Try a new search

Format these results:

Searched for:



Total Results:


Data-driven multiscale model of macaque auditory thalamocortical circuits reproduces in vivo dynamics

Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Griffith, Erica Y; Barczak, Annamaria; O'Connell, Monica N; McGinnis, Tammy; Moreira, Joao V S; Schroeder, Charles E; Lytton, William W; Lakatos, Peter; Neymotin, Samuel A
We developed a detailed model of macaque auditory thalamocortical circuits, including primary auditory cortex (A1), medial geniculate body (MGB), and thalamic reticular nucleus, utilizing the NEURON simulator and NetPyNE tool. The A1 model simulates a cortical column with over 12,000 neurons and 25 million synapses, incorporating data on cell-type-specific neuron densities, morphology, and connectivity across six cortical layers. It is reciprocally connected to the MGB thalamus, which includes interneurons and core and matrix-layer-specific projections to A1. The model simulates multiscale measures, including physiological firing rates, local field potentials (LFPs), current source densities (CSDs), and electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Laminar CSD patterns, during spontaneous activity and in response to broadband noise stimulus trains, mirror experimental findings. Physiological oscillations emerge spontaneously across frequency bands comparable to those recorded in vivo. We elucidate population-specific contributions to observed oscillation events and relate them to firing and presynaptic input patterns. The model offers a quantitative theoretical framework to integrate and interpret experimental data and predict its underlying cellular and circuit mechanisms.
PMID: 37925640
ISSN: 2211-1247
CID: 5590332

Saccadic inhibition during free viewing in macaque monkeys

Orczyk, John J; Barczak, Annamaria; O'Connell, Monica N; Kajikawa, Yoshinao
Through the process of saccadic inhibition, visual events briefly suppress eye movements including microsaccades. In humans, saccadic inhibition has been shown to occur in response to the presentation of parafoveal or peripheral visual distractors during fixation and target-directed saccades and to physical changes of behaviorally relevant visual objects. In monkeys performing tasks that controlled eye movements, saccadic inhibition of microsaccades and target-directed saccades has been shown. Using eye data from three previously published studies, we investigated how saccade rate changed while monkeys were presented with visual stimuli under conditions with loose or no viewing demands. In two conditions, animals passively sat while an LED lamp flashed or screen-wide images appeared in front of them. In the third condition, images were repeated semiperiodically while animals had to maintain their gaze within a wide rectangular area and detect oddballs. Despite animals not being required to maintain fixation or make saccades to particular targets, the onset of visual events led to a temporary reduction of saccade rate across all conditions. Interestingly, saccadic inhibition was found at image offsets as well. These results show that saccadic inhibition occurs in monkeys during free viewing.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We investigated the time courses of saccade rate following visual stimuli during three conditions of free viewing in macaque monkeys. Under all conditions, saccade rate decreased transiently after the onset of visual stimuli. These results suggest that saccadic inhibition occurs during free viewing.
PMID: 36629324
ISSN: 1522-1598
CID: 5419042

Detecting spontaneous neural oscillation events in primate auditory cortex

Neymotin, Samuel A; Tal, Idan; Barczak, Annamaria; O'Connell, Monica N; McGinnis, Tammy; Markowitz, Noah; Espinal, Elizabeth; Griffith, Erica; Anwar, Haroon; Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Schroeder, Charles E; Lytton, William W; Jones, Stephanie R; Bickel, Stephan; Lakatos, Peter
Electrophysiological oscillations in the brain have been shown to occur as multi-cycle events, with onset and offset dependent on behavioral and cognitive state. To provide a baseline for state-related and task-related events, we quantified oscillation features in resting-state recordings. We developed an open-source wavelet-based tool to detect and characterize such oscillation events (OEvents) and exemplify the use of this tool in both simulations and two invasively-recorded electrophysiology datasets: one from human, and one from non-human primate auditory system. After removing incidentally occurring event related potentials, we used OEvents to quantify oscillation features. We identified about 2 million oscillation events, classified within traditional frequency bands: delta, theta, alpha, beta, low gamma, gamma, and high gamma. Oscillation events of 1-44 cycles could be identified in at least one frequency band 90% of the time in human and non-human primate recordings. Individual oscillation events were characterized by non-constant frequency and amplitude. This result necessarily contrasts with prior studies which assumed frequency constancy, but is consistent with evidence from event-associated oscillations. We measured oscillation event duration, frequency span, and waveform shape. Oscillations tended to exhibit multiple cycles per event, verifiable by comparing filtered to unfiltered waveforms. In addition to the clear intra-event rhythmicity, there was also evidence of inter-event rhythmicity within bands, demonstrated by finding that coefficient of variation of interval distributions and Fano Factor measures differed significantly from a Poisson distribution assumption. Overall, our study provides an easy-to-use tool to study oscillation events at the single-trial level or in ongoing recordings, and demonstrates that rhythmic, multi-cycle oscillation events dominate auditory cortical dynamics.Significance StatementTo provide a baseline for auditory system cortical dynamics, we quantified neuronal oscillation event features in resting-state recordings of the auditory system. We found that even at rest, event-like oscillations are the dominant operational mode of the auditory cortex in both humans and non-human primates. Our results highlight the importance of the auditory system's rhythmic neuronal fluctuations in setting the context on top of which auditory processing necessary for behavior and cognition occurs. In addition, we demonstrate the importance of studying basic features of oscillation events in ongoing and single-trial recordings to understand their role in cognition and the mechanisms generating them.
PMID: 35906065
ISSN: 2373-2822
CID: 5277022

