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Comment on "Perspectives on Sexual Power, #MeToo" [Comment]

Mulligan, Lauren; Kullar, Rumneet; Mathews, Eva; Hammarlund, Rebecca; Crapanzano, Kathleen; Nzodom, Carine
PMID: 32356155
ISSN: 1545-7230
CID: 4610212

The Impact of Paid Maternity Leave on the Mental and Physical Health of Mothers and Children: A Review of the Literature and Policy Implications

Van Niel, Maureen Sayres; Bhatia, Richa; Riano, Nicholas S; de Faria, Ludmila; Catapano-Friedman, Lisa; Ravven, Simha; Weissman, Barbara; Nzodom, Carine; Alexander, Amy; Budde, Kristin; Mangurian, Christina
For decades, national paid maternity leave policies of 12 weeks or more have been established in every industrialized country except the United States. Despite women representing 47% of the current U.S. labor force, only 16% of all employed American workers have access to paid parental leave through their workplace. As many as 23% of employed mothers return to work within ten days of giving birth, because of their inability to pay living expenses without income. We reviewed recent studies on the possible effects of paid maternity leave on the mental and physical health of mothers and children. We found that paid maternity leave is associated with beneficial effects on (1) the mental health of mothers and children, including a decrease in postpartum maternal depression and intimate partner violence, and improved infant attachment and child development, (2) the physical health of mothers and children, including a decrease in infant mortality and in mother and infant rehospitalizations, and an increase in pediatric visit attendance and timely administration of infant immunizations, and (3) breastfeeding, with an increase in its initiation and duration. Given the substantial mental and physical health benefits associated with paid leave, as well as favorable results from studies on its economic impact, the United States is facing a clear, evidence-based mandate to create a national paid maternity leave policy. We recommend a national paid maternity leave policy of at least 12 weeks.
PMID: 32134836
ISSN: 1465-7309
CID: 4409972

Sexual Harassment in the House of Medicine and Correlations to Burnout: A Cross-Sectional Survey

Mathews, Eva; Hammarlund, Rebecca; Kullar, Rumneet; Mulligan, Lauren; Le, Thanh; Lauve, Sarah; Nzodom, Carine; Crapanzano, Kathleen
Background: Burnout is a major problem among physicians in the United States. Women physicians experience higher rates of both burnout and sexual harassment than their male counterparts. Some studies from Asia and Europe have shown a correlation between sexual harassment at work and burnout in women physicians, but no studies on this topic have been done in the United States. Methods: For this study, women physicians with active Louisiana licenses were invited to complete a cross-sectional self-report survey to assess burnout and sexual harassment. Burnout was assessed with the 2-item Maslach Burnout Inventory, and sexual harassment was assessed with a questionnaire adapted from the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire and a series of follow-up items. Results: The survey response rate was 13% (129 of 970 invitees). Of the 129 participants, 36% reported feeling burned out from their work at least once a week and 38% reported having experienced at least one inappropriate sexual incident in their career. Ninety-six percent of respondents reported having experienced gender harassment from their colleagues, while 69% had experienced unwanted sexual attention from the same. Additionally, 69 (53%) participants reported experiencing some form of sexual harassment from patients or their families. Colleague gender harassment was significantly correlated with burnout scores. Conclusion: This study found that reports of burnout and gender harassment from colleagues were significantly correlated. The results also align with previous findings of high rates of sexual harassment in medical school and residency. More research should be done in this area, especially focusing on women in training, women of color, and sexual and gender minority individuals.
PMID: 31903056
ISSN: 1524-5012
CID: 4409962

Health Care Disparities Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors in Resident Physicians

Hammarlund, Rebecca; Hamer, Diana; Crapanzano, Kathleen; Bernard, Rachel; Nzodom, Carine; James, Courtney; Johnson, Angie; Kirby, Diane; Hetzler, Laura; Woodward, Chris; Sulzer, Jesse; Rabalais, Lauren; Calongne, Laurinda
Purpose/UNASSIGNED:Health care disparities are an important but sometimes underrepresented topic in graduate medical education. In this study we measured the impact of educational and behavioral interventions on resident knowledge about and attitudes toward health care disparities. Methods/UNASSIGNED:Faculty from 6 residency programs designed and presented an hour-long educational intervention to emphasize the importance of and increase resident knowledge about health care disparities. Selected residents then helped design a month-long behavioral intervention to engage their peers in conversations about disparities with patients. Surveys were administered pre- and post-educational intervention as well as post-behavioral intervention in order to measure the impact each intervention had on resident knowledge and attitudes. Results/UNASSIGNED:Paired-samples t-tests showed that residents were more knowledgeable about health care disparities issues following didactic teaching (P<0.001) and felt such issues were more important (P<0.001). Furthermore, presence of these feelings significantly predicted the frequency of engaging in the behavioral intervention (r=0.44, P<0.01). Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Two brief, simple interventions produced significant changes in resident knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding health care disparities. The educational intervention was most effective at increasing knowledge of disparities in general and encouraging participation in the behavioral intervention, while the behavioral intervention was useful in increasing knowledge of specific patients' barriers to care.
PMID: 31413987
ISSN: 2330-0698
CID: 4409952

Baton Rouge: The Summer of Turmoil, a Test of Strength

Nzodom, Carine M
ISSN: 2474-4662
CID: 4409982