A comparative analysis of family adaptability and cohesion ratings among traumatized urban youth
OBJECTIVE:Given the need to identify psychological risk factors among traumatized youth, this study examined the family functioning of traumatized youth with or without PTSD and a nonclinical sample. METHOD/METHODS:The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales, second edition (FACES II; Olson, Portner, & Bell, 1982), scores of youth with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 29) were compared with the scores of trauma-exposed youth without PTSD (n = 48) and a nontraumatized comparison group (n = 44). Child diagnostic interviews determined that all participants were free of major comorbid disorders. RESULTS:The FACES II scores of the participants with PTSD were not significantly different from the scores of trauma-exposed youth without PTSD and the nontraumatized comparison group. FACES II scores were also not significantly different between the trauma-exposed youth without PTSD and the nontraumatized comparison group. CONCLUSIONS:PTSD and trauma-exposure without PTSD were not associated with variations in the perception of family functioning as measured by the FACES II. (PsycINFO Database Record
The Junior Eysenck Personality Inventory ratings of traumatized youth with and without PTSD
The Junior Eysenck Personality Inventory (JEPI) scores of traumatized youth with or without PTSD were compared to the scores of a non-traumatized control group. It was observed that the PTSD group had significantly higher JEPI Neuroticism scores relative to the comparison groups. The JEPI Neuroticism scores of the traumatized group without PTSD and the non -traumatized controls were not significantly different. Nonsignificant differences were also evidenced between groups on the JEPI Extraversion and Lie scales. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The parent ratings of traumatized children with or without PTSD
Two clinical and 2 structured clinical interviews were used to identify children with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), traumatized children without PTSD, and nontraumatized controls. Parents evaluated child conduct by marking the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-48 (CPRS-48; Conners, 1989). Data analysis indicated that the CPRS-48 Total scores and the Anxiety and Psychosomatic subscales scores of the PTSD group significantly exceeded the scores of the comparison groups. Children with PTSD and traumatized children without PTSD did not significantly differ on the Hyperactivity Index. The Hyperactivity Index scores of traumatized children without PTSD and nontraumatized controls were not significantly different. Nonsignificant differences were observed between groups on the CPRS-48 Impulsivity-Hyperactivity, Conduct Problems, and Learning subscales. Overall, PTSD was marked by higher internalizing scores and trauma exposure without PTSD was not associated with increased psychological morbidity. (PsycINFO Database Record
Self-reported anxiety among traumatized urban youth
This study compared the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS) scores of traumatized youth with or without PTSD to the scores of a nonclinical comparison group. Child diagnostic interviews identified children with PTSD (28), traumatized children without PTSD (63), and a nonclinical comparison group (41). In the absence of major comorbid disorders, children with PTSD had significantly higher RCMAS total scores and significantly higher scores on the RCMAS Physiological Anxiety, Worry/Oversensitivity, and Social Concern/Concentration subscales. Nonsignificant differences were observed between groups on the RCMAS Lie subscale. The RCMAS scores of the traumatized PTSD negatives and controls did not significantly differ. Implications for research and practice are considered.
The self-concept of traumatized children and adolescents with or without PTSD
This study compared the Piers-Harris 2 scores of youth with PTSD (n=30) to the scores of traumatized youth without PTSD (n=60) and a non-traumatized comparison group (n=39). In the absence of major comorbid disorders, youth with PTSD evidenced significantly lower scores than the traumatized PTSD negatives and controls on five of six Piers-Harris 2 scales. With the exception of scores on an index of perceived parental acceptance of child behavior, trauma exposure in the absence of PTSD was not associated with lower Piers-Harris 2 scores
Posttraumatic stress disorder: memory and learning performance in children and adolescents
BACKGROUND: Despite the wealth of information in adult posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) literature, few studies have explored the memory and learning performance of trauma-exposed youth. This study examined if memory deficits are associated with PTSD or with trauma exposure in the absence of PTSD. METHODS: Youth exposed to traumatic incidents underwent clinical interviews to diagnose PTSD and exclude major comorbid disorders. Youth with conditions that could impede performance on a memory scale (e.g., limited intellectual functioning, current substance abuse, psychopharmacological treatment) were excluded. Three groups of participants were identified (PTSD positives [n = 29], traumatized PTSD negatives [n = 62], and nontraumatized control subjects [n = 40]). Participants completed the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML). RESULTS: Youth with PTSD evidenced significantly lower scores on the WRAML General Memory, Verbal Memory, and Learning indices compared with nontraumatized control subjects. With the exception of Verbal Memory, youth with and without PTSD performed comparably on all other indices. Nonsignificant differences were noted on the Visual Memory Index. CONCLUSIONS: General memory and verbal memory impairments as evidenced in adult populations were observed among this sample of youth. Given the developmental trajectory of memory capabilities, the implications of such early trauma exposure and memory deficits are considered
Self-reported anger among traumatized children and adolescents
This investigation sought to establish if anger is associated with PTSD among children and adolescents or with trauma exposure in the absence of PTSD. The State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) was administered to youth with PTSD (n=24), traumatized youth without PTSD (n=58), and a non-traumatized control group (n=38). In the absence of potentially confounding major comorbid disorders, the PTSD group had significantly higher scores on the STAXI State, Trait, and Angry Temperament scales. Trauma exposure in the absence of PTSD was not associated with higher anger scores.
The intellectual performance of traumatized children and adolescents with or without posttraumatic stress disorder
This study compared the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III) scores of traumatized youth with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to the scores of trauma-exposed and nonexposed comparison groups without PTSD. All groups were free of additional major childhood psychiatric disorders. The PTSD group scored significantly lower than the comparison groups on verbal subtests, but not on performance subtests. The scores of the trauma-exposed PTSD negatives and nontrauma exposed controls were not significantly different. Accordingly, PTSD and not a history of trauma exposure in the absence of PTSD was associated with lower verbal IQ.
Clinical Cases of Child and Adolescent PTSD
New York, NY, US: W W Norton & Co., 2004
An analysis of the internalizing and externalizing behaviors of traumatized urban youth with and without PTSD
To test the differential validity of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) classification, 3 groups of youths (PTSD, traumatized PTSD negatives, and controls) were examined. Youth with major comorbid disorders were excluded. On the basis of an analysis of parent-derived Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) ratings, significant variations in CBCL scores were associated with PTSD but not with exposure to exceptional stress in the absence of PTSD. The results also indicated that traumatic exposure without the development of PTSD was not associated with higher estimates of psychopathology