The Role of Motor and Environmental Visual Rhythms in Structuring Auditory Cortical Excitability

O'Connell, Monica N; Barczak, Annamaria; McGinnis, Tammy; Mackin, Kieran; Mowery, Todd; Schroeder, Charles E; Lakatos, Peter
Previous studies indicate that motor sampling patterns modulate neuronal excitability in sensory brain regions by entraining brain rhythms, a process termed motor-initiated entrainment. In addition, rhythms of the external environment are also capable of entraining brain rhythms. Our first goal was to investigate the properties of motor-initiated entrainment in the auditory system using a prominent visual motor sampling pattern in primates, saccades. Second, we wanted to determine whether/how motor-initiated entrainment interacts with visual environmental entrainment. We examined laminar profiles of neuronal ensemble activity in primary auditory cortex and found that whereas motor-initiated entrainment has a suppressive effect, visual environmental entrainment has an enhancive effect. We also found that these processes are temporally coupled, and their temporal relationship ensures that their effect on excitability is complementary rather than interfering. Altogether, our results demonstrate that motor and sensory systems continuously interact in orchestrating the brain's context for the optimal sampling of our multisensory environment.
PMID: 32738615
ISSN: 2589-0042
CID: 4553462

The Thalamocortical Circuit of Auditory Mismatch Negativity

Lakatos, Peter; O'Connell, Monica N; Barczak, Annamaria; McGinnis, Tammy; Neymotin, Samuel; Schroeder, Charles E; Smiley, John F; Javitt, Daniel C
BACKGROUND:Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an extensively validated biomarker of cognitive function across both normative and clinical populations and has previously been localized to supratemporal auditory cortex. MMN is thought to represent a comparison of the features of the present stimulus versus a mnemonic template formed by the prior stimuli. METHODS:We used concurrent thalamic and primary auditory cortical (A1) laminar recordings in 7 macaques to evaluate the relative contributions of core (lemniscal) and matrix (nonlemniscal) thalamic afferents to MMN generation. RESULTS:We demonstrated that deviance-related activity is observed mainly in matrix regions of auditory thalamus, MMN generators are most prominent in layer 1 of cortex as opposed to sensory responses that activate layer 4 first and sequentially all cortical layers, and MMN is elicited independent of the frequency tuning of A1 neuronal ensembles. Consistent with prior reports, MMN-related thalamocortical activity was strongly inhibited by ketamine. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, our results demonstrate distinct matrix versus core thalamocortical circuitry underlying the generation of a higher-order brain response (MMN) versus sensory responses.
PMID: 31924325
ISSN: 1873-2402
CID: 4257792

Top-down, contextual entrainment of neuronal oscillations in the auditory thalamocortical circuit

Barczak, Annamaria; O'Connell, Monica Noelle; McGinnis, Tammy; Ross, Deborah; Mowery, Todd; Falchier, Arnaud; Lakatos, Peter
Prior studies have shown that repetitive presentation of acoustic stimuli results in an alignment of ongoing neuronal oscillations to the sequence rhythm via oscillatory entrainment by external cues. Our study aimed to explore the neural correlates of the perceptual parsing and grouping of complex repeating auditory patterns that occur based solely on statistical regularities, or context. Human psychophysical studies suggest that the recognition of novel auditory patterns amid a continuous auditory stimulus sequence occurs automatically halfway through the first repetition. We hypothesized that once repeating patterns were detected by the brain, internal rhythms would become entrained, demarcating the temporal structure of these repetitions despite lacking external cues defining pattern on- or offsets. To examine the neural correlates of pattern perception, neuroelectric activity of primary auditory cortex (A1) and thalamic nuclei was recorded while nonhuman primates passively listened to streams of rapidly presented pure tones and bandpass noise bursts. At arbitrary intervals, random acoustic patterns composed of 11 stimuli were repeated five times without any perturbance of the constant stimulus flow. We found significant delta entrainment by these patterns in the A1, medial geniculate body, and medial pulvinar. In A1 and pulvinar, we observed a statistically significant, pattern structure-aligned modulation of neuronal firing that occurred earliest in the pulvinar, supporting the idea that grouping and detecting complex auditory patterns is a top-down, context-driven process. Besides electrophysiological measures, a pattern-related modulation of pupil diameter verified that, like humans, nonhuman primates consciously detect complex repetitive patterns that lack physical boundaries.
PMID: 30037997
ISSN: 1091-6490
CID: 3216342

