression, constipation and hyperactivity.
Oral cancer induced TRPV1 sensitization is mediated by PAR2 signaling in primary afferent neurons innervating the cancer microenvironment
Scheff, Nicole N; Wall, Ian M; Nicholson, Sam; Williams, Hannah; Chen, Elyssa; Tu, Nguyen H; Dolan, John C; Liu, Cheng Z; Janal, Malvin N; Bunnett, Nigel W; Schmidt, Brian L
Oral cancer patients report sensitivity to spicy foods and liquids. The mechanism responsible for chemosensitivity induced by oral cancer is not known. We simulate oral cancer-induced chemosensitivity in a xenograft oral cancer mouse model using two-bottle choice drinking and conditioned place aversion assays. An anatomic basis of chemosensitivity is shown in increased expression of TRPV1 in anatomically relevant trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons in both the xenograft and a carcinogen (4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide)-induced oral cancer mouse models. The percent of retrograde labeled TG neurons that respond to TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin, is increased along with the magnitude of response as measured by calcium influx, in neurons from the cancer models. To address the possible mechanism of TRPV1 sensitivity in tongue afferents, we study the role of PAR2, which can sensitize the TRPV1 channel. We show co-expression of TRPV1 and PAR2 on tongue afferents and using a conditioned place aversion assay, demonstrate that PAR2 mediates oral cancer-induced, TRPV1-evoked sensitivity in an oral cancer mouse model. The findings provide insight into oral cancer-mediated chemosensitivity.
Mice expressing fluorescent PAR2 reveal that endocytosis mediates colonic inflammation and pain
Latorre, Rocco; Hegron, Alan; Peach, Chloe J; Teng, Shavonne; Tonello, Raquel; Retamal, Jeffri S; Klein-Cloud, Rafael; Bok, Diana; Jensen, Dane D; Gottesman-Katz, Lena; Rientjes, Jeanette; Veldhuis, Nicholas A; Poole, Daniel P; Schmidt, Brian L; Pothoulakis, Charalabos H; Rankin, Carl; Xie, Ying; Koon, Hon Wai; Bunnett, Nigel W
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate many pathophysiological processes and are major therapeutic targets. The impact of disease on the subcellular distribution and function of GPCRs is poorly understood. We investigated trafficking and signaling of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in colitis. To localize PAR2 and assess redistribution during disease, we generated knockin mice expressing PAR2 fused to monomeric ultrastable green fluorescent protein (muGFP). PAR2-muGFP signaled and trafficked normally. PAR2 messenger RNA was detected at similar levels in Par2-mugfp and wild-type mice. Immunostaining with a GFP antibody and RNAScope in situ hybridization using F2rl1 (PAR2) and Gfp probes revealed that PAR2-muGFP was expressed in epithelial cells of the small and large intestine and in subsets of enteric and dorsal root ganglia neurons. In healthy mice, PAR2-muGFP was prominently localized to the basolateral membrane of colonocytes. In mice with colitis, PAR2-muGFP was depleted from the plasma membrane of colonocytes and redistributed to early endosomes, consistent with generation of proinflammatory proteases that activate PAR2 PAR2 agonists stimulated endocytosis of PAR2 and recruitment of GÎ±q, GÎ±i, and Î²-arrestin to early endosomes of T84 colon carcinoma cells. PAR2 agonists increased paracellular permeability of colonic epithelial cells, induced colonic inflammation and hyperalgesia in mice, and stimulated proinflammatory cytokine release from segments of human colon. Knockdown of dynamin-2 (Dnm2), the major colonocyte isoform, and Dnm inhibition attenuated PAR2 endocytosis, signaling complex assembly and colonic inflammation and hyperalgesia. Thus, PAR2 endocytosis sustains protease-evoked inflammation and nociception and PAR2 in endosomes is a potential therapeutic target for colitis.
Schwann cell endosome CGRP signals elicit periorbital mechanical allodynia in mice
De Logu, Francesco; Nassini, Romina; Hegron, Alan; Landini, Lorenzo; Jensen, Dane D; Latorre, Rocco; Ding, Julia; Marini, Matilde; Souza Monteiro de Araujo, Daniel; RamÃrez-Garcia, Paulina; Whittaker, Michael; Retamal, Jeffri; Titiz, Mustafa; Innocenti, Alessandro; Davis, Thomas P; Veldhuis, Nicholas; Schmidt, Brian L; Bunnett, Nigel W; Geppetti, Pierangelo
Efficacy of monoclonal antibodies against calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or its receptor (calcitonin receptor-like receptor/receptor activity modifying protein-1, CLR/RAMP1) implicates peripherally-released CGRP in migraine pain. However, the site and mechanism of CGRP-evoked peripheral pain remain unclear. By cell-selective RAMP1 gene deletion, we reveal that CGRP released from mouse cutaneous trigeminal fibers targets CLR/RAMP1 on surrounding Schwann cells to evoke periorbital mechanical allodynia. CLR/RAMP1 activation in human and mouse Schwann cells generates long-lasting signals from endosomes that evoke cAMP-dependent formation of NO. NO, by gating Schwann cell transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), releases ROS, which in a feed-forward manner sustain allodynia via nociceptor TRPA1. When encapsulated into nanoparticles that release cargo in acidified endosomes, a CLR/RAMP1 antagonist provides superior inhibition of CGRP signaling and allodynia in mice. Our data suggest that the CGRP-mediated neuronal/Schwann cell pathway mediates allodynia associated with neurogenic inflammation, contributing to the algesic action of CGRP in mice.
Contributions of bile acids to gastrointestinal physiology as receptor agonists and modifiers of ion channels
Keely, Stephen J; Urso, Andreacarola; Ilyaskin, Alexandr V; Korbmacher, Christoph; Bunnett, Nigel W; Poole, Daniel P; Carbone, Simona E
Bile acids (BAs) are known to be important regulators of intestinal motility and epithelial fluid and electrolyte transport. Over the past two decades, significant advances in identifying and characterizing the receptors, transporters, and ion channels targeted by BAs have led to exciting new insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. Our appreciation of BAs, their receptors, and BA-modulated ion channels as potential targets for the development of new approaches to treat intestinal motility and transport disorders is increasing. In the current review, we aim to summarize recent advances in our knowledge of the different BA receptors and BA-modulated ion channels present in the gastrointestinal system. We discuss how they regulate motility and epithelial transport, their roles in pathogenesis, and their therapeutic potential in a range of gastrointestinal diseases.
Arrestin-mediated trafficking and compartmentalized biology of GPCRs
Chapter by: Thomsen, Alex R.B.; Hahn, Hyunggu; Bunnett, Nigel W.
in: Arrestins: Structure and Function in Vision and Beyond by
[S.l.] : Elsevier Inc., 2022