Global dynamics of selective attention and its lapses in primary auditory cortex

Lakatos, Peter; Barczak, Annamaria; Neymotin, Samuel A; McGinnis, Tammy; Ross, Deborah; Javitt, Daniel C; O'Connell, Monica Noelle
Previous research demonstrated that while selectively attending to relevant aspects of the external world, the brain extracts pertinent information by aligning its neuronal oscillations to key time points of stimuli or their sampling by sensory organs. This alignment mechanism is termed oscillatory entrainment. We investigated the global, long-timescale dynamics of this mechanism in the primary auditory cortex of nonhuman primates, and hypothesized that lapses of entrainment would correspond to lapses of attention. By examining electrophysiological and behavioral measures, we observed that besides the lack of entrainment by external stimuli, attentional lapses were also characterized by high-amplitude alpha oscillations, with alpha frequency structuring of neuronal ensemble and single-unit operations. Entrainment and alpha-oscillation-dominated periods were strongly anticorrelated and fluctuated rhythmically at an ultra-slow rate. Our results indicate that these two distinct brain states represent externally versus internally oriented computational resources engaged by large-scale task-positive and task-negative functional networks.
PMID: 27618311
ISSN: 1546-1726
CID: 2246872

Pondering the Pulvinar

Lakatos, Peter; O'Connell, Monica N; Barczak, Annamaria
While the function of the pulvinar remains one of the least explored among the thalamic nuclei despite occupying the most thalamic volume in primates, it has long been suspected to play a crucial role in attentive stimulus processing. In this issue of Neuron, Zhou et al. (2016) use simultaneous pulvinar-visual cortex recordings and pulvinar inactivation to provide evidence that the pulvinar is essential for intact stimulus processing, maintenance of neuronal oscillatory dynamics, and mediating the effects of attention.
PMID: 26748085
ISSN: 1097-4199
CID: 1901262

Crossmodal auditory stream selection via oscillatory entrainment in a virtual cocktail party [Meeting Abstract]

Lakatos, Peter; Barczak, Annamaria; O\Connell, Monica N.
ISSN: 0167-8760
CID: 5372582

Multi-Scale Entrainment of Coupled Neuronal Oscillations in Primary Auditory Cortex

O'Connell, M N; Barczak, A; Ross, D; McGinnis, T; Schroeder, C E; Lakatos, P
Earlier studies demonstrate that when the frequency of rhythmic tone sequences or streams is task relevant, ongoing excitability fluctuations (oscillations) of neuronal ensembles in primary auditory cortex (A1) entrain to stimulation in a frequency dependent way that sharpens frequency tuning. The phase distribution across A1 neuronal ensembles at time points when attended stimuli are predicted to occur reflects the focus of attention along the spectral attribute of auditory stimuli. This study examined how neuronal activity is modulated if only the temporal features of rhythmic stimulus streams are relevant. We presented macaques with auditory clicks arranged in 33 Hz (gamma timescale) quintets, repeated at a 1.6 Hz (delta timescale) rate. Such multi-scale, hierarchically organized temporal structure is characteristic of vocalizations and other natural stimuli. Monkeys were required to detect and respond to deviations in the temporal pattern of gamma quintets. As expected, engagement in the auditory task resulted in the multi-scale entrainment of delta- and gamma-band neuronal oscillations across all of A1. Surprisingly, however, the phase-alignment, and thus, the physiological impact of entrainment differed across the tonotopic map in A1. In the region of 11-16 kHz representation, entrainment most often aligned high excitability oscillatory phases with task-relevant events in the input stream and thus resulted in response enhancement. In the remainder of the A1 sites, entrainment generally resulted in response suppression. Our data indicate that the suppressive effects were due to low excitability phase delta oscillatory entrainment and the phase amplitude coupling of delta and gamma oscillations. Regardless of the phase or frequency, entrainment appeared stronger in left A1, indicative of the hemispheric lateralization of auditory function.
PMID: 26696866
ISSN: 1662-5161
CID: 1883982